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1.
ATS Sch ; 3(1): 99-111, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929097

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent advances in device technology and image analysis software used to assess the sublingual microcirculation have expanded clinicians' understanding of hemodynamics beyond assessments of blood pressure and end-organ function to provide unique insight into blood flow at the tissue level. Similarly, significant advances in virtual education and telemedicine have transpired recently, especially during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the training of clinicians to acquire microcirculation images continues to rely on in-person instruction, which can be limited by available local expertise and resources, as well as geographic access to instructors. Objective: Our project aimed to test the feasibility of deploying an online curriculum in combination with tele-guidance versus an in-person guided approach to instruct novices to understand basic principle of microcirculatory function and to acquire sublingual microcirculatory images. Methods: After participating in brief didactics, 14 participants were divided into two groups to acquire microcirculatory images on a healthy volunteer. Each participant either 1) obtained images after an in-person demonstration or 2) obtained images with tele-guidance by using FaceTime technology. We recorded individual microcirculation quality scores, necessary time to acquire each image, percentage of correct theoretical questions on assessments, participant satisfaction with the curriculum, and participants' degree of confidence with image acquisition. Results: Participants' image quality scores (14.7 vs. 23.6, P = 0.3) and time to acquire images (191.2 vs. 199.4 s) did not significantly differ. In addition, participants' scores on theoretical knowledge assessments improved over the course of training (19.0% vs. 54.8%, P < 0.05). Conclusion: This feasibility study provides a novel framework for how to successfully deploy asynchronous education and telemedicine to direct novices to acquire sublingual microcirculatory images. Using technological advances to teach microcirculation may enhance wide-scale adoption of a promising clinical monitoring tool for critically ill patients.

2.
J Crit Care ; 67: 66-71, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565593

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hydroxocobalamin has been observed to cause transient hypertension in healthy subjects, but rigorous studies examining its efficacy are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults in shock who received hydroxocobalamin from 2017 to 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. Hourly hemodynamics from 24 h before and after treatment were collected, and the difference and hourly change of mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and norepinephrine-equivalent dose (NED) were examined in mixed-effects models. RESULTS: This study included 3992 hemodynamic data points from 35 patients and is the largest case series to date. In the mixed effects model, there was no difference in MAP 24-h after hydroxocobalamin administration (estimated fixed effect [EFE] -0.2 mmHg, p = 0.89). A two-piecewise mixed model found that the hourly change in MAP was not different from zero in either the pre-administration (EFE 0.0 mmHg/h, p = 0.80) or post-administration segments (EFE 0.0 mmHg/h, p = 0.55). Analysis of the SBP, DBP, and NED also found similar insignificant results. CONCLUSIONS: Although hydroxocobalamin has been observed to cause hypertension in healthy subjects, our results suggest that in patients with shock, hydroxocobalamin may not be effective in improving hemodynamics at 24 h after administration.


