Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 34
Filter
1.
Thrombosis Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031708

ABSTRACT

Background COVID 19 patients carry an increased rates of thrombosis. It is controversial to which extent thrombi in the pulmonary arterial tree really contribute to disease severity with hypoxemia secondary to microvascular/lung parenchymal damage with viral alveolitis considered to play the main role in critical disease. Objectives The primary objective was to compare post-mortem lung disease from fatal COVID-19 pneumonia in those with macroscopically evident pulmonary arterial tree thrombosis and those without, by characterizing the immunohistochemical nature of thrombi, and by comparing clinical and laboratory features of these patients with other COVID-19 patients who died but without evidence of pulmonary arterial thrombosis (controls). Patients and methods 13 COVID-19 pneumonia cases (mean age ± standard deviation: 74 ± 6.5 years) with macroscopically visible pulmonary arterial thrombosis were compared to 14 controls. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides were reviewed choosing those with visible pulmonary thrombi which were further characterized by immunohistochemistry, in particular for the inflammatory infiltrates. Ante mortem serum markers relevant to pulmonary embolism were evaluated in both groups. Results Twenty arterial thrombi (5 cases with multiple thrombi) were selected for study and were composed by white blood cells (WBC) [median, IQR range: 10 % (5–12.25)], mainly neutrophils [58 % (35.2–64.5)].Cases with thrombosis showed significantly higher levels of platelet count [median, IQR range: 195000/mmc (157750–274,500) vs 143,500 (113000–175,250), p = 0.011], LDH [854 U/l (731–1315) vs 539 (391.5–660), p = 0.003] at admission, and D-dimer at ICU transfer [25,072 FEU (6951–50,531) vs 1024 (620–5501), p = 0.003]. Conclusions Immunothrombotically driven arterial thrombi in COVID-19 patients are associated with D-Dimer and LDH elevations, thus linking inflammation, coagulopathy and organ damage in fatal COVID-19.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines partially exploit intrinsic DNA or RNA adjuvanticity, with dysregulation in the metabolism of both these nucleic acids independently linked to triggering experimental autoimmune diseases, including lupus and myositis. METHODS: Herein, we present 15 new onset autoimmune myositis temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA or DNA-based vaccines that occurred between February 2021 and April 2022. Musculoskeletal, pulmonary, cutaneous and cardiac manifestations, laboratory and imaging data were collected. RESULTS: In total, 15 cases of new onset myositis (11 polymyositis/necrotizing/overlap myositis; 4 dermatomyositis) were identified in the Yorkshire region of approximately 5.6 million people, between February 2021 and April 2022 (10 females/5 men; mean age was 66.1 years; range 37-83). New onset disease occurred after first vaccination (5 cases), second vaccination (7 cases) or after the third dose (3 cases), which was often a different vaccine. Of the cases, 6 had systemic complications including skin (3 cases), lung (3 cases), heart (2 cases) and 10/15 had myositis associated autoantibodies. All but 1 case had good therapy responses. Adverse event following immunization (AEFI) could not be explained based on the underlying disease/co-morbidities. CONCLUSION: Compared with our usual regional Rheumatology clinical experience, a surprisingly large number of new onset myositis cases presented during the period of observation. Given that antigen release inevitably follows muscle injury and given the role of nucleic acid adjuvanticity in autoimmunity and muscle disease, further longitudinal studies are required to explore potential links between novel coronavirus vaccines and myositis in comparison with more traditional vaccine methods.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 849560, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938616

