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1.
Med (N Y) ; 3(6): 422-432.e3, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926778

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern (VOC) has evolved multiple mutations within the spike protein, raising concerns of increased antibody evasion. In this study, we assessed the neutralization potential of COVID-19 convalescent sera and sera from vaccinated individuals against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs. Methods: The neutralizing activity of sera from 65 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine recipients and convalescent individuals against clinical isolates of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Beta, Delta, and Omicron VOCs was assessed using a micro-neutralization assay. Findings: Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the ancestral virus demonstrated reduced neutralization against Beta and Omicron VOCs. Sera from individuals that received three doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines demonstrated reduced neutralization of the Omicron variant relative to ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Sera from individuals that were naturally infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody levels against ancestral virus and all VOCs. Infection alone, either with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or the Delta variant, was not sufficient to induce high neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron. Conclusions: In summary, we demonstrate that convalescent and vaccinated sera display varying levels of SARS-CoV-2 VOC neutralization. Data from this study will inform booster vaccination strategies against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Funding: This research was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). VIDO receives operational funding from the Government of Saskatchewan through Innovation Saskatchewan and the Ministry of Agriculture and from the Canada Foundation for Innovation through the Major Science Initiatives for its CL3 facility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saskatchewan , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268340, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841156

ABSTRACT

Continued waves, new variants, and limited vaccine deployment mean that SARS-CoV-2 tests remain vital to constrain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Affordable, point-of-care (PoC) tests allow rapid screening in non-medical settings. Reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is an appealing approach. A crucial step is to optimize testing in low/medium resource settings. Here, we optimized RT-LAMP for SARS-CoV-2 and human ß-actin, and tested clinical samples in multiple countries. "TTTT" linker primers did not improve performance, and while guanidine hydrochloride, betaine and/or Igepal-CA-630 enhanced detection of synthetic RNA, only the latter two improved direct assays on nasopharygeal samples. With extracted clinical RNA, a 20 min RT-LAMP assay was essentially as sensitive as RT-PCR. With raw Canadian nasopharygeal samples, sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 67.6% - 100%) for those with RT-qPCR Ct values ≤ 25, and 80% (95% CI: 58.4% - 91.9%) for those with 25 < Ct ≤ 27.2. Highly infectious, high titer cases were also detected in Colombian and Ecuadorian labs. We further demonstrate the utility of replacing thermocyclers with a portable PoC device (FluoroPLUM). These combined PoC molecular and hardware tools may help to limit community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Canada , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-4, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747311

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant is highly transmissible, and current vaccines may have reduced effectiveness in preventing symptomatic infection. Using epidemiological and genomic analyses, we investigated an outbreak of the variant in an acute-care setting among partially and fully vaccinated individuals. Effective outbreak control was achieved using standard measures.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329396

ABSTRACT

Continued waves, new variants, and limited vaccine deployment mean that SARS-CoV-2 tests remain vital to constrain the COVID-19 pandemic. Affordable, point-of-care (PoC) tests allow rapid screening in non-medical settings. Reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is an appealing approach. A crucial step is to optimize testing in low/medium resource settings. Here, we optimized RT-LAMP for SARS-CoV-2 and human β-actin, and tested clinical samples in multiple countries. “TTTT” linker primers did not improve performance, and while guanidine hydrochloride, betaine and/or Igepal-CA-630 enhanced detection of synthetic RNA, only the latter two improved direct assays on nasopharygeal samples. With extracted clinical RNA, a 20 min RT-LAMP assay was essentially as sensitive as RT-PCR. With raw Canadian nasopharygeal samples, sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 67.6% - 100%) for those with RT-qPCR Ct values ≤ 25, and 80% (95% CI: 58.4% - 91.9%) for those with 25 < Ct ≤ 27.2. Highly infectious, high titer cases were also detected in Colombian and Ecuadorian labs. We further demonstrate the utility of replacing thermocyclers with a portable PoC device (FluoroPLUM). These combined PoC molecular and hardware tools may help to limit community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0068121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691411

