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One Health ; 14: 100371, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900050


Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, global efforts to respond to and control COVID-19 have varied widely with some countries, including Australia, successfully containing local transmission, and minimising negative impacts to health and economies. Over this time, global awareness of climate variability due to climate change and the risk factors for emerging infectious diseases transmission has increased alongside an understanding of the inextricable relationship between the health of the environment, humans, and animals. Overall, the global response to the current pandemic suggests there is an urgent need for a One Health approach in controlling and preventing future pandemics, through developing integrated, dynamic, spatiotemporal early warning systems based on a One Health approach for emerging infectious diseases.

Exp Results ; 2: e15, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287728


COVID-19 is causing a significant burden on medical and healthcare resources globally due to high numbers of hospitalisations and deaths recorded as the pandemic continues. This research aims to assess the effects of climate factors (i.e., daily average temperature and average relative humidity) on effective reproductive number of COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China during the early stage of the outbreak. Our research showed that effective reproductive number of COVID-19 will increase by 7.6% (95% Confidence Interval: 5.4% ~ 9.8%) per 1°C drop in mean temperature at prior moving average of 0-8 days lag in Wuhan, China. Our results indicate temperature was negatively associated with COVID-19 transmissibility during early stages of the outbreak in Wuhan, suggesting temperature is likely to effect COVID-19 transmission. These results suggest increased precautions should be taken in the colder seasons to reduce COVID-19 transmission in the future, based on past success in controlling the pandemic in Wuhan, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011555


Weather and climate play a significant role in infectious disease transmission, through changes to transmission dynamics, host susceptibility and virus survival in the environment. Exploring the association of weather variables and COVID-19 transmission is vital in understanding the potential for seasonality and future outbreaks and developing early warning systems. Previous research examined the effects of weather on COVID-19, but the findings appeared inconsistent. This review aims to summarize the currently available literature on the association between weather and COVID-19 incidence and provide possible suggestions for developing weather-based early warning system for COVID-19 transmission. Studies eligible for inclusion used ecological methods to evaluate associations between weather (i.e., temperature, humidity, wind speed and rainfall) and COVID-19 transmission. The review showed that temperature was reported as significant in the greatest number of studies, with COVID-19 incidence increasing as temperature decreased and the highest incidence reported in the temperature range of 0-17 °C. Humidity was also significantly associated with COVID-19 incidence, though the reported results were mixed, with studies reporting positive and negative correlation. A significant interaction between humidity and temperature was also reported. Wind speed and rainfall results were not consistent across studies. Weather variables including temperature and humidity can contribute to increased transmission of COVID-19, particularly in winter conditions through increased host susceptibility and viability of the virus. While there is less indication of an association with wind speed and rainfall, these may contribute to behavioral changes that decrease exposure and risk of infection. Understanding the implications of associations with weather variables and seasonal variations for monitoring and control of future outbreaks is essential for early warning systems.

COVID-19/transmission , Weather , Humans , Humidity , Incidence , Temperature