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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 standard of care (SOC) evolved rapidly during 2020 and 2021, but its cumulative effect over time is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether recovery and mortality improved as SOC evolved, using data from ACTT (Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial). DESIGN: ACTT is a series of phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that evaluated COVID-19 therapeutics from February 2020 through May 2021. ACTT-1 compared remdesivir plus SOC to placebo plus SOC, and in ACTT-2 and ACTT-3, remdesivir plus SOC was the control group. This post hoc analysis compared recovery and mortality between these comparable sequential cohorts of patients who received remdesivir plus SOC, adjusting for baseline characteristics with propensity score weighting. The analysis was repeated for participants in ACTT-3 and ACTT-4 who received remdesivir plus dexamethasone plus SOC. Trends in SOC that could explain outcome improvements were analyzed. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04280705 [ACTT-1], NCT04401579 [ACTT-2], NCT04492475 [ACTT-3], and NCT04640168 [ACTT-4]). SETTING: 94 hospitals in 10 countries (86% U.S. participants). PARTICIPANTS: Adults hospitalized with COVID-19. INTERVENTION: SOC. MEASUREMENTS: 28-day mortality and recovery. RESULTS: Although outcomes were better in ACTT-2 than in ACTT-1, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were close to 1 (HR for recovery, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.17]; HR for mortality, 0.90 [CI, 0.56 to 1.40]). Comparable patients were less likely to be intubated in ACTT-2 than in ACTT-1 (odds ratio, 0.75 [CI, 0.53 to 0.97]), and hydroxychloroquine use decreased. Outcomes improved from ACTT-2 to ACTT-3 (HR for recovery, 1.43 [CI, 1.24 to 1.64]; HR for mortality, 0.45 [CI, 0.21 to 0.97]). Potential explanatory factors (SOC trends, case surges, and variant trends) were similar between ACTT-2 and ACTT-3, except for increased dexamethasone use (11% to 77%). Outcomes were similar in ACTT-3 and ACTT-4. Antibiotic use decreased gradually across all stages. LIMITATION: Unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSION: Changes in patient composition explained improved outcomes from ACTT-1 to ACTT-2 but not from ACTT-2 to ACTT-3, suggesting improved SOC. These results support excluding nonconcurrent controls from analysis of platform trials in rapidly changing therapeutic areas. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 50(12): 1824-1827, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135630

Subject(s)
Decision Making
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118002

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants challenges vaccination strategies. Here, we collected 201 serum samples from persons with a single infection or multiple vaccine exposures, or both. We measured their neutralization titers against 15 natural variants and 7 variants with engineered spike mutations and analyzed antigenic diversity. Antigenic maps of primary infection sera showed that Omicron sublineages BA.2, BA.4/BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 are distinct from BA.1 and more similar to Beta/Gamma/Mu variants. Three mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations increased neutralization of BA.1 more than BA.4/BA.5 or BA.2.12.1. BA.1 post-vaccination infection elicited higher neutralization titers to all variants than three vaccinations alone, although with less neutralization to BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5. Those with BA.1 infection after two or three vaccinations had similar neutralization titer magnitude and antigenic recognition. Accounting for antigenic differences among variants when interpreting neutralization titers can aid the understanding of complex patterns in humoral immunity that informs the selection of future COVID-19 vaccine strains.

5.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(4): 897-909, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095435

ABSTRACT

Procalcitonin is a commonly used biomarker for infection and severity in the intensive care unit. Although relatively specific for bacterial, as opposed to viral, infections, serum procalcitonin levels also correlate with disease severity and thus cannot reliably distinguish between bacterial and nonbacterial infections in the setting of critical illness, particularly in cases of severe influenza and coronavirus disease-2019. Baseline procalcitonin levels are insufficiently discriminative to permit the withholding of antibiotics in patients with critical illness and suspected sepsis. Trends in procalcitonin levels over time, however, give us the opportunity to individualize the duration of antibiotics without negative impacts on mortality.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Sepsis , Virus Diseases , Humans , Procalcitonin , Critical Illness , Critical Care , Biomarkers , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac314, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051508