ABSTRACT

Humorally associated autoimmune diseases generally show a female predominance whereas ankylosing spondylitis, a disease that overlaps with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), shows a male predominance. The present review ascertains the current knowledge of sex-specific differences related to psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a chronic, inflammatory condition associated with psoriasis. Sex differences may have important implications for clinical research in PsA and in terms of epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, lifetime risk, survival, and mortality), clinical, radiological, and laboratory features, and response to treatment. While nationwide surveys and large-scale databases and registries show no sex-specific differences, varying male/female ratios have been reported, ranging from 0.42 to 2.75 (comparable with those reported for psoriasis vulgaris: ranging from 0.28 to 2.38). This may reflect subtle, complex, nonlinear interactions between the biological make-up of the individual (genetic and epigenetic differences), hormonal components including menopausal status, environmental exposures including skeletal physical stressing, and psychological variables. There exists methodological heterogeneity and paucity of data concerning sex-specific differences, in terms of the specific population studied, study design, and the diagnostic criteria utilized. Harmonizing and reconciling these discrepancies would be of crucial importance in achieving the ambitious goals of personalized/individualized medicine and further standardized meta-data and Big Data could help disentangle and elucidate the precise mechanisms of underlying potential PsA sex-specific differences.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , Psoriasis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/diagnosis
4.
Stroke ; 53(7): 2411-2419, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840696

ABSTRACT

The main burden of SARS-CoV-2 falls on the lungs but neurological manifestations, the most disabling of which are strokes and which correlate with disease severity, are common. We proffer a novel mechanism for acute COVID-19 stroke whereby pulmonary vein clots developing within the characteristic pulmonary intravascular thrombotic lesions can embolize to the brain. Appreciation of this mechanism requires an understanding of the tricompartmental model of lung parenchyma oxygenation (the alveolus, the bronchial artery, and the pulmonary artery), all of which are compromised in COVID-19. Of these 3 sources, the bronchial artery plays a crucial role in COVID-19 stroke because the unique collaterals from bronchial artery to pulmonary vein which exist under normal physiological conditions (and which maintain venous patency when the pulmonary artery is blocked by embolus) are occluded, thus leading to venular thrombosis in the presence of hypercoagulability. Dislodgement of clots from this source translocates the pathology to the brain and is a disease mechanism, formerly rare, which may account for many cases of large vessel occlusion stroke in COVID-19. This mechanism extends the concept of cardioembolic stroke from endocardium retrogradely into the pulmonary circulation with which the left cardiac chambers lie in direct continuity, and which is an accepted stroke mechanism under other circumstances such as lung lobectomy, where surgical ligation of the pulmonary vein creates a blind sac from which thrombi can embolize. The proposed model is supported by postmortem studies which have demonstrated venular thrombosis and by case reports of pulmonary vein thrombosis in COVID-19. This concept provides a more plausible cause for COVID-19 associated large vessel occlusion stroke than other putative mechanisms, such as cerebral endotheliitis, cytokine storm, and hypercoagulopathy, although it is acknowledged that the latter mechanism contributes to the genesis of pulmonary vein clots. Recognizing that extrapulmonary manifestations including stroke arise within thrombosed pulmonary veins is key to understanding of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Venules
5.
Semin Immunopathol ; 44(3): 375-390, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782786

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus ACE-2 receptor utilization for cellular entry and the defined ACE-2 receptor role in cardiovascular medicine hinted at dysregulated endothelial function or even direct viral endotheliitis as the key driver of severe COVID-19 vascular immunopathology including reports of vasculitis. In this article, we critically review COVID-19 immunopathology from the vasculitis perspective and highlight the non-infectious nature of vascular endothelial involvement in severe COVID-19. Whilst COVID-19 lung disease pathological changes included juxta-capillary and vascular macrophage and lymphocytic infiltration typical of vasculitis, we review the evidence reflecting that such "vasculitis" reflects an extension of pneumonic inflammatory pathology to encompass these thin-walled vessels. Definitive, extrapulmonary clinically discernible vasculitis including cutaneous and cardiac vasculitis also emerged- namely a dysregulated interferon expression or "COVID toes" and an ill-defined systemic Kawasaki-like disease. These two latter genuine vasculitis pathologies were not associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This was distinct from cutaneous vasculitis in severe COVID-19 that demonstrated pauci-immune infiltrates and prominent immunothrombosis that appears to represent a novel immunothrombotic vasculitis mimic contributed to by RNAaemia or potentially diffuse pulmonary venous tree thrombosis with systemic embolization with small arteriolar territory occlusion, although the latter remains unproven. Herein, we also performed a systematic literature review of COVID-19 vasculitis and reports of post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination related vasculitis with respect to the commonly classified pre-COVID vasculitis groupings. Across the vasculitis spectrum, we noted that Goodpasture's syndrome was rarely linked to natural SARS-CoV-2 infection but not vaccines. Both the genuine vasculitis in the COVID-19 era and the proposed vasculitis mimic should advance the understanding of both pulmonary and systemic vascular immunopathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vasculitis , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasculitis/etiology , Vasculitis/pathology
6.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(3): e173, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703662
7.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(3): e170, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671383
9.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(2): e135-e144, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555786

