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Journal of Medicine (Bangladesh) ; 22(2):139-145, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1666968

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is an example of a highly populous, agricultural country where melioidosis may be a significantly under diagnosed cause of infection and death. A recent regression model predicted 16,931 cases annually in Bangladesh with a mortality rate of 56%. However, we only manage to confirm (culture) around 80 cases in last 60 years. A lack of awareness among microbiologists and clinicians and a lack of diagnostic microbiology infrastructure are factors that are likely to lead to the underreporting of melioidosis. Melioidosis transmits through inoculation, inhalation and ingestion. Diabetes mellitus is the most common risk factor (12 times higher chance of getting the infection) predisposing individuals to melioidosis and is present in >50% of all patients. The clinical presentation is widely varied and can be mistaken for other diseases such as tuberculosis or more common forms of pneumonia giving rise to its nickname as the “great mimicker”. Disease manifestations vary from pneumonia or localized abscess to acute septicemias, or may present as a chronic infection. Culture is considered the current gold-standard for diagnosis and culture-confirmation should always be sought in patients where disease is suspected. It is strongly recommended that any non–Pseudomonas aeruginosa, oxidase-positive, Gram-negative bacillus isolated from any clinical specimen from a patient in an endemic area should be suspected to be Burkholderia pseudomallei (BP). In addition, based on antibiogram, any Gramnegative bacilli that are oxidase-positive, typically resistant to aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin), colistin, and polymyxin but sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be considered as BP. This bacteria is inherently resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, first generation and second-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, and polymyxin. For intensive phase (10 to 14 days), ceftazidime or carbapenem is the drug of choice. For eradication phase (3 to 6 months), oral trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice. Surgery (drainage of abscess) has an important role in the management of melioidosis. Preventive measures through protective gears could be useful particularly for the risk groups.

2.
International Journal of Academic Medicine ; 6(4):328-331, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1200200

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had far-reaching economic and mental health impacts on a global scale. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and overall distress may have been exacerbated by the mental health tolls of the pandemic. It is also important to consider the impact of gender, socioeconomic status and whether one is a frontline worker involved in the treatment of critically ill patients. In order to fully recover from the pandemic, we must be able to identify and treat any mental health disorders that may emerge from the effects of social distancing. Improving access to mental health screening and treatment opportunities through platforms that utilize telehealth may be a part of the solution. In addition, providing institutional support for health-care workers, promoting a safe work environment, and encouraging a robust conversation about mental health will aid in mitigating the negative impacts of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. The following core competencies are addressed in this article: Interpersonal and communication skills, Practice-based learning, Systems-based practice

3.
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 72(3):173-176, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1089318

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 and the virus-induced disease COVID-19 has caused widespread concerns due to its contagiousness, fatality rate, and the absence of drug(s). This study investigated Lens culinaris and its phytochemicals, especially the flavonoids. The compounds were assessed through molecular docking studies for their binding abilities with the major protease of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (PDB: 6LU7). A total of 42 phytochemicals of Lens culinaris were analyzed through molecular docking studies for their binding affinities to COVID 3C-like protease. Of them, 23 compounds were found to have binding affinities to the protease of -7.5 kcal/mol or higher. Our study indicates that Lens culinaris contains a number of polyphenolic compounds as well as phytosterols, which can bind to the active site of the protease, and so merits further scientific attention on trials for use as potential anti-COVID-19 drugs.

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