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on the functional consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine side effects. To support patient counseling and public health messaging, we describe the risk and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent work or usual activities and/or lead to medical care ("severe" side effects). Methods: The EPICC study is a longitudinal cohort study of Military Healthcare System beneficiaries including active duty service members, dependents, and retirees. We studied 2789 adults who were vaccinated between December 2020 and December 2021. Results: Severe side effects were most common with the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson and Johnson) vaccine, followed by mRNA-1273 (Moderna) then BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech). Severe side effects were more common after the second than first dose (11% vs 4%; P < .001). First (but not second) dose side effects were more common in those with vs without prior severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (9% vs 2%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.84; 95% CI, 3.8-9.1), particularly if the prior illness was severe or critical (13% vs 2%; aOR, 10.57; 95% CI, 5.5-20.1) or resulted in inpatient care (17% vs 2%; aOR, 19.3; 95% CI, 5.1-72.5). Side effects were more common in women than men but not otherwise related to demographic factors. Conclusions: Vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent usual activities were more common after the second than first dose and varied by vaccine type. First dose side effects were more likely in those with a history of COVID-19-particularly if that prior illness was severe or associated with inpatient care. These findings may assist clinicians and patients by providing a real-world evaluation of the likelihood of experiencing impactful postvaccine symptoms.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac275, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961127

ABSTRACT

Background: Patient-reported outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are an important measure of the full burden of coronavirus disease (COVID). Here, we examine how (1) infecting genotype and COVID-19 vaccination correlate with inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) Plus score, including by symptom domains, and (2) FLU-PRO Plus scores predict return to usual activities and health. Methods: The epidemiology, immunology, and clinical characteristics of pandemic infectious diseases (EPICC) study was implemented to describe the short- and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a longitudinal, observational cohort. Multivariable linear regression models were run with FLU-PRO Plus scores as the outcome variable, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models evaluated effects of FLU-PRO Plus scores on return to usual health or activities. Results: Among the 764 participants included in this analysis, 63% were 18-44 years old, 40% were female, and 51% were White. Being fully vaccinated was associated with lower total scores (ß = -0.39; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.21). The Delta variant was associated with higher total scores (ß = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.45). Participants with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores were less likely to report returning to usual health and activities (health: hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.57; activities: HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.67). Fully vaccinated participants were more likely to report returning to usual activities (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.48). Conclusions: Full SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with decreased severity of patient-reported symptoms across multiple domains, which in turn is likely to be associated with earlier return to usual activities. In addition, infection with the Delta variant was associated with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores than previous variants, even after controlling for vaccination status.

8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940240

ABSTRACT

Background There is limited information on the functional consequences of COVID-19 vaccine side effects. To support patient counseling and public health messaging, we describe the risk and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent work or usual activities and/or lead to medical care (“severe” side effects). Methods The EPICC study is a longitudinal cohort study of Military Healthcare System beneficiaries including active duty service members, dependents, and retirees. We studied 2,789 adults who were vaccinated between December 2020 and December 2021. Results Severe side effects were most common with the Ad26.COV2.S-(Janssen/Johnson and Johnson) vaccine followed by mRNA-1273-(Moderna) then BNT162b2-(Pfizer/BioNTech). Severe side effects were more common after the second than first dose (11% vs 4%, p < 0.001). First (but not second) dose side effects were more common in those with versus without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (9% vs 2%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.84[3.8-9.1]), particularly if the prior illness was severe or critical (13% vs 2%, aOR = 10.57[5.5-20.1]) or resulted in inpatient care (17% vs 2%, aOR = 19.3[5.1-72.5]). Side effects were more common in women than men but not otherwise related to demographic factors. Conclusions Vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent usual activities were more common after the second than first dose and varied by vaccine type. First dose side effects were more likely in those with a history of COVID-19 – particularly if that prior illness was severe or associated with inpatient care. These findings may assist clinicians and patients by providing a real-world evaluation of the likelihood of experiencing impactful post-vaccine symptoms.

