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1.
J Hosp Infect ; 115: 51-58, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is reduced by effective risk management procedures, but patient-to-patient transmission continues to be reported in healthcare settings. AIM: To report the use of phylogenetic analysis in the clinical risk management of an HCV outbreak among 128 thalassaemia outpatients followed at a thalassaemia centre of an Italian hospital. METHODS: Epidemiological investigation and root-cause analysis were performed. All patients with acute hepatitis and known chronic infection were tested for HCV RNA, HCV genotyping, and NS3, NS5A, and NS5B HCV genomic region sequencing. To identify transmission clusters, phylogenetic trees were built for each gene employing Bayesian methods. FINDINGS: All patients with acute hepatitis were infected with HCV genotype 1b. Root-cause analysis, including a lookback procedure, excluded blood donors as the source of HCV transmission. The phylogenetic analysis, conducted on seven patients with acute infection and eight patients with chronic infection, highlighted four transmission clusters including at least one patient with chronic and one patient with acute HCV infection. All patients in the same cluster received a blood transfusion during the same day. Two patients with acute hepatitis spontaneously cleared HCV within four weeks and nine patients received ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir for six weeks, all achieving a sustained virological response. CONCLUSION: Combined use of root-cause analysis and molecular epidemiology was effective in ascertaining the origin of the HCV outbreak. Antiviral therapy avoided the chronic progression of the infection and further spread in care units and in the family environment.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C , Thalassemia , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Risk Management , Thalassemia/complications , Thalassemia/epidemiology , Thalassemia/therapy
2.
EuroMediterranean Biomedical Journal ; 16(19):80-84, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1280734

ABSTRACT

In Italy, vaccination against COVID-19 began on December 27, 2020. To date, 13,713,224 people in Italy are fully vaccinated, which accounts for 25.3 % of the general population, and 44.8% received at least one vaccination dose. The present study aim to investigate willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination in costumers accessing a sample of community pharmacies in the Province of Palermo, Italy. A self-administered and anonymous questionnaire was carried out among costumers older than 18 years old between December 2020 and March 2021. Three hundred and sixty-three subjects were enrolled in the study, 259 (71.3%) expressed their willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The main determinants associated with vaccination acceptance resulted “trust in safety and effectiveness of vaccinations” and the absence of any previous negative vaccination experience. Unfavourable information on COVID-19 vaccination obtained through internet/media/social media and lack of confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and in the Italian national healthcare system are the main determinants associated with vaccine refusal. Male gender, younger age classes and influenza vaccination acceptance due to the impact of COVID pandemic were significantly associated with willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. In order to promote COVID-19 vaccination campaign accurate, informative and communicative campaign dedicated to subjects that are more hesitant regarding COVID-19 vaccination (e.g. female sex, adults, people that usually do not adhere to influenza vaccination campaign) should be implemented. © EuroMediterranean Biomedical Journal 2021.

3.
International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] ; 18(7):02, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209993

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, several cases of atypical pneumonia were detected in Wuhan city, Hubei province, inland China. The initial outbreak was of considerable size first in China subsequently spread to the rest of the world. Immediately after the epidemic (which according to the World Health Organization had risen to pandemic status), the problem of whether or not to update the occupational risk assessment arose, also considering how the biological risk from SARS CoV-2 should be understood: specific or generic. To this end, we conducted a literature review to identify national health legislation and policies, examining how Italy has addressed the COVID-19 emergency in occupational health planning, in order to develop considerations on the need to update the Risk Assessment Document following the pandemic status. The data that emerged from the review of current legislation allowed us to conclude that the risk from SARS-CoV-2 is in most work activities to be understood as a generic or aggravated generic risk, requiring the employer to apply and control the preventive measures suggested by health authorities to contain the spread of the virus.

5.
EuroMediterranean Biomedical Journal ; 15(25):102-106, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-823944

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a disease caused by a novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2. At the end of May 2020, SARS-CoV-2 confirmed cases and deaths due to novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were about 6.5 million and 380,000, worldwide. In this commentary the authors argue on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in different epidemiological settings within the Mediterranean area, discussing any possible association with higher or lower virus spread according to climatic factors, pollutants, characteristics of general population, and organization of health care services. © EuroMediterranean Biomedical Journal 2020 - SARS-CoV-2/COVID 19 Special Issue.

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