Subject(s)
Hydroxocobalamin , Hypotension , Adult , Blood Pressure , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hydroxocobalamin/pharmacology , Hydroxocobalamin/therapeutic use , Hypotension/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(14)2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The treatment of COVID-19 patients with heparin is not always effective in preventing thrombotic complications, but can also be associated with bleeding complications, suggesting a balanced approach to anticoagulation is needed. A prior pilot study supported that thromboelastography and conventional coagulation tests could predict hemorrhage in COVID-19 in patients treated with unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin, but did not evaluate the risk of thrombosis. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study included 79 severely ill COVID-19 patients anticoagulated with intermediate or therapeutic dose unfractionated heparin. Two stepwise logistic regression models were performed with bleeding or thrombosis as the dependent variable, and thromboelastography parameters and conventional coagulation tests as the independent variables. RESULTS: Among all 79 patients, 12 (15.2%) had bleeding events, and 20 (25.3%) had thrombosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a prediction model for bleeding (adjusted R2 = 0.787, p < 0.001) comprised of increased reaction time (p = 0.016), decreased fibrinogen (p = 0.006), decreased D-dimer (p = 0.063), and increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.084). Multivariate analysis of thrombosis identified a weak prediction model (adjusted R2 = 0.348, p < 0.001) comprised of increased D-dimer (p < 0.001), decreased reaction time (p = 0.002), increased maximum amplitude (p < 0.001), and decreased alpha angle (p = 0.014). Adjunctive thromboelastography decreased the use of packed red cells (p = 0.031) and fresh frozen plasma (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly, this study demonstrates the need for a precision-based titration strategy of anticoagulation for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Since severely ill COVID-19 patients may switch between thrombotic or hemorrhagic phenotypes or express both simultaneously, institutions may reduce these complications by developing their own titration strategy using daily conventional coagulation tests with adjunctive thromboelastography.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 930-941, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability and increased thrombotic risk in critically ill patients. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated whether aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study of adult patients admitted with COVID-19 to multiple hospitals in the United States between March 2020 and July 2020 was performed. The primary outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for study outcomes were calculated using Cox-proportional hazards models after adjustment for the effects of demographics and comorbid conditions. RESULTS: Four hundred twelve patients were included in the study. Three hundred fourteen patients (76.3%) did not receive aspirin, while 98 patients (23.7%) received aspirin within 24 hours of admission or 7 days before admission. Aspirin use had a crude association with less mechanical ventilation (35.7% aspirin versus 48.4% nonaspirin, P = .03) and ICU admission (38.8% aspirin versus 51.0% nonaspirin, P = .04), but no crude association with in-hospital mortality (26.5% aspirin versus 23.2% nonaspirin, P = .51). After adjusting for 8 confounding variables, aspirin use was independently associated with decreased risk of mechanical ventilation (adjusted HR, 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.85, P = .007), ICU admission (adjusted HR, 0.57, 95% CI, 0.38-0.85, P = .005), and in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR, 0.53, 95% CI, 0.31-0.90, P = .02). There were no differences in major bleeding (P = .69) or overt thrombosis (P = .82) between aspirin users and nonaspirin users. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin use may be associated with improved outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, a sufficiently powered randomized controlled trial is needed to assess whether a causal relationship exists between aspirin use and reduced lung injury and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Patient Admission , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 106, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented pressure on healthcare system globally. Lack of high-quality evidence on the respiratory management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory failure (C-ARF) has resulted in wide variation in clinical practice. METHODS: Using a Delphi process, an international panel of 39 experts developed clinical practice statements on the respiratory management of C-ARF in areas where evidence is absent or limited. Agreement was defined as achieved when > 70% experts voted for a given option on the Likert scale statement or > 80% voted for a particular option in multiple-choice questions. Stability was assessed between the two concluding rounds for each statement, using the non-parametric Chi-square (χ2) test (p < 0·05 was considered as unstable). RESULTS: Agreement was achieved for 27 (73%) management strategies which were then used to develop expert clinical practice statements. Experts agreed that COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is clinically similar to other forms of ARDS. The Delphi process yielded strong suggestions for use of systemic corticosteroids for critical COVID-19; awake self-proning to improve oxygenation and high flow nasal oxygen to potentially reduce tracheal intubation; non-invasive ventilation for patients with mixed hypoxemic-hypercapnic respiratory failure; tracheal intubation for poor mentation, hemodynamic instability or severe hypoxemia; closed suction systems; lung protective ventilation; prone ventilation (for 16-24 h per day) to improve oxygenation; neuromuscular blocking agents for patient-ventilator dyssynchrony; avoiding delay in extubation for the risk of reintubation; and similar timing of tracheostomy as in non-COVID-19 patients. There was no agreement on positive end expiratory pressure titration or the choice of personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: Using a Delphi method, an agreement among experts was reached for 27 statements from which 20 expert clinical practice statements were derived on the respiratory management of C-ARF, addressing important decisions for patient management in areas where evidence is either absent or limited. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT04534569.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Humans
6.
Anesth Analg ; 131(3): e171, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102362
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953393