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898163

ABSTRACT

Background Patient reported outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection are an important measure of the full burden of COVID. Here, we examine how 1) infecting genotype and COVID-19 vaccination correlate with FLU-PRO Plus score, including by symptom domains, and 2) FLU-PRO Plus scores predict return to usual activities and health. Methods The EPICC study was implemented to describe the short- and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a longitudinal, observational cohort. Multivariable linear regression models were run with FLU-PRO Plus scores as the outcome variable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models evaluated effects of FLU-PRO Plus scores on return to usual health or activities. Results Among the 764 participants included in this analysis, 63% were 18-44 years old, 40% were female, and 51% were white. Being fully vaccinated was associated with lower total scores (β=-0.39 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57, -0.21)). The Delta variant was associated with higher total scores (β=0.25 (95% CI 0.05, 0.45)). Participants with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores were less likely to report returning to usual health and activities (Health: hazard ratio (HR) 0.46 (95% CI 0.37, 0.57);Activities: HR 0.56 (95% CI 0.47, 0.67)). Fully vaccinated participants were more likely to report returning to usual activities (HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.04, 1.48)). Conclusions Full SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with decreased severity of patient-reported symptoms across multiple domains, which in turn is likely to be associated with earlier return to usual activities. In addition, infection with the Delta variant was associated with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores than previous variants, even after controlling for vaccination status.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(9): 888-899, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib and dexamethasone have randomised trials supporting their use for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. We assessed the combination of baricitinib plus remdesivir versus dexamethasone plus remdesivir in preventing progression to mechanical ventilation or death in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, double placebo-controlled trial, patients were enrolled at 67 trial sites in the USA (60 sites), South Korea (two sites), Mexico (two sites), Singapore (two sites), and Japan (one site). Hospitalised adults (≥18 years) with COVID-19 who required supplemental oxygen administered by low-flow (≤15 L/min), high-flow (>15 L/min), or non-invasive mechanical ventilation modalities who met the study eligibility criteria (male or non-pregnant female adults ≥18 years old with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection) were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either baricitinib, remdesivir, and placebo, or dexamethasone, remdesivir, and placebo using a permuted block design. Randomisation was stratified by study site and baseline ordinal score at enrolment. All patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (or matching oral placebo) for a maximum of 14 days or dexamethasone (or matching intravenous placebo) for a maximum of 10 days. The primary outcome was the difference in mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 between the two treatment groups in the modified intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the as-treated population, comprising all participants who received one dose of the study drug. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04640168. FINDINGS: Between Dec 1, 2020, and April 13, 2021, 1047 patients were assessed for eligibility. 1010 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned, 516 (51%) to baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo and 494 (49%) to dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo. The mean age of the patients was 58·3 years (SD 14·0) and 590 (58%) of 1010 patients were male. 588 (58%) of 1010 patients were White, 188 (19%) were Black, 70 (7%) were Asian, and 18 (2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native. 347 (34%) of 1010 patients were Hispanic or Latino. Mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 was similar between the study groups (Kaplan-Meier estimates of 87·0% [95% CI 83·7 to 89·6] in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 87·6% [84·2 to 90·3] in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group; risk difference 0·6 [95% CI -3·6 to 4·8]; p=0·91). The odds ratio for improved status in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group compared with the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group was 1·01 (95% CI 0·80 to 1·27). At least one adverse event occurred in 149 (30%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 179 (37%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·5% [1·6 to 13·3]; p=0·014). 21 (4%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group had at least one treatment-related adverse event versus 49 (10%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 6·0% [2·8 to 9·3]; p=0·00041). Severe or life-threatening grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 143 (28%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 174 (36%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·7% [1·8 to 13·4]; p=0·012). INTERPRETATION: In hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen by low-flow, high-flow, or non-invasive ventilation, baricitinib plus remdesivir and dexamethasone plus remdesivir resulted in similar mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29, but dexamethasone was associated with significantly more adverse events, treatment-related adverse events, and severe or life-threatening adverse events. A more individually tailored choice of immunomodulation now appears possible, where side-effect profile, ease of administration, cost, and patient comorbidities can all be considered. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Azetidines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Purines , Pyrazoles , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comparing humoral responses in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees, those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, or combinations of vaccine/infection ('hybrid immunity'), may clarify predictors of vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: We studied 2660 U.S. Military Health System beneficiaries with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection-alone (n = 705), vaccination-alone (n = 932), vaccine-after-infection (n = 869), and vaccine-breakthrough-infection (n = 154). Peak anti-spike-IgG responses through 183 days were compared, with adjustment for vaccine product, demography, and comorbidities. We excluded those with evidence of clinical or sub-clinical SARS-CoV-2 reinfection from all groups. RESULTS: Multivariable regression results indicated vaccine-after-infection anti-spike-IgG responses were higher than infection-alone (p < 0.01), regardless of prior infection severity. An increased time between infection and vaccination was associated with a greater post-vaccination IgG response (p < 0.01). Vaccination-alone elicited a greater IgG response, but more rapid waning of IgG (p < 0.01), compared to infection-alone (p < 0.01). BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccine-receipt was associated with greater IgG responses compared to JNJ-78436735 (p < 0.01), regardless of infection history. Those with vaccine-after-infection or vaccine-breakthrough-infection had a more durable anti-spike-IgG response compared to infection-alone (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-receipt elicited higher anti-spike-IgG responses than infection-alone, although IgG levels waned faster in those vaccinated (compared to infection-alone). Vaccine-after-infection elicits a greater humoral response compared to vaccine or infection alone; and the timing, but not disease severity, of prior infection predicted these post-vaccination IgG responses. While differences between groups were small in magnitude, these results offer insights into vaccine immunogenicity variations that may help inform vaccination timing strategies.

