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1.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 108, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993373

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is complex and not fully understood. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) may activate platelets and interact with fibrin(ogen). We aimed to investigate whether isolated SP can be present in clots retrieved in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke (by mechanical thrombectomy) and myocardial infarction. In this pilot study, we could detect SP, but not nucleocapsid protein, on platelets of COVID-19 patients' thrombi. In addition, in all three COVID-19 thrombi analyzed for molecular biology, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These data could support the hypothesis that free SP, besides the whole virus, may be the trigger of platelet activation and clot formation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism
2.
Cells ; 11(16):2480, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1979130

ABSTRACT

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a specific biomarker of neuro-axonal damage. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent enzymes involved in blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity. We explored neuro-axonal damage, alteration of BBB integrity and SARS-CoV-2 RNA presence in COVID-19 patients with severe neurological symptoms (neuro-COVID) as well as neuro-axonal damage in COVID-19 patients without severe neurological symptoms according to disease severity and after recovery, comparing the obtained findings with healthy donors (HD). Overall, COVID-19 patients (n = 55) showed higher plasma NfL levels compared to HD (n = 31) (p < 0.0001), especially those who developed ARDS (n = 28) (p = 0.0005). After recovery, plasma NfL levels were still higher in ARDS patients compared to HD (p = 0.0037). In neuro-COVID patients (n = 12), higher CSF and plasma NfL, and CSF MMP-2 levels in ARDS than non-ARDS group were observed (p = 0.0357, p = 0.0346 and p = 0.0303, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in four CSF and two plasma samples. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection was not associated to increased CSF NfL and MMP levels. During COVID-19, ARDS could be associated to CNS damage and alteration of BBB integrity in the absence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in CSF or blood. CNS damage was still detectable after discharge in blood of COVID-19 patients who developed ARDS during hospitalization.

3.
The New Microbiologica ; 45(1):62, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970754

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy might be effective in patients with haematological malignancies and B-cell depletion. We report a single-centre experience of COVID-19 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and absence of B-cells as a consequence of anti-CD20 therapy successfully treated with CP from October 2020 to May 2021. CP was given in the presence of pneumonia with respiratory failure despite standard treatment and consisted of three infusions on an alternate-day basis. A review of the current literature on this topic was also performed. Six patients were identified (median age 59.5 years (range 50-73)). The last anti-CD20 drug administration occurred 60 days before infection (range 0-360). CP was administered after a median of 51 days (range 9-120) from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, with an early improvement in all but one subject. We suggest a possible clinical benefit of convalescent CP treatment in COVID-19 patients with haematological malignancies and B-cell depletion having persistent/recurrent pneumonia.

4.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 886-891, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898895

ABSTRACT

Italy was one of the most affected nations by coronavirus disease 2019 outside China. The infections, initially limited to Northern Italy, spread to all other Italian regions. This study aims to provide a snapshot of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemiology based on a single-center laboratory experience in Rome. The study retrospectively included 6565 subjects tested for SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of Virology of Sapienza University Hospital in Rome from 6 March to 4 May. A total of 9995 clinical specimens were analyzed, including nasopharyngeal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, gargle lavages, stools, pleural fluids, and cerebrospinal fluids. Positivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 8% (527/6565) of individuals, increased with age, and was higher in male patients (P < .001). The number of new confirmed cases reached a peak on 18 March and then decreased. The virus was detected in respiratory samples, in stool and in pleural fluids, while none of gargle lavage or cerebrospinal fluid samples gave a positive result. This analysis allowed to gather comprehensive information on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology in our area, highlighting positivity variations over time and in different sex and age group and the need for a continuous surveillance of the infection, mostly because the pandemic evolution remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Feces/virology , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pleural Effusion/virology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335499

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is complex and not fully understood. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) may activate platelets and interacts with fibrin(ogen). We aimed to investigate the possible evidence of isolated SP in clots retrieved in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke (by mechanical thrombectomy) and myocardial infarction. In this pilot study we could detect SP, but not nucleocapsid protein, on platelets of COVID-19 + patients’ thrombi. In addition, in all the three COVID-19 + thrombi analyzed for molecular biology, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected by real time-polymerase chain reaction. These data confirm the hypothesis that free SP besides the whole virus, may be the trigger of platelet activation and clot formation in COVID-19.

6.
J Virol Methods ; 298: 114276, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401673

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical performance of FTD SARS-CoV-2 compared to the RealStar RT-PCR kit 1.0. The analysis of 100 nasopharyngeal swabs showed an overall agreement of 88 %. The positive percentage agreement was 85.6 % and the negative percentage agreement was 91 %. In conclusion we observed a substantial agreement among the two methods, with discrepancies mainly observed in specimens with relatively low amount of viral RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frontotemporal Dementia , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 886-891, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196414

ABSTRACT

Italy was one of the most affected nations by coronavirus disease 2019 outside China. The infections, initially limited to Northern Italy, spread to all other Italian regions. This study aims to provide a snapshot of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemiology based on a single-center laboratory experience in Rome. The study retrospectively included 6565 subjects tested for SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of Virology of Sapienza University Hospital in Rome from 6 March to 4 May. A total of 9995 clinical specimens were analyzed, including nasopharyngeal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, gargle lavages, stools, pleural fluids, and cerebrospinal fluids. Positivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 8% (527/6565) of individuals, increased with age, and was higher in male patients (P < .001). The number of new confirmed cases reached a peak on 18 March and then decreased. The virus was detected in respiratory samples, in stool and in pleural fluids, while none of gargle lavage or cerebrospinal fluid samples gave a positive result. This analysis allowed to gather comprehensive information on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology in our area, highlighting positivity variations over time and in different sex and age group and the need for a continuous surveillance of the infection, mostly because the pandemic evolution remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Feces/virology , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pleural Effusion/virology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Virus Res ; 295: 198283, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009920

ABSTRACT

The natural course of type I and III interferon (IFN) response in the respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients needs to be better defined. We showed that type I/III IFNs, IFN-regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), and IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), are highly expressed in the oropharyngeal cells of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients compared to healthy controls. Notably, the subgroup of critically-ill patients that required invasive mechanical ventilation had a general decrease in expression of IFN/ISG genes. Heterogeneous patterns of IFN-I/III response in the respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients may be associated to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Oropharynx/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Andrology ; 9(1): 23-26, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-377963

ABSTRACT

Great concerns have been raised on SARS-CoV-2 impact on men's andrological well-being, and one of the critically unanswered questions is whether it is present or not in the seminal fluid of infected subjects. The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the testis and in the male genital tract allows speculations about a possible testicular involvement during the infection, possibly mediated by local and/or systemic inflammation that might allow a high viral load to overcome the hemato-testicular barrier. To date, few investigations have been carried out to ascertain the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the seminal fluid with contrasting results. Furthermore, the cumulative number of subjects is far too low to answer the question unambiguously. Therefore, great caution is still needed when evaluating this data; otherwise, we risk unleashing unmotivated concerns in the scientific world with troublesome consequences in reproductive medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Semen/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Semen Analysis
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