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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334439

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity after two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations and the emergence of variants precipitated the need for a third dose of vaccine. We evaluated early safety and immunogenicity after a third mRNA vaccination in adults who received the mRNA-1273 primary series in the Phase 1 trial approximately 9 to 10 months earlier. The booster vaccine formulations included 100 mcg of mRNA-1273, 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351 that encodes Beta variant spike protein, and bivalent vaccine of 25 mcg each of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. A third dose of mRNA vaccine appeared safe with acceptable reactogenicity. Vaccination induced rapid increases in binding and neutralizing antibody titers to D614G, Beta, and Delta variants that were similar or greater than peak responses after the second dose. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased to similar levels as after the second dose. A third mRNA vaccination was well tolerated and generated robust humoral and T cell responses. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT04283461 (mRNA-1273 Phase 1) and NCT04785144 (mRNA-1273.351 Phase 1)

3.
Res Sq ; 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766251

ABSTRACT

This study tested if prior BCG revaccination can further boost immune responses subsequently induced by an otherwise efficacious Oxford/AstraZeneca ChAdOx1nCoV-19 vaccine, referred to as COVISHIELDTM in India. We compared COVISHIELDTM induced longitudinal immune responses in 21 BCG re-vaccinees (BCG-RV) and 13 BCG-non-revaccinees (BCG-NRV), all of whom were BCG vaccinated at birth and latent tuberculosis negative, after COVISHIELDTM prime and boost with baseline samples that were collected pre-pandemic and pre-BCG revaccination. Compared to BCG-NRV, BCG-RV displayed significantly higher magnitude of spike-specific Ab and T cell responses, including a greater proportion of high responders; better quality polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells that persisted and a more robust Ab and T cell response to the Delta mutant of SARS-CoV-2 highlighting greater breadth. Mechanistically, BCG adjuvant effects on COVISHIELDTM induced adaptive responses was associated with more robust innate responses to pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns through TNF-α and IL-1ß secretion. This study highlights the potential of using a cheap and globally available vaccine as an adjuvant to enhance heterologous adaptive immune responses induced by COVIDSHIELDTM and other emerging vaccines.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010282, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753213

ABSTRACT

Immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) can confer sterilizing protection against malaria, although the mechanisms behind this protection are incompletely understood. We performed a systems biology analysis of samples from the Immunization by Mosquito with Radiation Attenuated Sporozoites (IMRAS) trial, which comprised P. falciparum RAS-immunized (PfRAS), malaria-naive participants whose protection from malaria infection was subsequently assessed by controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Blood samples collected after initial PfRAS immunization were analyzed to compare immune responses between protected and non-protected volunteers leveraging integrative analysis of whole blood RNA-seq, high parameter flow cytometry, and single cell CITEseq of PBMCs. This analysis revealed differences in early innate immune responses indicating divergent paths associated with protection. In particular, elevated levels of inflammatory responses early after the initial immunization were detrimental for the development of protective adaptive immunity. Specifically, non-classical monocytes and early type I interferon responses induced within 1 day of PfRAS vaccination correlated with impaired immunity. Non-protected individuals also showed an increase in Th2 polarized T cell responses whereas we observed a trend towards increased Th1 and T-bet+ CD8 T cell responses in protected individuals. Temporal differences in genes associated with natural killer cells suggest an important role in immune regulation by these cells. These findings give insight into the immune responses that confer protection against malaria and may guide further malaria vaccine development. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01994525.


Subject(s)
Immunity , Inflammation , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Sporozoites/immunology , Adult , Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Female , Humans , Immunization/methods , Insect Bites and Stings/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Male , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
5.
N Engl J Med ; 386(11): 1046-1057, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the three vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) that have received emergency use authorization in the United States are highly effective, breakthrough infections are occurring. Data are needed on the serial use of homologous boosters (same as the primary vaccine) and heterologous boosters (different from the primary vaccine) in fully vaccinated recipients. METHODS: In this phase 1-2, open-label clinical trial conducted at 10 sites in the United States, adults who had completed a Covid-19 vaccine regimen at least 12 weeks earlier and had no reported history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection received a booster injection with one of three vaccines: mRNA-1273 (Moderna) at a dose of 100 µg, Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson-Janssen) at a dose of 5×1010 virus particles, or BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) at a dose of 30 µg. The primary end points were safety, reactogenicity, and humoral immunogenicity on trial days 15 and 29. RESULTS: Of the 458 participants who were enrolled in the trial, 154 received mRNA-1273, 150 received Ad26.COV2.S, and 153 received BNT162b2 as booster vaccines; 1 participant did not receive the assigned vaccine. Reactogenicity was similar to that reported for the primary series. More than half the recipients reported having injection-site pain, malaise, headache, or myalgia. For all combinations, antibody neutralizing titers against a SARS-CoV-2 D614G pseudovirus increased by a factor of 4 to 73, and binding titers increased by a factor of 5 to 55. Homologous boosters increased neutralizing antibody titers by a factor of 4 to 20, whereas heterologous boosters increased titers by a factor of 6 to 73. Spike-specific T-cell responses increased in all but the homologous Ad26.COV2.S-boosted subgroup. CD8+ T-cell levels were more durable in the Ad26.COV2.S-primed recipients, and heterologous boosting with the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine substantially increased spike-specific CD8+ T cells in the mRNA vaccine recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Homologous and heterologous booster vaccines had an acceptable safety profile and were immunogenic in adults who had completed a primary Covid-19 vaccine regimen at least 12 weeks earlier. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; DMID 21-0012 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04889209.).