12.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 11(3): 325-338, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763746

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious pathogen resulting in the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic with direct impact on cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) operations. Initially, major challenges in limiting the spread of aerosolized pathogens existed until protocols were implemented to limit infectivity to staff and patients. COVID-19 increases the risk of myocardial infarctions and cardiogenic shock requiring acute management in the CCL. In this review, we specify best practices in the CCL for the management of infected patients in the preprocedure, intraprocedure, and postprocedure environments harmonizing available evidence, recommendations from international heart associations, and consensus opinion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Cardiac Catheterization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofab623, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs are the standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. If less invasive alternatives to NP swabs (eg, oropharyngeal [OP] or nasal swabs [NS]) are comparably sensitive, the use of these techniques may be preferable in terms of comfort, convenience, and safety. METHODS: This study compared the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in swab samples collected on the same day among participants with at least one positive PCR test. RESULTS: Overall, 755 participants had at least one set of paired swabs. Concordance between NP and other swab types was 75% (NS), 72% (OP), 54% (rectal swabs [RS]), and 78% (NS/OP combined). Kappa values were moderate for the NS, OP, and NS/OP comparisons (0.50, 0.45, and 0.54, respectively). Highest sensitivity relative to NP (0.87) was observed with a combination of NS/OP tests (positive if either NS or OP was positive). Sensitivity of the non-NP swab types was highest in the first week postsymptom onset and decreased thereafter. Similarly, virus RNA quantity was highest in the NP swabs as compared with NS, OP, and RS within two weeks postsymptom onset. OP and NS performance decreased as virus RNA quantity decreased. No differences were noted between NS specimens collected at home or in clinic. CONCLUSIONS: NP swabs detected more SARS-CoV-2 cases than non-NP swabs, and the sensitivity of the non-NP swabs decreased with time postsymptom onset. While other swabs may be simpler to collect, NP swabs present the best chance of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, which is essential for clinical care as well as genomic surveillance.

