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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990695

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 on population health is recognised as being substantial, yet few studies have attempted to quantify to what extent infection causes mild or moderate symptoms only, requires hospital and/or ICU admission, results in prolonged and chronic illness, or leads to premature death. We aimed to quantify the total disease burden of acute COVID-19 in the Netherlands in 2020 using the disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure, and to investigate how burden varies between age-groups and occupations. Using standard methods and diverse data sources (mandatory notifications, population-level seroprevalence, hospital and ICU admissions, registered COVID-19 deaths, and the literature), we estimated years of life lost (YLL), years lived with disability, DALY and DALY per 100,000 population due to COVID-19, excluding post-acute sequelae, stratified by 5-year age-group and occupation category. The total disease burden due to acute COVID-19 was 286,100 (95% CI: 281,700-290,500) DALY, and the per-capita burden was 1640 (95% CI: 1620-1670) DALY/100,000, of which 99.4% consisted of YLL. The per-capita burden increased steeply with age, starting from 60 to 64 years, with relatively little burden estimated for persons under 50 years old. SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated premature mortality was responsible for a considerable direct health burden in the Netherlands, despite extensive public health measures. DALY were much higher than for other high-burden infectious diseases, but lower than estimated for coronary heart disease. These findings are valuable for informing public health decision-makers regarding the expected COVID-19 health burden among population subgroups, and the possible gains from targeted preventative interventions.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 907012, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963637

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Quantifying the combined impact of morbidity and mortality is a key enabler to assessing the impact of COVID-19 across countries and within countries relative to other diseases, regions, or demographics. Differences in methods, data sources, and definitions of mortality due to COVID-19 may hamper comparisons. We describe efforts to support countries in estimating the national-level burden of COVID-19 using disability-adjusted life years. Methods: The European Burden of Disease Network developed a consensus methodology, as well as a range of capacity-building activities to support burden of COVID-19 studies. These activities have supported 11 national studies so far, with study periods between January 2020 and December 2021. Results: National studies dealt with various data gaps and different assumptions were made to face knowledge gaps. Still, they delivered broadly comparable results that allow for interpretation of consistencies, as well as differences in the quantified direct health impact of the pandemic. Discussion: Harmonized efforts and methodologies have allowed for comparable estimates and communication of results. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions, and unravel the indirect health impact of the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
3.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898117

ABSTRACT

Objectives Quantifying the combined impact of morbidity and mortality is a key enabler to assessing the impact of COVID-19 across countries and within countries relative to other diseases, regions, or demographics. Differences in methods, data sources, and definitions of mortality due to COVID-19 may hamper comparisons. We describe efforts to support countries in estimating the national-level burden of COVID-19 using disability-adjusted life years. Methods The European Burden of Disease Network developed a consensus methodology, as well as a range of capacity-building activities to support burden of COVID-19 studies. These activities have supported 11 national studies so far, with study periods between January 2020 and December 2021. Results National studies dealt with various data gaps and different assumptions were made to face knowledge gaps. Still, they delivered broadly comparable results that allow for interpretation of consistencies, as well as differences in the quantified direct health impact of the pandemic. Discussion Harmonized efforts and methodologies have allowed for comparable estimates and communication of results. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions, and unravel the indirect health impact of the COVID-19 crisis.