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Real-time remote tele-mentored echocardiography (RTMUS echo) involves the transmission of clinical ultrasound (CU) cardiac images with direct feedback from a CU expert at a different location. In this review, we summarize the current uses of RTMUS to diagnose and manage cardiovascular dysfunction and discuss expanded and future uses. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature search (PubMed and EMBase) to access articles related to RTMUS echo. We reviewed articles for selection using Covidence, a web-based tool for managing systematic reviews and data were extracted using a separate standardized collection form. Results: Our search yielded 15 articles. Twelve of these articles demonstrated the feasibility of having a novice sonographer mentored by a tele-expert in obtaining a variety of cardiac ultrasound views. The articles discussed different technological specifications for the RTMUS system, but all showed that adequate images were able to be obtained. Overall, RTMUS echo was found to be a positive intervention that contributed to patient care. Conclusion: RTMUS echo allows for rapid access to diagnostic imaging in various clinical settings. RTMUS echo can help in assessing patients that may require a higher level of isolation precautions or in other resource-constrained environments. In the future, identifying the least expensive way to utilize RTMUS echo will be important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computer Systems , Echocardiography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mentoring/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Anesthesiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiology , Critical Care , Emergency Medicine , Humans , Patient Isolation , Point-of-Care Systems , Remote Consultation , Ultrasonography/methods
8.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(11): e0271, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We describe the key elements for a New York City health system to rapidly implement telecritical care consultative services to a newly created ICU during the coronavirus disease 2020 patient surge. DESIGN: This was a rapid quality-improvement initiative using public health decrees, a HIPAA-compliant and device-agnostic telemedicine patform, and a group of out-of-state intensivist volunteers to enhance critical care support. Telecritical care volunteers initially provided on-demand consults but then shifted to round twice daily with housestaff in a 12-bed newly created ICU. SETTING: A 457-bed safety net hospital in the Bronx, NY, during the pandemic. SUBJECTS: The 12-bed newly created ICU was staffed by a telecritical care attending, a cardiology fellow, and internal medicine residents. INTERVENTION: Prior to the intervention, the ad hoc ICU was staffed by a cardiology fellow as the attending of record, with critical care support on demand. The intervention involved twice daily rounding with an out-of-state, volunteer intensivist. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Volunteers logged 352 encounters. Data from 26 unique encounters during the initial on-demand consult pilot study of tele-ICU support were recorded. The most common interventions were diagnostic test interpretation, ventilator management, and sedation change. The majority of housestaff felt the new tele-ICU service improved the quality of care of patients and decreased anxiety of taking care of complex patients. Likewise, the majority of volunteers expressed making significant alterations to care, and 100% believed critical care input was needed for these patients. The largest lessons learned centered around mandating the use of the telecritical care volunteers and integration into a structured format of rounding. CONCLUSIONS: The need for rapid implementation of ICUs during a major public health crisis can be challenging. Our pilot study supports the feasibility of using an out-of-state telecritical care service to support ICUs, particularly in areas where resources are limited.

9.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 930-941, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability and increased thrombotic risk in critically ill patients. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated whether aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study of adult patients admitted with COVID-19 to multiple hospitals in the United States between March 2020 and July 2020 was performed. The primary outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for study outcomes were calculated using Cox-proportional hazards models after adjustment for the effects of demographics and comorbid conditions. RESULTS: Four hundred twelve patients were included in the study. Three hundred fourteen patients (76.3%) did not receive aspirin, while 98 patients (23.7%) received aspirin within 24 hours of admission or 7 days before admission. Aspirin use had a crude association with less mechanical ventilation (35.7% aspirin versus 48.4% nonaspirin, P = .03) and ICU admission (38.8% aspirin versus 51.0% nonaspirin, P = .04), but no crude association with in-hospital mortality (26.5% aspirin versus 23.2% nonaspirin, P = .51). After adjusting for 8 confounding variables, aspirin use was independently associated with decreased risk of mechanical ventilation (adjusted HR, 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.85, P = .007), ICU admission (adjusted HR, 0.57, 95% CI, 0.38-0.85, P = .005), and in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR, 0.53, 95% CI, 0.31-0.90, P = .02). There were no differences in major bleeding (P = .69) or overt thrombosis (P = .82) between aspirin users and nonaspirin users. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin use may be associated with improved outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, a sufficiently powered randomized controlled trial is needed to assess whether a causal relationship exists between aspirin use and reduced lung injury and mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Patient Admission , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States
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