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1.
World journal of clinical cases ; 10(19):6370-6384, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted in a still undefined way pregnant women’s mental health. There are reports of mood and affect changes in the general population and the suggestion that similar changes occur also in the pregnant population. The greater vulnerability of women during the COVID-19 restriction period may translate into a greater risk for mental disorders in the gestational period. We hypothesised that pregnant women in the pre-pandemic period would have less psychopathology and more psychological support than pregnant women during the pandemic restriction period. AIM To compare pregnant women for anxiety, prenatal depression, psychopathology, and social support before and after the awareness of the pandemic. METHODS We administered to women willing to participate in their 2nd-3rd trimesters of pregnancy the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y), and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised (SCL-90R);we further collected sociodemographic variables and explored women’s social support. The comparison was cross-sectional. The first sample was termed nonCOVID-19 because data were gathered before the COVID-19 outbreak (January 2020-February 2020) was declared, and the second sample termed COVID-19 because participants were already subjected to the COVID-19–related restrictive measures (January 2021-February 2021). Since normal distribution was not met (Shapiro-Wilk test applied), we applied nonparametric Mann-Whitney’s U-test to compare psychometric tests. Ethical standards were met. RESULTS The nonCOVID-19 group reported higher support from partners only, while the COVID-19 group reported multiple support (χ2 = 9.7181;P = 0.021);the nonCOVID-19 group scored higher than the COVID-19 group only on state anxiety among psychometric scales [STAI-Y1, nonCOVID-19 median = 39 (95%CI: 39.19-51.10) vs COVID-19 median= 32 (95%CI: 30.83-38.90);Mann-Whitney’s U=117.5, P = 0.00596]. Other measures did not differ meaningfully between the two groups. Scores on the EPDS, the state and trait subscales of the STAI-Y, and most SCL-90R subscales inter-correlated with one another. The anxiety component of the EPDS, EPDS-3A, correlated poorly with other measures, while it was the Global Symptom Index of the SCL-90-R that correlated most strongly with most measures. Our results are at odds with most literature and do not confirm increased depression and anxiety rates in pregnant women during the pandemic. CONCLUSION The ability of pregnant women to deal with novel generalised threats involves mobilization of inner resources. Increasing sources of social support may have produced anxiolysis in the COVID-19 sample.

2.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(19): 6370-6384, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted in a still undefined way pregnant women's mental health. There are reports of mood and affect changes in the general population and the suggestion that similar changes occur also in the pregnant population. The greater vulnerability of women during the COVID-19 restriction period may translate into a greater risk for mental disorders in the gestational period. We hypothesised that pregnant women in the pre-pandemic period would have less psychopathology and more psychological support than pregnant women during the pandemic restriction period. AIM: To compare pregnant women for anxiety, prenatal depression, psychopathology, and social support before and after the awareness of the pandemic. METHODS: We administered to women willing to participate in their 2nd-3rd trimesters of pregnancy the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y), and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised (SCL-90R); we further collected sociodemographic variables and explored women's social support. The comparison was cross-sectional. The first sample was termed nonCOVID-19 because data were gathered before the COVID-19 outbreak (January 2020-February 2020) was declared, and the second sample termed COVID-19 because participants were already subjected to the COVID-19-related restrictive measures (January 2021-February 2021). Since normal distribution was not met (Shapiro-Wilk test applied), we applied nonparametric Mann-Whitney's U-test to compare psychometric tests. Ethical standards were met. RESULTS: The nonCOVID-19 group reported higher support from partners only, while the COVID-19 group reported multiple support (χ 2 = 9.7181; P = 0.021); the nonCOVID-19 group scored higher than the COVID-19 group only on state anxiety among psychometric scales [STAI-Y1, nonCOVID-19 median = 39 (95%CI: 39.19-51.10) vs COVID-19 median= 32 (95%CI: 30.83-38.90); Mann-Whitney's U=117.5, P = 0.00596]. Other measures did not differ meaningfully between the two groups. Scores on the EPDS, the state and trait subscales of the STAI-Y, and most SCL-90R subscales inter-correlated with one another. The anxiety component of the EPDS, EPDS-3A, correlated poorly with other measures, while it was the Global Symptom Index of the SCL-90-R that correlated most strongly with most measures. Our results are at odds with most literature and do not confirm increased depression and anxiety rates in pregnant women during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The ability of pregnant women to deal with novel generalised threats involves mobilization of inner resources. Increasing sources of social support may have produced anxiolysis in the COVID-19 sample.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896866