4.
Infection ; 50(3): 709-717, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682171

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the first reports of COVID-19 cases, sex-discrepancies have been reported in COVID-19 mortality. We provide a detailed description of these sex differences in relation to age and comorbidities among notified cases as well as in relation to age and sex-specific mortality in the general Dutch population. METHODS: Data on COVID-19 cases and mortality until May 31st 2020 was extracted from the national surveillance database with exclusion of healthcare workers. Association between sex and case fatality was analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. Subsequently, male-female ratio in standardized mortality ratios and population mortality rates relative to all-cause and infectious disease-specific mortality were computed stratified by age. RESULTS: Male-female odds ratio for case fatality was 1.33 [95% CI 1.26-1.41] and among hospitalized cases 1.27 [95% CI 1.16-1.40]. This remained significant after adjustment for age and comorbidities. The male-female ratio of the standardized mortality ratio was 1.70 [95%CI 1.62-1.78]. The population mortality rate for COVID-19 was 35.1 per 100.000, with a male-female rate ratio of 1.25 (95% CI 1.18-1.31) which was higher than in all-cause population mortality and infectious disease mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms male sex is a predisposing factor for severe outcomes of COVID-19, independent of age and comorbidities. In addition to general male-female-differences, COVID-19 specific mechanisms likely contribute to this mortality discrepancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e056077, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify populations at a high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection but who are less likely to present for testing, by determining which sociodemographic and household factors are associated with a lower propensity to be tested and, if tested, with a higher risk of a positive test result. DESIGN AND SETTING: Internet-based participatory surveillance data from the general population of the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Weekly survey data collected over a 5-month period (17 November 2020 to 18 April 2021) from a total of 12 026 participants who had contributed at least 2 weekly surveys was analysed. METHODS: Multivariable analyses using generalised estimating equations for binomial outcomes were conducted to estimate the adjusted ORs of testing and of test positivity associated with participant and household characteristics. RESULTS: Male sex (adjusted OR for testing (ORt): 0.92; adjusted OR for positivity (ORp): 1.30, age groups<20 (ORt: 0.89; ORp: 1.27), 50-64 years (ORt: 0.94; ORp: 1.06) and 65+ years (ORt: 0.78; ORp: 1.24), diabetics (ORt: 0.97; ORp: 1.06) and sales/administrative employees (ORt: 0.93; ORp: 1.90) were distinguished as lower test propensity/higher test positivity factors. CONCLUSIONS: The factors identified using this approach can help identify potential target groups for improving communication and encouraging testing among those with symptoms, and thus increase the effectiveness of testing, which is essential for the response to the COVID-19 pandemic and for public health strategies in the longer term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Internet , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(7): 735-739, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The proportion of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons who are asymptomatic-and whether this proportion is age-dependent-are still open research questions. Because an unknown proportion of reported symptoms among SARS-CoV-2 positives will be attributable to another infection or affliction, the observed, or 'crude' proportion without symptoms may underestimate the proportion of persons without symptoms that are caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Based on two rounds of a large population-based serological study comprising test results on seropositivity and self-reported symptom history conducted in April/May and June/July 2020 in the Netherlands (n = 7517), we estimated the proportion of reported symptoms among those persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 that is attributable to this infection, where the set of relevant symptoms fulfills the ECDC case definition of COVID-19, using inferential methods for the attributable risk (AR). Generalised additive regression modelling was used to estimate the age-dependent relative risk (RR) of reported symptoms, and the AR and asymptomatic proportion (AP) were calculated from the fitted RR. RESULTS: Using age-aggregated data, the 'crude' AP was 37% but the model-estimated AP was 65% (95% CI 63-68%). The estimated AP varied with age, from 74% (95% CI 65-90%) for < 20 years, to 61% (95% CI 57-65%) for the 50-59 years age-group. CONCLUSION: Whereas the 'crude' AP represents a lower bound for the proportion of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 without COVID-19 symptoms, the AP as estimated via an attributable risk approach represents an upper bound. Age-specific AP estimates can inform the implementation of public health actions such as targetted virological testing and therefore enhance containment strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Regression Analysis , Risk Assessment , Self Report , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e129, 2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233680

ABSTRACT

During the first wave of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 epidemic in the Netherlands, notifications consisted mostly of patients with relatively severe disease. To enable real-time monitoring of the incidence of mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - for which medical consultation might not be required - the Infectieradar web-based syndromic surveillance system was launched in mid-March 2020. Our aim was to quantify associations between Infectieradar participant characteristics and the incidence of self-reported COVID-19-like illness. Recruitment for this cohort study was via a web announcement. After registering, participants completed weekly questionnaires, reporting the occurrence of a set of symptoms. The incidence rate of COVID-19-like illness was estimated and multivariable Poisson regression used to estimate the relative risks associated with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors and pre-existing medical conditions. Between 17 March and 24 May 2020, 25 663 active participants were identified, who reported 7060 episodes of COVID-19-like illness over 131 404 person-weeks of follow-up. The incidence rate declined over the analysis period, consistent with the decline in notified cases. Male sex, age 65+ years and higher education were associated with a significantly lower COVID-19-like illness incidence rate (adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84), 0.77 (0.70-0.85), 0.84 (0.80-0.88), respectively) and the baseline characteristics ever-smoker, asthma, allergies, diabetes, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease and children in the household were associated with a higher incidence (RRs of 1.11 (1.04-1.19) to 1.69 (1.50-1.90)). Web-based syndromic surveillance has proven useful for monitoring the temporal trends in, and risk factors associated with, the incidence of mild disease. Increased relative risks observed for several patient factors could reflect a combination of exposure risk, susceptibility to infection and propensity to report symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Sentinel Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
Int J Public Health ; 65(6): 719-720, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657763
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