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Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1521(1): 32-45, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228474


Viruses infect millions of people each year. Both endemic viruses circulating throughout the population as well as novel epidemic and pandemic viruses pose ongoing threats to global public health. Developing more effective tools to address viruses requires not only in-depth knowledge of the virus itself but also of our immune system's response to infection. On June 29 to July 2, 2022, researchers met for the Keystone symposium "Viral Immunity: Basic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Applications." This report presents concise summaries from several of the symposium presenters.

Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
Immunol Cell Biol ; 101(3): 231-248, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2223352


Vaccination and natural infection both elicit potent humoral responses that provide protection from subsequent infections. The immune history of an individual following such exposures is in part encoded by antibodies. While there are multiple immunoassays for measuring antibody responses, the majority of these methods measure responses to a single antigen. A commonly used method for measuring antibody responses is ELISA-a semiquantitative assay that is simple to perform in research and clinical settings. Here, we present FLU-LISA (fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay)-a novel antigen microarray-based assay for rapid high-throughput antibody profiling. The assay can be used for profiling immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM responses to multiple antigens simultaneously, requiring minimal amounts of sample and antigens. Using several influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen microarrays, we demonstrated the specificity and sensitivity of our novel assay and compared it with the traditional ELISA, using samples from mice, chickens and humans. We also showed that our assay can be readily used with dried blood spots, which can be collected from humans and wild birds. FLU-LISA can be readily used to profile hundreds of samples against dozens of antigens in a single day, and therefore offers an attractive alternative to the traditional ELISA.

COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Animals , Mice , Immunosorbents , Antibodies, Viral , Chickens , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M