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: During the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, cannabis use increased relative to pre-pandemic levels, while forced home confinement frequently caused sleep/wake cycle disruptions, psychological distress, and maladaptive coping strategies with the consequent appearance of anxiety symptoms and their potential impact on substance use problems. (2) Aim: Long-acting trazodone (150 mg or 300 mg daily) has a potential benefit as monotherapy in patients with cannabis use disorder. The present work aims to investigate the effectiveness of trazodone in optimizing the condition of people with cannabis dependence under pandemic conditions. (3) Methods: All cases with cannabis use disorder were uniformly treated with long-acting trazodone 150 mg or 300 mg/day; their craving and clinical status were monitored through appropriate psychometric scales. Side effects were recorded as they were reported by patients. We described the cases of three young patients-one man and two women-who were affected by chronic cannabis use disorder and who experienced lockdown-related psychological distress and sought psychiatric help. (4) Results: The described cases highlight that the once-a-day formulation of trazodone seems to have a therapeutic role in patients with cannabis use disorder and to guarantee tolerability and efficacy over time. No significant side effects emerged. (5) Conclusions: The use of long-acting trazodone (150 mg or 300 mg daily) has a potential benefit as monotherapy in patients with cannabis use disorder. Trazodone deserves to be studied in terms of its efficacy for cannabis use disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Hallucinogens , Marijuana Abuse , Substance-Related Disorders , Trazodone , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Marijuana Abuse/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Trazodone/adverse effects , Trazodone/therapeutic use
5.
World J Cardiol ; 13(9): 438-445, 2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458050

ABSTRACT

Experiencing various forms of violence in either childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease, both shortly after the event and during follow-up, particularly in women. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has heightened the risk of domestic violence with serious sequelae for mental and cardiovascular health in women, possibly due to several contributing factors, ranging from lockdown, stay at home regulations, job losses, anxiety, and stress. Accordingly, it remains paramount to enforce proactive preventive strategies, at both the family and individual level, maintain a high level of attention to recognize all forms of violence or abuse, and guarantee a multidisciplinary team approach for victims of interpersonal or domestic violence in order to address physical, sexual, and emotional domains and offer a personalized care.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348640

ABSTRACT

Social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically affected lifestyles: from sedentary behaviors to reduced physical activity, from disrupted sleep patterns to altered dietary habits. As a consequence, serious mental and emotional responses have been registered. There was a significant decline in physical and other meaningful activities of daily living, leisure, social activity, and education. In children, collateral effects of the pandemic include inadequate nutrition with a risk of both overweight and underweight, addiction to screens, lack of schooling, and psychosocial difficulties. Older adults are frequently unable to adapt to lockdown measures and suffer from depression and cognitive complaints. Recent studies focusing on changes in lifestyle during the Covid-19 pandemic and consequences on mental health have been identified in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, and ScienceDirect. All the available literature has been retrospectively reviewed. The results of the present narrative review suggest that mental distress caused by social isolation seems to be linked not only to personality characteristics but also to several lifestyle components (sleep disruption, altered eating habits, reduced physical activity). This review aims to explore major changes in the lifestyle and quality of life and the impact of these changes on mental health, and to inform clinicians and policymakers about elements that may reduce the negative psychological effects of the quarantine period imposed during this worldwide crisis. There is an urgent need for tailored preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic mental health interventions for the general population and for higher risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Life Style , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(6): 215-221, 2021 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282700

