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1.
Neurol Sci ; 43(5): 2923-2927, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in clinical presentations and the impact of healthcare organization on outcomes of neurological COVID-19 patients admitted during the first and second pandemic waves. METHODS: In this single-center cohort study, we included all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a Neuro-COVID Unit. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between patients admitted during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-three patients were included, of whom 112 and 111 were hospitalized during the first and second pandemic waves, respectively. Patients admitted during the second wave were younger and exhibited pulmonary COVID-19 severity, resulting in less oxygen support (n = 41, 36.9% vs n = 79, 70.5%, p < 0.001) and lower mortality rates (14.4% vs 31.3%, p = 0.004). The different healthcare strategies and early steroid treatment emerged as significant predictors of mortality independently from age, pre-morbid conditions and COVID-19 severity in Cox regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in healthcare strategies during the second phase of the COVID-19 pandemic probably explain the differences in clinical outcomes independently of disease severity, underlying the importance of standardized early management of neurological patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319048

ABSTRACT

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the 10 centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients (median age, 74 [interquartile range (IQR), 62–80.75] years;males, 154 [52.0%];34 [11.5%] COVID-19) qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group (230 [IQR, 200.5–270] minutes vs 190 [IQR, 150–245] minutes;p=0.007), especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs 16.6%;OR, 5.05;95% CI, 1.82–13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs 81.0%;OR, 0.29;95% CI, 0.10–0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs 19.5%;OR, 2.24;95% CI, 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs 8.8%;OR, 6.43;95% CI, 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.

3.
Neuroradiology ; 64(7): 1367-1372, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but deadly event in patients with COVID-19 and its imaging features remain poorly characterized. We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of COVID-19-associated ICH. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, case-control analysis comparing ICH in COVID-19 patients (COV19 +) versus controls without COVID-19 (COV19 -). Clinical presentation, laboratory markers, and severity of COVID-19 disease were recorded. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers (intrahematoma hypodensity, heterogeneous density, blend sign, irregular shape fluid level), ICH location, and hematoma volume (ABC/2 method) were analyzed. The outcome of interest was ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) (defined as NCCT baseline ICH volume/onset-to-imaging time), whose predictors were explored with multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 33 COV19 + patients and 321 COV19 - controls with ICH were included. Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors were similar in the two groups. Multifocal ICH and NCCT markers were significantly more common in the COV19 + population. uHG was significantly higher among COV19 + patients (median 6.2 mL/h vs 3.1 mL/h, p = 0.027), and this finding remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (systolic blood pressure, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy), in linear regression (B(SE) = 0.31 (0.11), p = 0.005). This association remained consistent also after the exclusion of patients under anticoagulant treatment (B(SE) = 0.29 (0.13), p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: ICH in COV19 + patients has distinct NCCT imaging features and a higher speed of bleeding. This association is not mediated by antithrombotic therapy and deserves further research to characterize the underlying biological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(2): 615-619, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to describe the prevalence of vessel wall alterations in patients with cryptogenic stroke through vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (vwMRI). METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted for AIS and COVID-19 to a single neuro-COVID unit from 10 November to 31 December 2020 were prospectively evaluated and underwent a complete etiologic workup for AIS. In patients with cryptogenic stroke, the diagnostic workup was completed with vwMRI study. RESULTS: After the exclusion of four patients ineligible for MRI, a total of 10 patients were included (median age = 78 years, 50% males), of whom four (40%) had a cryptogenic stroke. vwMRI showed vascular changes consistent with inflammation of intracranial artery walls in three subjects (75%). Two patients had focal and one multifocal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: vwMRI detected signs of vascular inflammation in the majority of patients with cryptogenic AIS, leading to an etiologic definition with potential therapeutical implications. Our findings are best interpreted as hypothesis-generating, suggesting the possibility of expanding the diagnostic workup of cryptogenic stroke with vessel wall imaging.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
5.
J Neurol ; 269(1): 1-11, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with acute ischemic stroke related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess the classification performance of clinical and laboratory parameters in predicting in-hospital outcome of these patients. METHODS: In the setting of the STROKOVID study including patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to the ten hub hospitals in Lombardy, Italy, between March 8 and April 30, 2020, we compared clinical features of patients with confirmed infection and non-infected patients by logistic regression models and survival analysis. Then, we trained and tested a random forest (RF) binary classifier for the prediction of in-hospital death among patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 1013 patients, 160 (15.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male sex (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06-2.27) and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.05-2.43) were independently associated with COVID-19 status. Patients with COVID-19 had increased stroke severity at admission [median NIHSS score, 9 (25th to75th percentile, 13) vs 6 (25th to75th percentile, 9)] and increased risk of in-hospital death (38.1% deaths vs 7.2%; HR 3.30; 95% CI 2.17-5.02). The RF model based on six clinical and laboratory parameters exhibited high cross-validated classification accuracy (0.86) and precision (0.87), good recall (0.72) and F1-score (0.79) in predicting in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic strokes in COVID-19 patients have distinctive risk factor profile and etiology, increased clinical severity and higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to non-COVID-19 patients. A simple model based on clinical and routine laboratory parameters may be useful in identifying ischemic stroke patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are unlikely to survive the acute phase.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
6.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3561-3568, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121219

ABSTRACT

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the ten centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients [median age, 74 years (interquartile range (IQR), 62-80.75); males, 154 (52.0%); 34 (11.5%) COVID-19] qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group [230 (IQR 200.5-270) minutes vs. 190 (IQR 150-245) minutes; p = 0.007], especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤ 50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs. 16.6%; OR 5.05; 95% CI 1.82-13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs. 81.0%; OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10-0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs. 19.5%; OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs. 8.8%; OR 6.43; 95% CI 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy
7.
Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3471-3474, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888211

ABSTRACT

A wide range of neurological signs and symptoms have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present report, we described two Italian patients diagnosed with diaphragmatic myoclonus after COVID-19. In both cases, mild lymphocytosis at cerebrospinal fluid analysis and no structural brain changes were reported. The pathophysiological origin of the myoclonus in the two cases was different. In case 1, electroencephalogram did not reveal any cortical correlates and brain imaging of the spine was unremarkable, while in case 2, cortical origin of myoclonus was demonstrated. With the present two cases, we confirm and extend the neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diaphragm/physiopathology , Myoclonus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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