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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316455

ABSTRACT

Background: . The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons have been equal to that of symptomatic patients, suggesting a similar risk for endothelial dysfunction and increased coagulation in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. To date, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. We evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial lush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. Methods: . This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. Results: . Thrombus dimensions were significantly higher in ASAP patients as compared to SANE patients. Interestingly, 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients also had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. In ASAP STEMI patients (n=46), thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p<0.005). MBG and left ventricular function were significantly lower in ASAP STEMI patients (p<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Conclusions: . In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.

3.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(10)2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444237

ABSTRACT

Major adverse cardiac events, defined as death or myocardial infarction, are common causes of perioperative mortality and major morbidity in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Reduction of perioperative cardiovascular risk in relation to non-cardiac surgery requires a stepwise patient evaluation that integrates clinical risk factors, functional status and the estimated stress of the planned surgical procedure. Major guidelines on preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment recommend to establish, firstly, the risk of surgery per se (low, moderate, high) and the related timing (elective vs. urgent/emergent), evaluate the presence of unstable cardiac conditions or a recent coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting), assess the functional capacity of the patient (usually expressed in metabolic equivalents), determine the value of non-invasive and/or invasive cardiovascular testing and then combine these data in estimating perioperative risk for major cardiac adverse events using validated scores (Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) or National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP)). This stepwise approach has the potential to guide clinicians in determining which patients could benefit from cardiovascular therapy and/or coronary artery revascularization before non-cardiac surgery towards decreasing the incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Finally, it should be highlighted that there is a need to implement specific strategies in the 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to minimize the risk of transmission of COVID-19 infection during the preoperative risk assessment process.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 217, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons has been equal to that of symptomatic patients. On the other hand, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. Therefore, we evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial blush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. METHODS: This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. RESULTS: In the study population, ASAP vs. SANE showed a significant greater use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and of heparin (p < 0.05), and a higher thrombus grade 5 and thrombus dimensions (p < 0.05). Interestingly, ASAP vs. SANE patients had lower MBG and left ventricular function (p < 0.001), and 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. After PPCI, a MBG 2-3 was present in only 26.1% of ASAP vs. 97.7% of SANE STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Notably, death and nonfatal AMI were higher in ASAP vs. SANE patients (p < 0.05). Finally, in ASAP STEMI patients the thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p < 0.005). Thus, multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Intriguingly, in ASAP patients the female vs. male had higher thrombus viral load (15.53 ± 4.5 vs. 30.25 ± 5.51 CT; p < 0.001), and thrombus dimension (4.62 ± 0.44 vs 4.00 ± 1.28 mm2; p < 0.001). ASAP vs. SANE patients had a significantly lower in-hospital survival for MACE following PPCI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/virology , Heart/physiopathology , Microcirculation/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Thrombosis/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927673

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) determines the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) down-regulation and related decrease in angiotensin II degradation. Both these events trigger "cytokine storm" leading to acute lung and cardiovascular injury. A selective therapy for COVID-19 has not yet been identified. Clinical trials with remdesivir gave discordant results. Thus, healthcare systems have focused on "multi-targeted" therapeutic strategies aiming at relieving systemic inflammation and thrombotic complications. No randomized clinical trial has demonstrated the efficacy of renin angiotensin system antagonists in reducing inflammation related to COVID-19. Dexamethasone and tocilizumab showed encouraging data, but their use needs to be further validated. The still-controversial efficacy of these treatments highlighted the importance of organ injury prevention in COVID-19. Neprilysin (NEP) might be an interesting target for this purpose. NEP expression is increased by cytokines on lung fibroblasts surface. NEP activity is elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome and it is conceivable that it is also high in COVID-19. NEP is implicated in the degradation of natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, adrenomedullin, and apelin that account for prevention of organ injury. Thus, NEP/angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (SAC/VAL) may increase levels of these molecules and block AT1Rs required for ACE2 endocytosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, SAC/VAL has a positive impact on acute heart failure that is very frequently observed in deceased COVID-19 patients. The current review aims to summarize actual therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 and to examine the data supporting the potential benefits of SAC/VAL in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Neprilysin/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aminobutyrates/administration & dosage , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Animals , Biphenyl Compounds , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Humans , Neprilysin/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Valsartan/administration & dosage , Valsartan/therapeutic use
7.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(4): 839-843, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832030

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic raised the issue to guarantee the proper level of care to patients with acute cardiovascular diseases and concomitant suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and, in the meantime safety and protection of healthcare providers. The aim of this position paper is to provide standards to healthcare facilities and healthcare providers on infection prevention and control measures during the management of suspected and confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV infection accessing in cath-lab. The document represents the view of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (GISE), and it is based on recommendations from the main World and European Health Organizations (WHO, and ECDC) as well as from the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Catheterization , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
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