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Injections, Intramuscular/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(1): e1360, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We previously described the Phase I-II evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein candidate vaccine, CoV2-PreS-dTM, with AF03- or AS03-adjuvant systems (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04537208). Here, we further characterise the cellular immunogenicity profile of this vaccine candidate using a whole-blood secretion assay in parallel to intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) of cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: A randomly allocated subset of 90 healthy, SARS-CoV-2-seronegative adults aged ≥ 18 years who had received (random allocation) one or two separate injections (on study day [D]1 and D22) of saline placebo or CoV2-PreS-dTM formulated with AS03 or AF03 were included. Cytokine secretion was assessed using a TruCulture® whole-blood stimulation system in combination with multiplex bead array, and intracellular cytokine profiles were evaluated on thawed PBMCs following ex vivo stimulation with recombinant S protein at pre-vaccination (D1), post-dose 1 (D22) and post-dose 2 (D36). RESULTS: Both methods detected similar vaccine-induced responses after the first and second doses. We observed a Th1 bias (Th1/Th2 ratio > 1.0) for most treatment groups when analysed in whole blood, mainly characterised by increased IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α secretion. Among participants aged ≥ 50 years, the Th1/Th2 ratio was higher for those who received vaccine candidate with AS03 versus AF03 adjuvant. ICS revealed that this higher Th1/Th2 ratio resulted from higher levels of IFN-γ expression and that the vaccine induced polyfunctional CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS: The whole-blood cytokine secretion assay is a high-throughput alternative for assessing the quantity and character of vaccine-induced cellular responses.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23921, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585804

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are key biomarkers considered to be associated with vaccine efficacy. In United States government-sponsored phase 3 efficacy trials of COVID-19 vaccines, nAbs are measured by two different validated pseudovirus-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assays, with each trial using one of the two assays. Here we describe and compare the nAb titers obtained in the two assays. We observe that one assay consistently yielded higher nAb titers than the other when both assays were performed on the World Health Organization's anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin International Standard, COVID-19 convalescent sera, and mRNA-1273 vaccinee sera. To overcome the challenge this difference in readout poses in comparing/combining data from the two assays, we evaluate three calibration approaches and show that readouts from the two assays can be calibrated to a common scale. These results may aid decision-making based on data from these assays for the evaluation and licensure of new or adapted COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Trials as Topic , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , World Health Organization
8.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10426, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355289

ABSTRACT

Although 15-20% of COVID-19 patients experience hyper-inflammation induced by massive cytokine production, cellular triggers of this process and strategies to target them remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein substantially induces multiple inflammatory molecules in myeloid cells and human PBMCs. Using a combination of phenotypic screening with machine learning-based modeling, we identified and experimentally validated several protein kinases, including JAK1, EPHA7, IRAK1, MAPK12, and MAP3K8, as essential downstream mediators of NTD-induced cytokine production, implicating the role of multiple signaling pathways in cytokine release. Further, we found several FDA-approved drugs, including ponatinib, and cobimetinib as potent inhibitors of the NTD-mediated cytokine release. Treatment with ponatinib outperforms other drugs, including dexamethasone and baricitinib, inhibiting all cytokines in response to the NTD from SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants. Finally, ponatinib treatment inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in myeloid cells in vitro and lung inflammation mouse model. Together, we propose that agents targeting multiple kinases required for SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine release, such as ponatinib, may represent an attractive therapeutic option for treating moderate to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Animals , Azetidines/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Machine Learning , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/virology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyridazines/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
9.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(7): 100354, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294297

ABSTRACT

Ending the COVID-19 pandemic will require long-lived immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluate 254 COVID-19 patients longitudinally up to 8 months and find durable broad-based immune responses. SARS-CoV-2 spike binding and neutralizing antibodies exhibit a bi-phasic decay with an extended half-life of >200 days suggesting the generation of longer-lived plasma cells. SARS-CoV-2 infection also boosts antibody titers to SARS-CoV-1 and common betacoronaviruses. In addition, spike-specific IgG+ memory B cells persist, which bodes well for a rapid antibody response upon virus re-exposure or vaccination. Virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are polyfunctional and maintained with an estimated half-life of 200 days. Interestingly, CD4+ T cell responses equally target several SARS-CoV-2 proteins, whereas the CD8+ T cell responses preferentially target the nucleoprotein, highlighting the potential importance of including the nucleoprotein in future vaccines. Taken together, these results suggest that broad and effective immunity may persist long-term in recovered COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109353, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275191

