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1.
The American journal of cardiology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615312

ABSTRACT

Antecedent use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) prevents clinical deterioration and protects against cardiovascular/thrombotic complications of COVID-19, for indicated patients. Uncertainty exists regarding treatment continuation throughout infection and doing so with concomitant medications. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the differential effect of RASi continuation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 according to diuretic use. We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 4 regions of Italy. We used Firth logistic regression for adult (>50 years) cases with admission on/after February 22, 2020, with a known discharge status as of April 1, 2020. There were 286 patients in this analysis;100 patients (35.0%) continued RASi and 186 (65%) discontinued. There were 98 patients treated with a diuretic;51 (52%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 8% versus 26% (p = 0.0179). There were 188 patients not treated with a diuretic;49 (26%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients not treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 16% versus 9% (p = 0.1827). After accounting for age, cardiovascular disease, and laboratory values, continuing RASi decreased the risk of mortality by approximately 77% (odds ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.95, p = 0.0419) for patients treated with diuretics, but did not alter the risk in patients treated with RASi alone. Continuing RASi in patients concomitantly treated with diuretics was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.

2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935379, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate outcomes and hospitalization rates in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of early COVID-19 treated at home with prescribed and non-prescribed treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS The medical records of a cohort of 158 Italian patients with early COVID-19 treated at home were analyzed. Treatments consisted of indomethacin, low-dose aspirin, omeprazole, and a flavonoid-based food supplement, plus azithromycin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and betamethasone as needed. The association of treatment timeliness and of clinical variables with the duration of symptoms and with the risk of hospitalization was evaluated by logistic regression. RESULTS Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n=85) was treated at the earliest possible time (<72 h from onset of symptoms), and group 2 (n=73) was treated >72 h after the onset of symptoms. Clinical severity at the beginning of treatment was similar in the 2 groups. In group 1, symptom duration was shorter than in group 2 (median 6.0 days vs 13.0 days, P<0.001) and no hospitalizations occurred, compared with 19.18% hospitalizations in group 2. One patient in group 1 developed chest X-ray alterations and 2 patients experienced an increase in D-dimer levels, compared with 30 and 22 patients, respectively, in group 2. The main factor determining the duration of symptoms and the risk of hospitalization was the delay in starting therapy (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS This real-world study of patients in the community showed that early diagnosis and early supportive patient management reduced the severity of COVID-19 and reduced the rate of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Betamethasone/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Dietary Supplements , Early Diagnosis , Female , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Time , Treatment Outcome
3.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101011, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446553

ABSTRACT

The Publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated.

4.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 545-546, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439019
5.
Am J Med ; 134(4): e298, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382189
6.
Am J Med ; 134(5): e343-e344, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212345
7.
Am J Med ; 134(7): e440-e441, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306840
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 153: 110622, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270617