14.
Chest ; 161(5): 1297-1305, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670311

ABSTRACT

Initial waves of the COVID-19 pandemic have largely spared children. With the advent of vaccination in many older age groups and the spread of the highly contagious Delta variant, however, children now represent a growing percentage of COVID-19 cases. PICU capacity is far less than that of adult ICUs. Adult ICUs may need to support pediatric care, much as PICUs provided adult care earlier in the pandemic. Critically ill children selected for care in adult settings should be at least 12 years of age and ideally have conditions common in children and adults alike (eg, community-acquired sepsis, trauma). Children with complex, pediatric-specific disorders are best served in PICUs and are not recommended for transfer. The goal of such transfers is to maintain critical capacity for those children in greatest need of the PICU's unique abilities, therefore preserving systems of care for all children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Child , Emergencies , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S273-S273, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602411

ABSTRACT

Background The risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19 warrant further study. We leveraged a cohort in the Military Health System (MHS) to identify clinical and virological predictors of incident deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and other VTE within 90-days after COVID-19 onset. Methods PCR or serologically-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected MHS beneficiaries were enrolled via nine military treatment facilities (MTF) through April 2021. Case characteristics were derived from interview and review of the electronic medical record (EMR) through one-year follow-up in outpatients and inpatients. qPCR was performed on upper respiratory swab specimens collected post-enrollment to estimate SARS-CoV-2 viral load. The frequency of incident DVT, PE, or other VTE by 90-days post-COVID-19 onset were ascertained by ICD-10 code. Correlates of 90-day VTE were determined through multivariate logistic regression, including age and sampling-time-adjusted log10-SARS-CoV-2 GE/reaction as a priori predictors in addition to other demographic and clinical covariates which were selected through stepwise regression. Results 1473 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled through April 2021. 21% of study participants were inpatients;the mean age was 41 years (SD = 17.0 years). The median Charlson Comorbidity Index score was 0 (IQR = 0 - 1, range = 0 - 13). 27 (1.8%) had a prior history of VTE. Mean maximum viral load observed was 1.65 x 107 genome equivalents/reaction. 36 (2.4%) of all SARS-CoV-2 cases (including inpatients and outpatients), 29 (9.5%) of COVID-19 inpatients, and 7 (0.6%) of outpatients received an ICD-10 diagnosis of any VTE within 90 days after COVID-19 onset. Logistic regression identified hospitalization (aOR = 11.1, p = 0.003) and prior VTE (aOR = 6.2 , p = 0.009) as independent predictors of VTE within 90 days of symptom onset. Neither age (aOR = 1.0, p = 0.50), other demographic covariates, other comorbidities, nor SARS-CoV-2 viral load (aOR = 1.1, p = 0.60) were associated with 90-day VTE. Conclusion VTE was relatively frequent in this MHS cohort. SARS-CoV-2 viral load did not increase the odds of 90-day VTE. Rather, being hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 and prior VTE history remained the strongest predictors of this complication. Disclosures Simon Pollett, MBBS, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work)) Ryan C. Maves, MD, EMD Serono (Advisor or Review Panel member)Heron Therapeutics (Advisor or Review Panel member) David A. Lindholm, MD, American Board of Internal Medicine (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Member of Auxiliary R&D Infectious Disease Item-Writer Task Force. No financial support received. No exam questions will be disclosed ., Other Financial or Material Support David Tribble, M.D., DrPH, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work))

17.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S756-S757, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601867