ABSTRACT

The N501Y amino acid mutation caused by a single point substitution A23063T in the spike gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is possessed by three variants of concern (VOCs), B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1. A rapid screening tool using this mutation is important for surveillance during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We developed and validated a single nucleotide polymorphism real-time reverse transcription PCR assay using allelic discrimination of the spike gene N501Y mutation to screen for potential variants of concern and differentiate them from SARS-CoV-2 lineages without the N501Y mutation. A total of 160 clinical specimens positive for SARS-CoV-2 were characterized as mutant (N501Y) or N501 wild type by Sanger sequencing and were subsequently tested with the N501Y single nucleotide polymorphism real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Our assay, compared to Sanger sequencing for single nucleotide polymorphism detection, demonstrated positive percent agreement of 100% for all 57 specimens displaying the N501Y mutation, which were confirmed by Sanger sequencing to be typed as A23063T, including one specimen with mixed signal for wild type and mutant. Negative percent agreement was 100% in all 103 specimens typed as N501 wild type, with A23063 identified as wild type by Sanger sequencing. The identification of circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages carrying an N501Y mutation is critical for surveillance purposes. Current identification methods rely primarily on Sanger sequencing or whole-genome sequencing, which are time consuming, labor intensive, and costly. The assay described herein is an efficient tool for high-volume specimen screening for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and for selecting specimens for confirmatory Sanger or whole-genome sequencing. IMPORTANCE During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several variants of concern (VOCs) have been detected, for example, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.617.2. The VOCs pose a threat to public health efforts to control the spread of the virus. As such, surveillance and monitoring of these VOCs is of the utmost importance. Our real-time RT-PCR assay helps with surveillance by providing an easy method to quickly survey SARS-CoV-2 specimens for VOCs carrying the N501Y single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Samples that test positive for the N501Y mutation in the spike gene with our assay can be sequenced to identify the lineage. Thus, our assay helps to focus surveillance efforts and decrease turnaround times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mutation, Missense , Point Mutation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Alleles , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genes, Viral , Humans , Mass Screening , Ontario/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 60(5): 771-777, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Widespread SARS-CoV-2 testing is invaluable for identifying asymptomatic/pre-symptomatic individuals. There remains a technological gap for highly reliable, easy, and quick SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests suitable for frequent mass testing. Compared to nasopharyngeal (NP) swab-based tests, saliva-based methods are attractive due to easier and safer sampling. Current saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen tests (RATs) are hindered by limited analytical sensitivity. Here, we report one of the first ultrasensitive, saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 antigen assays with an analytical sensitivity of <0.32 pg/mL, corresponding to four viral RNA copies/µL, which is comparable to that of PCR-based tests. METHODS: Using the novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based immunoassay, we measured the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigen concentration in 105 salivas, obtained from non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 patients. We then verified the results with a second, independent cohort of 689 patients (3.8% SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate). We also compared our method with a widely used point-of-care rapid test. RESULTS: In the first cohort, at 100% specificity, the sensitivity was 92%. Our assay correctly identified samples with viral loads up to 35 CT cycles by saliva-based PCR. Paired NP swab-based PCR results were obtained for 86 cases. Our assay showed high concordance with saliva-based and NP swab-based PCR in samples with negative (<0.32 pg/mL) and strongly positive (>2 pg/mL) N antigen concentrations. In the second cohort, at 100% specificity, sensitivity was also 92%. Our assay is about 700-fold more sensitive than the Abbott Panbio Rapid Test. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the ultrasensitivity and specificity assay and its concordance with PCR. This novel assay is especially valuable when compliance to frequent swabbing may be problematic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saliva , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322458

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is a well-established strategy for the prevention of infectious diseases, in which recently exposed people take a short course of medication to prevent infection. The primary objective of the COVID-19 Ring-based Prevention Trial with lopinavir/ritonavir (CORIPREV-LR) is to evaluate the efficacy of a 14-day course of oral lopinavir/ritonavir as PEP against COVID-19 among individuals with a high-risk exposure to a confirmed case. Methods: : This is an open-label, multicenter, 1:1 cluster-randomized trial of LPV/r versus no intervention, using an adaptive approach to sample size calculation. Participants will be individuals aged >6 months with a high-risk exposure to a confirmed COVID-19 case within the past 7 days. A combination of remote and in-person study visits at days 1, 7, 14, 35 and 90 include comprehensive epidemiological, clinical, microbiologic and serologic sampling. The primary outcome is microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection within 14 days after exposure, defined as a positive respiratory tract specimen for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction. Secondary outcomes include safety, symptomatic COVID-19, seropositivity, hospitalization, respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, mortality, psychological impact, and health-related quality of life. Additional analyses will examine the impact of LPV/r on these outcomes in the subset of participants who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 at baseline. To detect a relative risk reduction of 40% with 80% power at α=0.05, assuming p 0 =15%, 5 contacts per case and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.05, we require 110 clusters per arm, or 220 clusters overall and approximately 1220 enrollees after accounting for 10% loss-to-follow-up. We will modify the sample size target after 60 clusters, based on preliminary estimates of p0, ICC and cluster size and consider switching to an alternative drug after interim analyses and as new data emerges. The primary analysis will be a generalized linear mixed model with logit link to estimate the effect of LPV/r on the probability of infection. Discussion: Harnessing safe, existing drugs such as LPV/r as PEP could provide an important tool for control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Novel aspects of our design include the ring-based prevention approach, and the incorporation of remote strategies for conducting study visits and biospecimen collection. Trial registration: This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04321174) on March 25, 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04321174