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world with tremendous morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In-hospital treatment addresses the multifaceted nature of the illness including initial viral replication, cytokine storm, and endothelial injury with thrombosis. We identified nine reports of early treatment outcomes in COVID-19 nursing home patients. Multi-drug therapy including hydroxychloroquine with one or more anti-infectives, corticosteroids, and antithrombotic anti-blood clotting agents can be extended to seniors in the nursing home setting without hospitalization. Data from nine studies found hydroxychloroquine-based multidrug regimens were associated with a statistically significant > 60% reduction in mortality. Going forward, we conclude that early empiric treatment for the elderly with COVID-19 in the nursing home setting (or similar congregated settings with elderly residents/patients e.g. LTF or ALF) has a reasonable probability of success and acceptable safety. This group remains our highest at-risk group and warrants acute treatment focus prior to symptoms worsening. Given the rapidity and severity of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in nursing homes, in-center treatment of acute COVID-19 patients is a reasonable strategy to reduce the risks of hospitalization and death. If elderly high-risk patients in such congregated nursing home type settings are allowed to worsen with no early treatment, they may be too sick and fragile to benefit from in-hospital therapeutics and are at risk for pulmonary failure, life-ending micro-thrombi of the lungs, kidneys etc. The issue is timing of therapeutics, and we argue that early treatment before hospitalization, is the right time and can potentially save lives, especially among our higher-risk elderly populations hit hardest by severe illness and death from COVID-19. We must reiterate, we are talking about 'early' treatment before the disease is far along in the disease sequelae where the patient then needs hospitalization and aggressive interventions. We are referring to the initial days e.g. day one, post infection when symptoms emerge or there is strong clinical suspicion. This early therapeutic option deserves serious and urgent consideration by the medical establishment and respective decision-makers. Doctors must be allowed their clinical discretion in how they optimally treat their patients. Doctors must be brave and trust their skilled judgements and do all to save the lives of their patients. We therefore hypothesize that early outpatient ambulatory treatment, once initiated as soon as symptoms begin in high-risk positive persons, would significantly reduce hospitalizations and prevent deaths. Specifically, the provision of early multi-drug sequenced therapy with repurposed drugs will reduce hospitalization and death in elderly patients being cared for in long-term-care facilities. The most important implications of our hypothesis are: 1) hospitalizations and deaths would be reduced 2) transmission would be reduced due to the mitigation of symptoms and 3) recovery following infection and treatment provides for natural exposure immunity that is broad based, durable, and robust (helping towards natural immunity within the population). The end result is reduced strain on hospitals and systems that would allow for other non-COVID illnesses to receive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Nursing Homes , Outpatients
10.
Am J Med ; 134(5): e346-e347, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269223
11.
Am J Med ; 134(3): e222-e223, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095073
13.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 34(4): 437-441, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160622

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and seroconversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic health care workers in the US is unclear. Our study utilized real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 testing and serological evaluation to detect IgG antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 antigens in asymptomatic health care workers. A total of 197 subjects with a mean age of 35 years were recruited into the study. While most (67%) reported prolonged contact with known COVID-19 patients, only 8 (4.2%) tested positive on RT-PCR and 23 (11.7%) had detectable levels of IgG antibody to SARS-CoV-2. Out of 19 subjects with detectable IgG antibody at week 1, 11 (57.9%) lost their antibody response by week 3. No statistically significant difference was found in baseline characteristics or exposure status between subjects with positive and negative results on RT-PCR or antibody positivity. In conclusion, we found a low incidence of PCR positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in a high-risk group. This likely demonstrates the effectiveness of proper personal protective equipment use and low transmission risk in health care settings. The detectable IgG antibody titer was low, and a significant portion of subjects lost their antibody response on repeat testing. This may mean that antibody response in asymptomatic patients is categorically different than in symptomatic hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

14.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 507-508, 2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112958
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 16-22, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095811

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the way patients seek medical attention and how medical services are provided. We sought to compare characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the pandemic compared with before it. This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of consecutive COVID-19 negative patients with AMI in Lithuania from March 11, 2020 to April 20, 2020 compared with patients admitted with the same diagnosis during the same period in 2019. All patients underwent angiography. Six-month follow-up was obtained for all patients. A total of 269 patients were included in this study, 107 (40.8%) of whom presented during the pandemic. Median pain-to-door times were significantly longer (858 [quartile 1=360, quartile 3 = 2,600] vs 385.5 [200, 745] minutes, p <0.0001) and post-revascularization ejection fractions were significantly lower (35 [30, 45] vs 45 [40, 50], p <0.0001) for patients presenting during vs. prior to the pandemic. While the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ, we observed a higher rate of six-month major adverse cardiovascular events for patients who presented during versus prior to the pandemic (30.8% vs 13.6%, p = 0.0006). In conclusion, 34% fewer patients with AMI presented to the hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic, and those who did waited longer to present and experienced more 6-month major adverse cardiovascular events compared with patients admitted before the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
16.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 34(2): 262-268, 2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050044

ABSTRACT

Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction contributes to COVID-19-associated vascular inflammation and coagulopathy, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor plays a role in EC dysfunction in COVID-19. To expand the understanding of the role of the ACE2 receptor relative to EC dysfunction, this review addresses (1) tissue distribution of the ACE2 protein and its mRNA expression in humans, (2) susceptibility of the capillary ECs to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and (3) the role of EC dysfunction relevant to ACE2 and nuclear factor-κB in COVID-19.