ABSTRACT

Background The Pragmatic Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the DoD (PAIVED) is a multicenter study assessing influenza vaccine effectiveness in active duty service members, retirees, and dependents. PAIVED recently completed its third year and offers a unique opportunity to examine influenza-like illness (ILI) trends prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic in a prospective, well-defined cohort. Methods During the 2018-19, 2019-20, and 2020-21 influenza seasons, PAIVED enrolled DoD beneficiaries presenting for annual influenza vaccination. After collecting baseline demographic data, participants were randomized to receive egg-based, cell-based, or recombinant-derived influenza vaccine. Weekly throughout the influenza season of enrollment, participants were surveyed electronically for ILI, defined as (1) having cough or sore throat, plus (2) feeling feverish/having chills or having body aches/fatigue. Participants with ILI completed a daily symptom diary for seven days and submitted a nasal swab for pathogen detection. Results Over the three seasons, there were 10,656 PAIVED participants: 1514 (14.2%) in 2018-19, 5876 (55.1%) in 2019-20, and 3266 (30.6%) in 2020-21. The majority were male (68-73% per year) with a mean age of 34±14.8 years at enrollment. 2266 participants reported a total of 2673 unique ILIs. The highest percentage of participants with ILI was in 2019-20 (28.2%), versus 19.6% in 2018-19 and 9.6% in 2020-21. Figure 1 depicts the percent of individuals reporting ILI by week of the season for each of the PAIVED seasons. Notably, after March 21, 2020, the weekly incidence of participants reporting ILI never exceeded 1%. Figure 1. Percent of PAIVED participants reporting ILI by week of season. Conclusion The low incidence of reported ILI in PAIVED participants during the COVID-19 pandemic is consistent with national influenza surveillance reports of influenza and outpatient ILI activity, suggesting that mitigation measures taken to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 reduced the spread of other respiratory viruses. Disclaimer Disclosures Ryan C. Maves, MD, EMD Serono (Advisor or Review Panel member)Heron Therapeutics (Advisor or Review Panel member) Jitu Modi, MD, GSK (Speaker’s Bureau)

18.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12): 2010-2019, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Characterizing the longevity and quality of cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enhances understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immunity that influences clinical outcomes. Prior studies suggest SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are present in peripheral blood 10 months after infection. Analysis of the function, durability, and diversity of cellular response long after natural infection, over a range of ages and disease phenotypes, is needed to identify preventative and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We identified participants in our multisite longitudinal, prospective cohort study 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection representing a range of disease severity. We investigated function, phenotypes, and frequency of T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 using intracellular cytokine staining and spectral flow cytometry, and compared magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and T cells were detected 12 months postinfection. Severe acute illness was associated with higher frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells and antibodies at 12 months. In contrast, polyfunctional and cytotoxic T cells responsive to SARS-CoV-2 were identified in participants over a wide spectrum of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces polyfunctional memory T cells detectable at 12 months postinfection, with higher frequency noted in those who experienced severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Time Factors
19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab556, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated clinical outcomes, functional burden, and complications 1 month after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in a prospective US Military Health System (MHS) cohort of active duty, retiree, and dependent populations using serial patient-reported outcome surveys and electronic medical record (EMR) review. METHODS: MHS beneficiaries presenting at 9 sites across the United States with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test, a COVID-19-like illness, or a high-risk SARS-CoV-2 exposure were eligible for enrollment. Medical history and clinical outcomes were collected through structured interviews and International Classification of Diseases-based EMR review. Risk factors associated with hospitalization were determined by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1202 participants were enrolled. There were 1070 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 132 SARS-CoV-2-negative participants. In the first month post-symptom onset among the SARS-CoV-2-positive cases, there were 212 hospitalizations, 80% requiring oxygen, 20 ICU admissions, and 10 deaths. Risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization included race (increased for Asian, Black, and Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White), age (age 45-64 and 65+ compared with <45), and obesity (BMI≥30 compared with BMI<30). Over 2% of survey respondents reported the need for supplemental oxygen, and 31% had not returned to normal daily activities at 1 month post-symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, reporting Asian, Black, or Hispanic race/ethnicity, and obesity are associated with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization. A proportion of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections require long-term oxygen therapy; the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on short-term functional status was substantial. A significant number of MHS beneficiaries had not yet returned to normal activities by 1 month.

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