ABSTRACT

In patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia, an aberrant post-viral alveolitis with excessive inflammatory responses and immunothrombosis underpins use of immunomodulatory therapy (eg, corticosteroids and interleukin-6 receptor antagonism). By contrast, immunosuppression in individuals with mild COVID-19 who do not require oxygen therapy or in those with critical disease undergoing prolonged ventilation is of no proven benefit. Furthermore, a window of opportunity is thought to exist for timely immunosuppression in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia shortly after clinical presentation. In this Viewpoint, we explore the shortcomings of a universal immunosuppression approach in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 due to disease heterogeneity related to ongoing SARS-CoV-2 replication, which can manifest as RNAaemia in some patients treated with immunotherapy. By contrast, immunomodulatory therapy has overall benefits in patients with rapid SARS-CoV-2 clearance, via blunting of multifaceted, excessive innate immune responses in the lungs, potentially uncontrolled T-cell responses, possible autoimmune responses, and immunothrombosis. We highlight this therapeutic dichotomy to better understand the immunopathology of moderate-to-severe COVID-19, particularly the role of RNAaemia, and to refine therapy choices.

10.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To update the EULAR 2020 systematic literature review (SLR) on efficacy and safety of immunomodulatory agents in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: As part of a EULAR taskforce, a systematic literature search update was conducted from 11 December 2020 to 14 July 2021. Two reviewers independently identified eligible studies and extracted data on efficacy and safety of immunomodulatory agents used therapeutically in SARS-CoV-2 infection at any stage of disease. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed with validated tools. RESULTS: Of the 26 959 records, 520 articles were eligible for inclusion. Studies were mainly at high or unclear RoB. New randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on tocilizumab clarified its benefit in patients with severe and critical COVID-19, mainly if associated with glucocorticoids. There are emergent data on the usefulness of baricitinib and tofacitinib in severe COVID-19. Other therapeutic strategies such as the use of convalescent plasma and anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies showed efficacy in subjects not mounting normal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. CONCLUSION: This new SLR confirms that some immunomodulators (tocilizumab and JAK inhibitors) have a role for treating severe and critical COVID-19. Although better evidence is available compared with the previous SLR, the need of RCT with combination therapy (glucocorticoids+anti-cytokines) versus monotherapy with glucocorticoids still remains alongside the need for standardisation of inclusion criteria and outcomes to ultimately improve the care and prognosis of affected people. This SLR informed the 2021 update of the EULAR points to consider on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunotherapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
11.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e672-e673, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486379