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306015

ABSTRACT

Population scale sweeps of viral pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2, require high intensity testing for effective management. This protocol describes the “Systematic Parallel Analysis of RNA coupled to Sequencing for Covid-19 screening” (C19-SPAR-Seq), a multiplexed, scalable, readily automated platform for SARS-CoV-2 detection that is capable of analyzing tens of thousands of patient samples in a single run. To address strict requirements for control of assay parameters and output demanded by clinical diagnostics, we employed a control-based Precision-Recall and Receiver Operator Characteristics (coPR) analysis to assign run-specific quality control metrics. C19-SPAR-Seq coupled to coPR on a trial cohort of several hundred patients performed with a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 91% on samples with low viral loads, and a sensitivity of > 95% on high viral loads associated with disease onset and peak transmissibility. This study establishes the feasibility of employing C19-SPAR-Seq for the large-scale monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens.

13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-5, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Performance characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection assays are understudied within contexts of low pre-test probability, including screening asymptomatic persons without epidemiological links to confirmed cases, or asymptomatic surveillance testing. SARS-CoV-2 detection without symptoms may represent presymptomatic or asymptomatic infection, resolved infection with persistent RNA shedding, or a false-positive test. This study assessed the positive predictive value of SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays by retesting positive specimens from 5 pre-test probability groups ranging from high to low with an alternate assay. METHODS: In total, 122 rRT-PCR positive specimens collected from unique patients between March and July 2020 were retested using a laboratory-developed nested RT-PCR assay targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene followed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Significantly fewer (15.6%) positive results in the lowest pre-test probability group (facilities with institution-wide screening having ≤3 positive asymptomatic cases) were reproduced with the nested RdRp gene RT-PCR assay than in each of the 4 groups with higher pre-test probability (individual group range, 50.0%-85.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale SARS-CoV-2 screening testing initiatives among low pre-test probability populations should be evaluated thoroughly prior to implementation given the risk of false-positive results and consequent potential for harm at the individual and population level.

14.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052842, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448019

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is considerable variability in symptoms and severity of COVID-19 among patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Linking host and virus genome sequence information to antibody response and biological information may identify patient or viral characteristics associated with poor and favourable outcomes. This study aims to (1) identify characteristics of the antibody response that result in maintained immune response and better outcomes, (2) determine the impact of genetic differences on infection severity and immune response, (3) determine the impact of viral lineage on antibody response and patient outcomes and (4) evaluate patient-reported outcomes of receiving host genome, antibody and viral lineage results. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective, observational cohort study is being conducted among adult patients with COVID-19 in the Greater Toronto Area. Blood samples are collected at baseline (during infection) and 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Serial antibody titres, isotype, antigen target and viral neutralisation will be assessed. Clinical data will be collected from chart reviews and patient surveys. Host genomes and T-cell and B-cell receptors will be sequenced. Viral genomes will be sequenced to identify viral lineage. Regression models will be used to test associations between antibody response, physiological response, genetic markers and patient outcomes. Pathogenic genomic variants related to disease severity, or negative outcomes will be identified and genome wide association will be conducted. Immune repertoire diversity during infection will be correlated with severity of COVID-19 symptoms and human leucocyte antigen-type associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants can learn their genome sequencing, antibody and viral sequencing results; patient-reported outcomes of receiving this information will be assessed through surveys and qualitative interviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by Clinical Trials Ontario Streamlined Ethics Review System (CTO Project ID: 3302) and the research ethics boards at participating hospitals. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and end-users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 724, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387326

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in cell-free synthetic biology have given rise to gene circuit-based sensors with the potential to provide decentralized and low-cost molecular diagnostics. However, it remains a challenge to deliver this sensing capacity into the hands of users in a practical manner. Here, we leverage the glucose meter, one of the most widely available point-of-care sensing devices, to serve as a universal reader for these decentralized diagnostics. We describe a molecular translator that can convert the activation of conventional gene circuit-based sensors into a glucose output that can be read by off-the-shelf glucose meters. We show the development of new glucogenic reporter systems, multiplexed reporter outputs and detection of nucleic acid targets down to the low attomolar range. Using this glucose-meter interface, we demonstrate the detection of a small-molecule analyte; sample-to-result diagnostics for typhoid, paratyphoid A/B; and show the potential for pandemic response with nucleic acid sensors for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Glucose/analysis , Nucleic Acids/analysis , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Typhoid Fever/blood , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253941, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304461