18.
Heart Fail Rev ; 26(4): 973-979, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009159

ABSTRACT

Observational studies suggest that a heart failure (HF) diagnosis carries a poor prognosis in subjects with severe SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) infection, but it is unknown whether this association reflects direct myocardial damage due to COVID-19 or the consequence of preexisting cardiac defects and related cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk burden. Although the close relation between CVD and COVID-19 outcomes is well established, contrasting data exists about the occurrence of HF complications during COVID-19 infection. Therefore, a specific algorithm focused on diagnostic differentiation in acute patients distinguishing between acute HF and acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 is needed. Further, several concerns exist for the management of patients with an uncertain diagnosis and acute dyspnea, the exact relationship existing between COVID-19 and HF. Therefore, the treatment for subjects with both COVID-19 and HF and which criteria may be defined for domiciliary or hospital management, remain poorly defined. Herein, we describe practices to be adopted in order to address these concerns and avoid further virus spread among patients, l and their familiars involved in such patients' care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Management , Dyspnea/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocardium/pathology
19.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 517-530, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005377

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading across the world has led to surges of COVID-19 illness, hospitalizations, and death. The complex and multifaceted pathophysiology of life-threatening COVID-19 illness including viral mediated organ damage, cytokine storm, and thrombosis warrants early interventions to address all components of the devastating illness. In countries where therapeutic nihilism is prevalent, patients endure escalating symptoms and without early treatment can succumb to delayed in-hospital care and death. Prompt early initiation of sequenced multidrug therapy (SMDT) is a widely and currently available solution to stem the tide of hospitalizations and death. A multipronged therapeutic approach includes 1) adjuvant nutraceuticals, 2) combination intracellular anti-infective therapy, 3) inhaled/oral corticosteroids, 4) antiplatelet agents/anticoagulants, 5) supportive care including supplemental oxygen, monitoring, and telemedicine. Randomized trials of individual, novel oral therapies have not delivered tools for physicians to combat the pandemic in practice. No single therapeutic option thus far has been entirely effective and therefore a combination is required at this time. An urgent immediate pivot from single drug to SMDT regimens should be employed as a critical strategy to deal with the large numbers of acute COVID-19 patients with the aim of reducing the intensity and duration of symptoms and avoiding hospitalization and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans
20.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 611-614, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005376

ABSTRACT

There is an emergency need for early ambulatory treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in acutely ill patients in an attempt to reduce disease progression and the risks of hospitalization and death. Such management should be applied in high-risk patients age > 50 years or with one or more medical problems including cardiovascular disease. We evaluated a total of 922 outpatients from March to September 2020. All patients underwent contemporary real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay tests from anterior nasal swab samples. Patients age 50.5 ± 13.7 years (range 12 to 89), 61.6% women, at moderate or high risk for COVID-19 received empiric management via telemedicine. At least two agents with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 (zinc, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin) and one antibiotic (azithromycin, doxycycline, ceftriaxone) were used along with inhaled budesonide and/or intramuscular dexamethasone consistent with the emergent science on early COVID-19 treatment. For patients with high severity of symptoms, urgent in-clinic administration of albuterol nebulizer, inhaled budesonide, and intravenous volume expansion with supplemental parenteral thiamine 500 mg, magnesium sulfate 4 grams, folic acid 1 gram, vitamin B12 1 mg. A total of 320/922 (34.7%) were treated resulting in 6/320 (1.9%) and 1/320 (0.3%) patients that were hospitalized and died, respectively. We conclude that early ambulatory (not hospitalized, treated at home), multidrug therapy is safe, feasible, and associated with low rates of hospitalization and death. Early treatment should be considered for high-risk patients as an emergency measure while we await randomized trials and guidelines for ambulatory management.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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