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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2234319, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047377

ABSTRACT

Importance: Adults in disadvantaged socioeconomic positions have elevated risks of a severe course of COVID-19, but it is unclear whether this holds true for children. Objective: To investigate whether young people from disadvantaged households have a higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and whether differences were associated with comorbidities that predispose children to severe courses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included all children and adolescents (aged 0-18 years) who were enrolled in a statutory health insurance carrier in Germany during the observation period of January 1, 2020, to July 13, 2021. Logistic regressions were calculated to compare children from households with and without an indication of poverty. Age, sex, days under observation, nationality, and comorbidities (eg, obesity, diabetes) were controlled for to account for explanatory factors. Exposures: Disadvantage on the household level was assessed by the employment status of the insurance holder (ie, employed, long- or short-term unemployed, low-wage employment, economically inactive). Socioeconomic characteristics of the area of residence were also assessed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Daily hospital diagnoses of COVID-19 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes U07.1 and U07.2) were recorded. Comorbidities were assessed using inpatient and outpatient diagnoses contained in the insurance records. Results: A total of 688 075 children and adolescents were included, with a mean (SD) age of 8.3 (5.8) years and 333 489 (48.4%) female participants. COVID-19 hospital diagnosis was a rare event (1637 participants [0.2%]). Children whose parents were long-term unemployed were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.22-1.51) times more likely than those with employed parents to be hospitalized. Elevated odds were also found for children whose parents had low-wage employment (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.05-1.58). Those living in low-income areas had 3.02 (95% CI, 1.73-5.28) times higher odds of hospitalization than those in less deprived areas. Comorbidities were associated with hospitalization, but their adjustment did not change main estimates for deprivation. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, children who had parents who were unemployed and those who lived in low-income areas were at higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. This finding suggests that attention must be paid to children with SARS-CoV-2 from vulnerable families and closer monitoring should be considered. A number of explanatory factors, including comorbidities, were taken into account, but their analysis yielded no clear picture about underlying processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Klin Padiatr ; 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically affects children's and adolescents' mental health. The accumulation of stress factors and a lack of social support complicate a healthy development. Since the beginning of the pandemic, there has been almost a doubling of mental health problems in children and adolescents. Promoting resilience is a possible approach to reduce the incidence of mental health problems despite these adverse circumstances. OBJECTIVES: This literature search aims at identifying and evaluating interventions to promote resilience mechanisms, with a special focus on feasibility in a crisis situation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This scoping review is based on a systematic literature search including the databases Cochrane Library, PubMed, Psyc-Info, Psyndex and Google Scholar (2006-2020). Of 1733 identified articles 75 were included. RESULTS: Out of 72 identified intervention studies 28% were feasible under pandemic conditions. The most effective resilience trainings seem to be individualized interventions using cognitive behavioral therapy elements. However, many approaches primarily show short-term success. DISCUSSION: Few evidence-based programs are feasible online or under pandemic restrictions. Most of them show short-term effects and focus on parents and individuals. Multiple programs are ready for use, but still lack proof of efficacy. The development and improvement of (digital) resilience interventions should be an essential part of preventive health care, especially for risk groups. HINTERGRUND: Die COVID-19-Pandemie beeinflusst die mentale Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen auf dramatische Weise. Durch eine Akkumulation von Belastungsfaktoren und das Wegfallen sozialer Unterstützung ist eine regelrechte Entwicklung erschwert. Seit Beginn der Pandemie kam es nahezu zu einer Verdopplung der psychischen Auffälligkeiten. Die Förderung der Resilienz kann ein Ansatz sein, das Auftreten von psychischen Auffälligkeiten trotz dieser widrigen Umstände zu vermindern. ZIEL DER ARBEIT: Ziel dieser Literaturrecherche ist die Identifikation und Bewertung von Interventionen zur Förderung von Resilienzmechanismen, mit Fokus auf die Durchführbarkeit unter Krisenbedingungen. MATERIAL UND METHODEN: Dieses Scoping Review basiert auf einer systematischen Literaturrecherche der Datenbanken Cochrane Library, PubMed, Psyc-Info, Psyndex sowie Google Scholar (2006-2021). Von der insgesamt 1733 Artikel umfassenden Suche wurden 75 Artikel eingeschlossen. ERGEBNISSE: Von 72 identifizierten Interventionsstudien sind 28% unter Pandemiebedingungen durchführbar. Die wirksamsten Resilienztrainings scheinen individualisierte Interventionen mit Elementen der kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie zu sein. Viele Ansätze zeigen jedoch in erster Linie kurzfristige Erfolge. DISKUSSION: Nur wenige evidenzbasierte Programme sind online oder unter Pandemiebedingungen verfügbar. Die meisten von ihnen zeigen kurzfristige Effekte und konzentrieren sich auf Eltern und Einzelpersonen. Zahlreiche Programme sind nutzbar, allerdings fehlt häufig ein Evidenznachweis. Die Entwicklung und Verbesserung von (digitalen) Resilienzmaßnahmen sollte ein wesentlicher Bestandteil der präventiven Gesundheitsversorgung sein, insbesondere für Risikogruppen.