12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(1): 34-40, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To update the EULAR points to consider (PtCs) on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review up to 14 July 2021 was conducted and followed by a consensus meeting of an international multidisciplinary task force. The new statements were consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: We updated 2 overarching principles and 12 PtC. Evidence was only available in moderate to severe and critical patients. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with tocilizumab are beneficial in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy and in critical COVID-19. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors (baricitinib and tofacitinib) is promising in the same populations of severe and critical COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma may find application in early phases of the disease and in selected subgroups of immunosuppressed patients. There was insufficient robust evidence for the efficacy of other immunomodulators with further work being needed in relation to biomarker-based stratification for IL-1 therapy CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence supports incremental efficacy of glucocorticoids alone or combined with tocilizumab/Janus kinase inhibitors in moderate to severe and critical COVID-19. Ongoing studies may unmask the potential application of other therapeutic approaches. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should be encouraged in clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunomodulation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab is an anti-IL-6 therapy widely adopted in the management of the so-called "cytokine storm" related to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, but its effectiveness, use in relation to concomitant corticosteroid therapy and safety were unproven despite widespread use in numerous studies, mostly open label at the start of the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies utilising tocilizumab in COVID-19 on different databases (PubMed/MEDLINE/Scopus) and preprint servers (medRxiv and SSRN) from inception until 20 July 2020 (PROSPERO CRD42020195690). Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were performed. The impact of tocilizumab and concomitant corticosteroid therapy or tocilizumab alone versus standard of care (SOC) on the death rate, need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and bacterial infections were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies with 15,531 patients (3657 cases versus 11,874 controls) were identified. Unadjusted estimates (n = 28) failed to demonstrate a protective effect of tocilizumab on survival (OR 0.74 ([95%CI 0.55-1.01], p = 0.057), mechanical ventilation prevention (OR 2.21 [95%CI 0.53-9.23], p = 0.277) or prevention of ICU admission (OR 3.79 [95%CI 0.38-37.34], p = 0.254). Considering studies with adjusted, estimated, tocilizumab use was associated with mortality rate reduction (HR 0.50 ([95%CI 0.38-0.64], p < 0.001) and prevention of ICU admission (OR 0.16 ([95%CI 0.06-0.43], p < 0.001). Tocilizumab with concomitant steroid use versus SOC was protective with an OR of 0.49 ([95%CI 0.36-0.65], p < 0.05) as was tocilizumab alone versus SOC with an OR of 0.59 ([95%CI 0.34-1.00], p < 0.001). Risk of infection increased (2.36 [95%CI 1.001-5.54], p = 0.050; based on unadjusted estimates). CONCLUSION: Despite the heterogeneity of included studies and large number of preprint articles, our findings from the first eight of the pandemic in over 15,000 COVID-19 cases suggested an incremental efficacy of tocilizumab in severe COVID-19 that were confirmed by subsequent meta-analyses of large randomized trials of tocilizumab. This suggests that analysis of case-control studies and pre-print server data in the early stages of a pandemic appeared robust for supporting incremental benefits and lack of major therapeutic toxicity of tocilizumab for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Autoimmun ; 121: 102662, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385817

