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1.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329294

ABSTRACT

Immune correlates of protection can be used as surrogate endpoints for vaccine efficacy. The nonhuman primate (NHP) model of SARS-CoV-2 infection replicates key features of human infection and may be used to define immune correlates of protection following vaccination. Here, NHP received either no vaccine or doses ranging from 0.3 - 100 mug of mRNA-1273, a mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-2P) protein encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle. mRNA-1273 vaccination elicited robust circulating and mucosal antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Viral replication was significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavages and nasal swabs following SARS-CoV-2 challenge in vaccinated animals and was most strongly correlated with levels of anti-S antibody binding and neutralizing activity. Consistent with antibodies being a correlate of protection, passive transfer of vaccine-induced IgG to naive hamsters was sufficient to mediate protection. Taken together, these data show that mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced humoral immune responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP. One-Sentence Summary: mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibody responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP.

2.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the Coronavirus Efficacy (COVE) trial, estimated mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) was 94%. SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurements were assessed as correlates of COVID-19 risk and as correlates of protection. METHODS: Through case-cohort sampling, participants were selected for measurement of four serum antibody markers at Day 1 (first dose), Day 29 (second dose), and Day 57: IgG binding antibodies (bAbs) to Spike, bAbs to Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), and 50% and 80% inhibitory dilution pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titers calibrated to the WHO International Standard (cID50 and cID80). Participants with no evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Cox regression assessed in vaccine recipients the association of each Day 29 or 57 serologic marker with COVID-19 through 126 or 100 days of follow-up, respectively, adjusting for risk factors. RESULTS: Day 57 Spike IgG, RBD IgG, cID50, and cID80 neutralization levels were each inversely correlated with risk of COVID-19: hazard ratios 0.66 (95% CI 0.50, 0.88;p=0.005);0.57 (0.40, 0.82;p=0.002);0.42 (0.27, 0.65;p<0.001);0.35 (0.20, 0.61;p<0.001) per 10-fold increase in marker level, respectively, multiplicity adjusted P-values 0.003-0.010. Results were similar for Day 29 markers (multiplicity adjusted P-values <0.001-0.003). For vaccine recipients with Day 57 reciprocal cID50 neutralization titers that were undetectable (<2.42), 100, or 1000, respectively, cumulative incidence of COVID-19 through 100 days post Day 57 was 0.030 (0.010, 0.093), 0.0056 (0.0039, 0.0080), and 0.0023 (0.0013, 0.0036). For vaccine recipients at these titer levels, respectively, vaccine efficacy was 50.8% (-51.2, 83.0%), 90.7% (86.7, 93.6%), and 96.1% (94.0, 97.8%). Causal mediation analysis estimated that the proportion of vaccine efficacy mediated through Day 29 cID50 titer was 68.5% (58.5, 78.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Binding and neutralizing antibodies correlated with COVID-19 risk and vaccine efficacy and likely have utility in predicting mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.

4.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-290553

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are key biomarkers considered to be associated with vaccine efficacy. In United States Government-sponsored phase 3 efficacy trials of COVID-19 vaccines, nAbs are measured by two different validated pseudovirus-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assays, with each trial using one of the two assays. Here we describe and compare the nAb titers obtained in the two assays. We observe that one assay consistently yielded higher nAb titers than the other when both assays were performed on the World Health Organizationa TMs anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin International Standard, COVID-19 convalescent sera, and mRNA-1273 vaccinee sera. To overcome the challenge this difference in readout poses in comparing/combining data from the two assays, we evaluate three calibration approaches and show that readouts from the two assays can be calibrated to a common scale. These results may aid decision-making based on data from these assays for the evaluation and licensure of new or adapted COVID-19 vaccines.

5.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-8066

ABSTRACT

One year into the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), effective treatments are still needed <sup>1-3</sup> . Monoclonal antibodies, given alone or as part of a therapeutic cocktail, have shown promising results in patients, raising the hope that they could play an important role in preventing clinical deterioration in severely ill or in exposed, high risk individuals <sup>4-6</sup> . Here, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18 in vivo , a neutralizing antibody isolated from a convalescent patient <sup>7</sup> and highly potent against the B.1.1.7. isolate <sup>8,9</sup> . In both prophylactic and therapeutic settings, SARS-CoV-2 remained undetectable in the lungs of COVA1-18 treated hACE2 mice. Therapeutic treatment also caused a dramatic reduction in viral loads in the lungs of Syrian hamsters. When administered at 10 mg kg <sup>- 1</sup> one day prior to a high dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques, COVA1-18 had a very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments with an estimated reduction in viral infectivity of more than 95%, and prevented lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions. Modelling and experimental findings demonstrate that COVA1-18 has a strong antiviral activity in three different preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.

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