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is one of three coronaviruses that have crossed the animal-to-human barrier and caused widespread disease in the past two decades. The development of a universal human coronavirus vaccine could prevent future pandemics. We characterize 198 antibodies isolated from four COVID-19+ subjects and identify 14 SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. One targets the N-terminal domain (NTD), one recognizes an epitope in S2, and 11 bind the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Three anti-RBD neutralizing antibodies cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-1 by effectively blocking binding of both the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 RBDs to the ACE2 receptor. Using the K18-hACE transgenic mouse model, we demonstrate that the neutralization potency and antibody epitope specificity regulates the in vivo protective potential of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. All four cross-neutralizing antibodies neutralize the B.1.351 mutant strain. Thus, our study reveals that epitopes in S2 can serve as blueprints for the design of immunogens capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing coronavirus antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Cross Reactions , Epitopes/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
11.
Science ; 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153626

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants have raised concerns about resistance to neutralizing antibodies elicited by previous infection or vaccination. We examined whether sera from recovered and naïve donors collected prior to, and following immunizations with existing mRNA vaccines, could neutralize the Wuhan-Hu-1 and B.1.351 variants. Pre-vaccination sera from recovered donors neutralized Wuhan-Hu-1 and sporadically neutralized B.1.351, but a single immunization boosted neutralizing titers against all variants and SARS-CoV-1 by up to 1000-fold. Neutralization was due to antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain and was not boosted by a second immunization. Immunization of naïve donors also elicited cross-neutralizing responses, but at lower titers. Our study highlights the importance of vaccinating both uninfected and previously infected persons to elicit cross-variant neutralizing antibodies.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 384(19): 1824-1835, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacious vaccines are urgently needed to contain the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A candidate vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, is a recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector encoding a full-length and stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. METHODS: In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2a trial, we randomly assigned healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 55 years (cohort 1) and those 65 years of age or older (cohort 3) to receive the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine at a dose of 5×1010 viral particles (low dose) or 1×1011 viral particles (high dose) per milliliter or placebo in a single-dose or two-dose schedule. Longer-term data comparing a single-dose regimen with a two-dose regimen are being collected in cohort 2; those results are not reported here. The primary end points were the safety and reactogenicity of each dose schedule. RESULTS: After the administration of the first vaccine dose in 805 participants in cohorts 1 and 3 and after the second dose in cohort 1, the most frequent solicited adverse events were fatigue, headache, myalgia, and injection-site pain. The most frequent systemic adverse event was fever. Systemic adverse events were less common in cohort 3 than in cohort 1 and in those who received the low vaccine dose than in those who received the high dose. Reactogenicity was lower after the second dose. Neutralizing-antibody titers against wild-type virus were detected in 90% or more of all participants on day 29 after the first vaccine dose (geometric mean titer [GMT], 212 to 354), regardless of vaccine dose or age group, and reached 96% by day 57 with a further increase in titers (GMT, 288 to 488) in cohort 1a. Titers remained stable until at least day 71. A second dose provided an increase in the titer by a factor of 2.6 to 2.9 (GMT, 827 to 1266). Spike-binding antibody responses were similar to neutralizing-antibody responses. On day 15, CD4+ T-cell responses were detected in 76 to 83% of the participants in cohort 1 and in 60 to 67% of those in cohort 3, with a clear skewing toward type 1 helper T cells. CD8+ T-cell responses were robust overall but lower in cohort 3. CONCLUSIONS: The safety and immunogenicity profiles of Ad26.COV2.S support further development of this vaccine candidate. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services; COV1001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04436276.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
14.
Immunity ; 53(1): 98-105.e5, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607661

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses develop following SARS-CoV-2 infection, but little is known about their epitope specificities, clonality, binding affinities, epitopes, and neutralizing activity. We isolated B cells specific for the SARS-CoV-2 envelope glycoprotein spike (S) from a COVID-19-infected subject 21 days after the onset of clinical disease. 45 S-specific monoclonal antibodies were generated. They had undergone minimal somatic mutation with limited clonal expansion, and three bound the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Two antibodies neutralized SARS-CoV-2. The most potent antibody bound the RBD and prevented binding to the ACE2 receptor, while the other bound outside the RBD. Thus, most anti-S antibodies that were generated in this patient during the first weeks of COVID-19 infection were non-neutralizing and target epitopes outside the RBD. Antibodies that disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 S-ACE2 interaction can potently neutralize the virus without undergoing extensive maturation. Such antibodies have potential preventive and/or therapeutic potential and can serve as templates for vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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