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1.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 74, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228259

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are deployed worldwide, a comparative evaluation is important to underpin decision-making. We here report a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of Phase I/II/III human trials and non-human primates (NHP) studies, comparing reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy across different vaccine platforms for comparative evaluation (updated to March 22, 2021). Twenty-three NHP and 32 human studies are included. Vaccines result in mostly mild, self-limiting adverse events. Highest spike neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses are identified for the mRNA-1273-SARS-CoV and adjuvanted NVX-CoV2373-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. ChAdOx-SARS-CoV-2 produces the highest T cell ELISpot responses. Pre-existing nAb against vaccine viral vector are identified following AdH-5-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, halving immunogenicity. The mRNA vaccines depend on boosting to achieve optimal immunogenicity especially in the elderly. BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273 achieve >94%, rAd26/5 > 91% and ChAdOx-SARS-CoV-2 > 66.7% efficacy. Across different vaccine platforms there are trade-offs between antibody binding, functional nAb titers, T cell frequency, reactogenicity and efficacy. Emergence of variants makes rapid mass rollout of high efficacy vaccines essential to reduce any selective advantage.

2.
Australian Economic Review ; 53(3):415-428, 2020.
Article | Wiley | ID: covidwho-756970

ABSTRACT

Abstract Using the Keynesian model set out in McDonald (2020), in which downward wage rigidity is supported by worker loss aversion with respect to wages, this article shows that a period of social distancing (SD) can leave a post-SD economy with both stimulatory and depressive effects. A loss of productive capacity is stimulating. Costs of restarting firms, lower labour productivity when restarted and a desire to restore wealth from debt incurred during the period of SD are depressive. If, as seems highly probable, the net effect on economic activity is negative then a fiscal expansion can restore activity. To avoid an increased government budget deficit, this expansion would probably require an increased tax rate. Reductions in real wages may also be necessary. A desire to balance the government budget combined with no increase in the tax rate would be unfortunate, because it would cause a further contraction in activity from its post-SD level.

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