4.
GMS journal for medical education ; 39(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888144

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiac auscultation is a core clinical skill taught in medical school. Due to contact restrictions during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, interaction with patients was very limited. Therefore, a peer-to-peer virtual case-based auscultation course via video conference was established. Methods: A randomized controlled cross-over study was conducted to evaluate whether participation in a virtual auscultation course could improve heart auscultation skills in 3rd-year medical students. A total of sixty medical students were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group after informed consent was obtained. Due to no-shows, 55 students participated. Depending on allocation, students attended three ninety-minute courses in intervals of one week in a different order: a virtual case-based auscultation course held via video chat, literature self-study, and an on-site course using a high-fidelity auscultation simulator (SAM II). The study's primary endpoint was the performance of the two groups at the simulator after participating in the virtual auscultation course or literature self-study. To evaluate their auscultation skills, students participated in five assessments using the same six pathologies: stenosis and regurgitation of the aortic and mitral valve, ventricular septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus. Moreover, participants rated their satisfaction with each course and provided a self-assessment of competence. Results: Compared to literature self-study, participation in the virtual auscultation course led to a significantly improved description of heart murmurs at the auscultation simulator with regard to the presence in systole and diastole, low- and high-pitched sounds, and volume dynamics. There was no significant difference between the groups in diagnostic accuracy and identification of the point of maximal intensity. After the virtual course, students showed higher satisfaction rates and a higher increase in self-assessed competence compared to participants who engaged in literature self-study. Conclusions: For the first time, this study demonstrates that a case-based virtual auscultation course can improve aspects of cardiac auscultation skills on a simulator. This may facilitate the further acquisition of an essential clinical skill, even when contact restrictions will be lifted.

5.
GMS J Med Educ ; 39(2): Doc21, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855297

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiac auscultation is a core clinical skill taught in medical school. Due to contact restrictions during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, interaction with patients was very limited. Therefore, a peer-to-peer virtual case-based auscultation course via video conference was established. Methods: A randomized controlled cross-over study was conducted to evaluate whether participation in a virtual auscultation course could improve heart auscultation skills in 3rd-year medical students. A total of sixty medical students were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group after informed consent was obtained. Due to no-shows, 55 students participated. Depending on allocation, students attended three ninety-minute courses in intervals of one week in a different order: a virtual case-based auscultation course held via video chat, literature self-study, and an on-site course using a high-fidelity auscultation simulator (SAM II). The study's primary endpoint was the performance of the two groups at the simulator after participating in the virtual auscultation course or literature self-study. To evaluate their auscultation skills, students participated in five assessments using the same six pathologies: stenosis and regurgitation of the aortic and mitral valve, ventricular septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus. Moreover, participants rated their satisfaction with each course and provided a self-assessment of competence. Results: Compared to literature self-study, participation in the virtual auscultation course led to a significantly improved description of heart murmurs at the auscultation simulator with regard to the presence in systole and diastole, low- and high-pitched sounds, and volume dynamics. There was no significant difference between the groups in diagnostic accuracy and identification of the point of maximal intensity. After the virtual course, students showed higher satisfaction rates and a higher increase in self-assessed competence compared to participants who engaged in literature self-study. Conclusions: For the first time, this study demonstrates that a case-based virtual auscultation course can improve aspects of cardiac auscultation skills on a simulator. This may facilitate the further acquisition of an essential clinical skill, even when contact restrictions will be lifted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Cross-Over Studies , Heart Auscultation , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc102, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970665

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Auscultation skills are among the basic techniques to be learned in medical school. Such skills are achieved through supervised examination of patients often supported by simulator-based learning. The emergence of COVID-19 has disrupted and continues to hinder hands-on on-site medical training on a global scale. Project description: An effective virtual auscultation course was established in times of contact restrictions due to COVID-19 at the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf. The interactive case-based webinar was designed to improve listening techniques, description and interpretation of auscultation findings in an off-site context. Clinical cases with pre-recorded auscultation sounds and additional case-based diagnostics were presented. The course focused on common heart murmurs including aortic and mitral valve stenosis and regurgitation as well as congenital heart defects (ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus). Results: The course was well received by the students and assessed as being useful and instructive. Assessment of learning effects, such as detection of pathological findings before and after training, is ongoing as part of a subsequent trial. Conclusion: Virtual interactive learning using a sound simulation lesson with clinical case presentations via video chat can well be used as a supplement to practical auscultation training. This learning format could also play a useful role in the curriculum of medical studies once contact restrictions are revoked.


Subject(s)
Auscultation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Videoconferencing/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical/psychology
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