ABSTRACT

Intimate partner violence has been recognized as a serious public health issue. Exposure to violence contributes to the genesis of, and exacerbates, mental health conditions, and existing mental health problems increase vulnerability to partner violence, a loop that imprisons victims and perpetuates the abuse. A recently described phenomenon is when male violence against females occurs within intimate relationships during youth, and it is termed adolescent or teen dating violence. In this narrative review, factors associated with intimate partner violence and consequences of exposure of children to parental domestic violence are discussed, along with possible intensification of violence against women with the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and subsequent lockdown. Intervention programs with a multicomponent approach involving many health care settings and research have a pivotal role in developing additional strategies for addressing violence and to provide tailored interventions to victims. Prevention policy with a particular attention on healthy child and adolescent development is mandatory in the struggle against all forms of violence.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) needs high-quality care and multidisciplinary management. During the COVID-19 pandemic, most non-urgent clinical activities for HHT outpatients were suspended. We conducted an analytical observational cohort study to evaluate whether medical and psychological support, provided through remote consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic, could reduce the complications of HHT. METHODS: A structured regimen of remote consultations, conducted by either video-calls, telephone calls, or e-mails, was provided by a multidisciplinary group of physicians to a set of patients of our HHT center. The outcomes considered were: number of emergency room visits/hospitalizations, need of blood transfusions, need of iron supplementation, worsening of epistaxis, and psychological status. RESULTS: The study included 45 patients who received remote assistance for a total of eight months. During this period, 9 patients required emergency room visits, 6 needed blood transfusions, and 24 needed iron supplementation. This was not different from what was registered among the same 45 patients in the same period of the previous year. Remote care also resulted in better management of epistaxis and improved quality of life, with the mean epistaxis severity score and the Euro-Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale that were significantly better at the end than at the beginning of the study. DISCUSSION: Remote medical care might be a valid support for HHT subjects during periods of suspended outpatient surveillance, like the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(1)2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006959

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spiked stress-related symptoms worldwide. This study aims to assess depressive symptoms related to the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak among the Italian general population and to analyze anhedonia and emotion dysregulation as potential predictors of depression severity. Through an online questionnaire, we collected sociodemographic and lockdown-related information; depressive symptoms, hedonic tone, and emotion dysregulation were assessed through the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, respectively. In our sample (n = 500), 122 individuals (24.4%) reported depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak. Individuals with and without depression differed in gender (X2 = 4.77, df = 1, p = 0.02) and age (X2 = 15.7, df = 4, p = 0.003). Among individuals presenting with depressive symptoms, those reporting close contact with confirmed cases of COVID-19 were at higher risk for severe depression (p = 0.026). Reduced hedonic tone (p = 0.014) and emotion dysregulation (p < 0.001) also predicted depression severity. To the best of our knowledge, these are among the earliest data that focus on the risk for depression among a sizeable sample of the Italian general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. Our results indicate emotion dysregulation and reduced hedonic tone as potential factors predicting COVID-19-related depression severity and provide insight into developing targeted intervention policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression , Pandemics , Anhedonia , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Front Neurol ; 11: 616550, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006082

ABSTRACT

Background: The containment measures taken by Italian government authorities during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic caused the interruption of neurological activities of outpatient clinics. Vulnerable patients, as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonic patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS), may have an increased risk of chronic stress related to social restriction measures and may show a potential worsening of motor and psychiatric symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and was based on a structured survey administered during a telephone call. The questionnaire was designed to gather motor and/or psychiatric effects of the lockdown and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiologic information in PD and dystonic patients with a functioning DBS implant. Results: One hundred four patients were included in the study, 90 affected by PD and 14 by dystonia. Forty-nine patients reported a subjective perception of worsening of global neurological symptoms (motor and/or psychiatric) related to the containment measures. In the multivariate analysis, having problems with the DBS device was the only independent predictor of motor worsening [odds ratio (OR) = 3.10 (1.22-7.91), p = 0.018]. Independent predictors of psychiatric worsening were instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score [OR = 0.78 (0.64-0.95), p = 0.012] and problems with DBS [OR = 5.69 (1.95-16.62), p = 0.001]. Only one patient underwent nasopharyngeal swabs, both negative, and no patient received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions: Lockdown restriction measures were associated with subjective worsening of motor and psychiatric symptoms in PD and dystonic patients treated with DBS, and they may have exacerbated the burden of neurological disease and increased the chronic stress related to the DBS management.

13.
Bipolar Disord ; 22(8): 870-871, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810977
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 289: 113046, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141657

ABSTRACT

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as physical or sexual violence, emotional abuse and stalking. It is typically experienced by women but can also be experienced by men. During quarantine due to the COVID-19, home risks to become a very dangerous place for victims of domestic violence. Method: Very recent studies focusing on abusive situations during COVID emergence were identified in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase. Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak people have encountered an invisible and dark enemy and an experience of impotence. Due to the feelings of frustration and agitation, aggression arises with possible transgenerational transmission of trauma and violence. Conclusions: Especially during quarantine and COVID emergence around the world there is a need of programs aimed to prevent acts of domestic violence and to achieve accurate assessment of multiple domains of abuse (psychological, physical, sexual) provided by trained multidisciplinary staffs (including psychiatrists, psychologists, social and legal services).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Crime Victims/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aggression , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
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