ABSTRACT

Herein, we consider venous immunothrombotic mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection and anti-SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccination. Primary SARS-CoV-2 infection with systemic viral RNA release (RNAaemia) contributes to innate immune coagulation cascade activation, with both pulmonary and systemic immunothrombosis - including venous territory strokes. However, anti-SARS-CoV-2 adenoviral-vectored-DNA vaccines -initially shown for the ChAdOx1 vaccine-may rarely exhibit autoimmunity with autoantibodies to Platelet Factor-4 (PF4) that is termed Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT), an entity pathophysiologically similar to Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT). The PF4 autoantigen is a polyanion molecule capable of independent interactions with negatively charged bacterial cellular wall, heparin and DNA molecules, thus linking intravascular innate immunity to both bacterial cell walls and pathogen-derived DNA. Crucially, negatively charged extracellular DNA is a powerful adjuvant that can break tolerance to positively charged nuclear histone proteins in many experimental autoimmunity settings, including SLE and scleroderma. Analogous to DNA-histone interactons, positively charged PF4-DNA complexes stimulate strong interferon responses via Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 9 engagement. A chain of events following intramuscular adenoviral-vectored-DNA vaccine inoculation including microvascular damage; microbleeding and platelet activation with PF4 release, adenovirus cargo dispersement with DNA-PF4 engagement may rarely break immune tolerance, leading to rare PF4-directed autoimmunity. The VITT cavernous sinus cerebral and intestinal venous territory immunothrombosis proclivity may pertain to venous drainage of shared microbiotal-rich areas of the nose and in intestines that initiates local endovascular venous immunity by PF4/microbiotal engagement with PF4 autoantibody driven immunothrombosis reminiscent of HIT. According to the proposed model, any adenovirus-vectored-DNA vaccine could drive autoimmune VITT in susceptible individuals and alternative mechanism based on molecular mimicry, vaccine protein contaminants, adenovirus vector proteins, EDTA buffers or immunity against the viral spike protein are secondary factors. Hence, electrochemical DNA-PF4 interactions and PF4-heparin interactions, but at different locations, represent the common denominator in HIT and VITT related autoimmune-mediated thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/pathology , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/pathology , Vaccines/immunology
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 2546-2553, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent symptoms including breathlessness, fatigue, and decreased exercise tolerance have been reported in patients after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. The biological mechanisms underlying this "long COVID" syndrome remain unknown. However, autopsy studies have highlighted the key roles played by pulmonary endotheliopathy and microvascular immunothrombosis in acute COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether endothelial cell activation may be sustained in convalescent COVID-19 patients and contribute to long COVID pathogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients were reviewed at a median of 68 days following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition to clinical workup, acute phase markers, endothelial cell (EC) activation and NETosis parameters and thrombin generation were assessed. RESULTS: Thrombin generation assays revealed significantly shorter lag times (p < .0001, 95% CI -2.57 to -1.02 min), increased endogenous thrombin potential (p = .04, 95% CI 15-416 nM/min), and peak thrombin (p < .0001, 95% CI 39-93 nM) in convalescent COVID-19 patients. These prothrombotic changes were independent of ongoing acute phase response or active NETosis. Importantly, EC biomarkers including von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF propeptide (VWFpp), and factor VIII were significantly elevated in convalescent COVID-19 compared with controls (p = .004, 95% CI 0.09-0.57 IU/ml; p = .009, 95% CI 0.06-0.5 IU/ml; p = .04, 95% CI 0.03-0.44 IU/ml, respectively). In addition, plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels were significantly elevated in convalescent COVID-19 (p = .02, 95% CI 0.01-2.7 ng/ml). Sustained endotheliopathy was more frequent in older, comorbid patients, and those requiring hospitalization. Finally, both plasma VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels correlated inversely with 6-min walk tests. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings demonstrate that sustained endotheliopathy is common in convalescent COVID-19 and raise the intriguing possibility that this may contribute to long COVID pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , von Willebrand Factor
16.
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 665-672, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230831