ABSTRACT

Accurate SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis is essential to guide prevention and control of COVID-19. Here we examine SARS-CoV-2 molecular-based test performance characteristics and summarize case-level data related to COVID-19 diagnosis. From January 11 through April 22, 2020, Public Health Ontario conducted SARS-CoV-2 testing of 86,942 specimens collected from 80,354 individuals, primarily using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) methods. We analyzed test results across specimen types and for individuals with multiple same-day and multi-day collected specimens. Nasopharyngeal compared to throat swabs had a higher positivity (8.8% vs. 4.8%) and an adjusted estimate 2.9 Ct lower (SE = 0.5, p<0.001). Same-day specimens showed high concordance (98.8%), and the median Ct of multi-day specimens increased over time. Symptomatic cases had rRT-PCR results with an adjusted estimate 3.0 Ct (SE = 0.5, p<0.001) lower than asymptomatic/pre-symptomatic cases. Overall test sensitivity was 84.6%, with a negative predictive value of 95.5%. Molecular testing is the mainstay of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and testing protocols will continue to be dynamic and iteratively modified as more is learned about this emerging pathogen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology
18.
Virol J ; 18(1): 99, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sensitive, rapid, and accessible diagnostics continue to be critical to track the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. RT-qPCR is the gold standard test, and comparison of methodologies and reagents, utilizing patient samples, is important to establish reliable diagnostic pipelines. METHODS: Here, we assessed indirect methods that require RNA extraction with direct RT-qPCR on patient samples. Four different RNA extraction kits (Qiagen, Invitrogen, BGI and Norgen Biotek) were compared. For detection, we assessed two recently developed Taqman-based modules (BGI and Norgen Biotek), a SYBR green-based approach (NEB Luna Universal One-Step Kit) with published and newly-developed primers, and clinical results (Seegene STARMag RNA extraction system and Allplex 2019-nCoV RT-qPCR assay). We also tested and optimized direct, extraction-free detection using these RT-qPCR systems and performed a cost analysis of the different methods evaluated here. RESULTS: Most RNA isolation procedures performed similarly, and while all RT-qPCR modules effectively detected purified viral RNA, the BGI system provided overall superior performance (lower detection limit, lower Ct values and higher sensitivity), generating comparable results to original clinical diagnostic data, and identifying samples ranging from 65 copies to 2.1 × 105 copies of viral genome/µl. However, the BGI detection system is more expensive than other options tested here. With direct RT-qPCR, simply adding an RNase inhibitor greatly improved detection, without the need for any other treatments (e.g. lysis buffers or boiling). The best direct methods detected ~ 10 fold less virus than indirect methods, but this simplified approach reduced sample handling, as well as assay time and cost. CONCLUSIONS: With extracted RNA, the BGI RT-qPCR detection system exhibited superior performance over the Norgen system, matching initial clinical diagnosis with the Seegene Allplex assay. The BGI system was also suitable for direct, extraction-free analysis, providing 78.4% sensitivity. The Norgen system, however, still accurately detected samples with a clinical Ct < 33 from extracted RNA, provided significant cost savings, and was superior to SYBR green assays that exhibited reduced specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218209

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide variation in SARS-CoV-2 reveals evolution and transmission dynamics which are critical considerations for disease control and prevention decisions. Here, we review estimates of the genome-wide viral mutation rates, summarize current COVID-19 case load in the province of Ontario, Canada (5 January 2021), and analyze published SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Ontario (collected prior to 24 November 2020) to test for more infectious genetic variants or lineages. The reported mutation rate (∼10-6 nucleotide [nt]-1 cycle-1) for SARS-CoV-2 is typical for coronaviruses. Analysis of published SARS-CoV-2 genomes revealed that the G614 spike protein mutation has dominated infections in Ontario and that SARS-CoV-2 lineages present in Ontario have not differed significantly in their rate of spread. These results suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 population circulating in Ontario has not changed significantly to date. However, ongoing genome monitoring is essential for identification of new variants and lineages that may contribute to increased viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Base Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Ontario , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, RNA
20.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 681-683, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171738

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To present a a case study that aims to investigate the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the ocular tissue samples of a patient previously infected with COVID-19 and determine its transmissibility.Study Design: Case ReportResults: In this case study, SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in the vitreous and uveal tissue samples by RT-PCR for detection of three gene targets in a patient with a past COVID-19 infection 15 days prior to presention with a globe rupture.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients with long-term existence of SARS-CoV-2 at low detectable levels may not have active intraocular viral shedding. This is of particular importance as ophthalmic surgical procedures may potentiate virus spread from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Uvea/virology , Vitreous Body/virology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/etiology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Humans , Specimen Handling , Virus Shedding
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