ABSTRACT

The emergent 21st century betacoronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, lead to clinicopathological manifestations with unusual features, such as early-onset chest pain, pulmonary infarction, and pulmonary and systemic thromboembolism that is pathologically linked to extensive capillary, arteriolar, and venular thrombosis. Early ground glass opacities detected by CT, which are reminiscent of lung infarcts associated with pulmonary embolism, point to a novel vascular pathology in COVID-19. Under physiological conditions, normal parenchymal oxygenation is maintained by three sources: the alveolus itself and dual oxygen supply from the pulmonary and bronchial artery circulations. We propose a model in which these three components are disrupted in COVID-19 pneumonia, with severe viral alveolitis and concomitant immunothrombotic obstruction of the pulmonary and bronchiolar circulation. Tricompartmental disruption might have two main consequences: systemic clot embolisation from pulmonary vein territory immunothrombosis, and alveolar-capillary barrier disruption with systemic access of thrombogenic viral material. Our model encompasses the known pathological and clinical features of severe COVID-19, and has implications for understanding patient responses to immunomodulatory therapies, which might exert an anti-inflammatory effect within the vascular compartments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Oxygen Consumption , Pulmonary Circulation , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases and vaccines can occasionally cause new-onset or flare of immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). The adjuvanticity of the available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is based on either TLR-7/8 or TLR-9 agonism, which is distinct from previous vaccines and is a common pathogenic mechanism in IMDs. METHODS: We evaluated IMD flares or new disease onset within 28-days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination at five large tertiary centres in countries with early vaccination adoption, three in Israel, one in UK, and one in USA. We assessed the pattern of disease expression in terms of autoimmune, autoinflammatory, or mixed disease phenotype and organ system affected. We also evaluated outcomes. FINDINGS: 27 cases included 17 flares and 10 new onset IMDs. 23/27 received the BNT - 162b2 vaccine, 2/27 the mRNA-1273 and 2/27 the ChAdOx1 vaccines. The mean age was 54.4 ± 19.2 years and 55% of cases were female. Among the 27 cases, 21 (78%) had at least one underlying autoimmune/rheumatic disease prior the vaccination. Among those patients with a flare or activation, four episodes occurred after receiving the second-dose and in one patient they occurred both after the first and the second-dose. In those patients with a new onset disease, two occurred after the second-dose and in one patient occurred both after the first (new onset) and second-dose (flare). For either dose, IMDs occurred on average 4 days later. Of the cases, 20/27 (75%) were mild to moderate in severity. Over 80% of cases had excellent resolution of inflammatory features, mostly with the use of corticosteroid therapy. Other immune-mediated conditions included idiopathic pericarditis (n = 2), neurosarcoidosis with small fiber neuropathy (n = 1), demyelination (n = 1), and myasthenia gravis (n = 2). In 22 cases (81.5%), the insurgence of Adverse event following immunization (AEFI)/IMD could not be explained based on the drug received by the patient. In 23 cases (85.2%), AEFI development could not be explained based on the underlying disease/co-morbidities. Only in one case (3.7%), the timing window of the insurgence of the side effect was considered not compatible with the time from vaccine to flare. INTERPRETATION: Despite the high population exposure in the regions served by these centers, IMDs flares or onset temporally-associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination appear rare. Most are moderate in severity and responsive to therapy although some severe flares occurred. FUNDING: none.

20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635018, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211810

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bacterial and viral infectious triggers are linked to spondyloarthritis (SpA) including psoriatic arthritis (PsA) development, likely via dendritic cell activation. We investigated spinal entheseal plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 and 9 activation and therapeutic modulation, including JAK inhibition. We also investigated if COVID-19 infection, a potent TLR-7 stimulator triggered PsA flares. Methods: Normal entheseal pDCs were characterized and stimulated with imiquimod and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to evaluate TNF and IFNα production. NanoString gene expression assay of total pDCs RNA was performed pre- and post- ODN stimulation. Pharmacological inhibition of induced IFNα protein was performed with Tofacitinib and PDE4 inhibition. The impact of SARS-CoV2 viral infection on PsA flares was evaluated. Results: CD45+HLA-DR+CD123+CD303+CD11c- entheseal pDCs were more numerous than blood pDCs (1.9 ± 0.8% vs 0.2 ± 0.07% of CD45+ cells, p=0.008) and showed inducible IFNα and TNF protein following ODN/imiquimod stimulation and were the sole entheseal IFNα producers. NanoString data identified 11 significantly upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including TNF in stimulated pDCs. Canonical pathway analysis revealed activation of dendritic cell maturation, NF-κB signaling, toll-like receptor signaling and JAK/STAT signaling pathways following ODN stimulation. Both tofacitinib and PDE4i strongly attenuated ODN induced IFNα. DAPSA scores elevations occurred in 18 PsA cases with SARS-CoV2 infection (9.7 ± 4 pre-infection and 35.3 ± 7.5 during infection). Conclusion: Entheseal pDCs link microbes to TNF/IFNα production. SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with PsA Flares and JAK inhibition suppressed activated entheseal plasmacytoid dendritic Type-1 interferon responses as pointers towards a novel mechanism of PsA and SpA-related arthropathy.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic/complications , COVID-19/complications , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Computational Biology , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Imiquimod/pharmacology , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oligonucleotides/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 9/metabolism , Transcriptome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL