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Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(2): 529-537, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490884


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a condition characterized by the formation of thick airway casts leading to acute and often life-threatening airway obstruction. PB occurs mainly in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHO) who have undergone staged surgical palliation (Glenn, Fontan), but can also occur after chemical inhalation, H1N1, severe COVID-19, sickle cell disease, severe asthma, and other diseases. Mortality risk from PB can be up to 40%-60%, and no treatment guideline exist. The objectives herein are to develop a standardized evaluation, classification, and treatment guideline for PB patients presenting with tracheobronchial casts, based on our experience with PB at the Children's Hospital of Colorado in Denver. METHODS: We describe 11 patients with CHO-associated PB (post-Fontan [n = 9], pre-Fontan [n = 2]) who presented with their initial episodes. We utilized histopathological analysis of tracheobronchial casts to guide treatment in these patients, utilizing our hospital-wide guideline document and classification system. RESULTS: We found that 100% of post-Fontan PB patients had fibrinous airway casts, while pre-Fontan PB casts were fibrinous only in one of two patients (50%). Utilizing histopathology as a guide to therapy, PB patients with fibrin airway casts were treated with airway-delivered fibrinolytics and anticoagulants, as well as aggressive airway clearance and other supportive care measures. These therapies resulted in successful cast resolution and improved survival in post-Fontan PB patients. CONCLUSION: We have shown an improved outcome in PB patients whose treatment plan was based on Denver's PB classification schema and standardized treatment guideline based on tracheobronchial cast histopathology.

Airway Obstruction , Bronchitis , COVID-19 , Fontan Procedure , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/therapy , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Bronchitis/therapy , Child , Fibrin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Toxics ; 8(3)2020 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224244


Recently, there has been an outbreak associated with the use of e-cigarette or vaping products, associated lung injury (EVALI). The primary components of vaping products, vitamin E acetate (VEA) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), may be responsible for acute lung toxicity. Currently, little information is available on the physiological and biological effects of exposure to these products. We hypothesized that these e-cig vape cartridges and their constituents (VEA and MCT) induce pulmonary toxicity, mediated by oxidative damage and inflammatory responses, leading to acute lung injury. We studied the potential mechanisms of e-cig vape cartridge aerosol induced inflammatory response by evaluating the generation of reactive oxygen species by MCT, VEA, and cartridges and their effects on the inflammatory state of pulmonary epithelium and immune cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cells exposed to these aerosols generated reactive oxygen species, caused cytotoxicity, induced epithelial barrier dysfunction, and elicited an inflammatory response. Using a murine model, the parameters of acute toxicity to aerosol inhalation were assessed. Infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes was accompanied by significant increases in IL-6, eotaxin, and G-CSF in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In mouse plasma, eicosanoid inflammatory mediators, leukotrienes, were significantly increased. Plasma from e-cig users also showed increased levels of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETEs) and various eicosanoids. Exposure to e-cig vape cartridge aerosols showed the most significant effects and toxicity compared to MCT and VEA. In addition, we determined SARS-CoV-2 related proteins and found no impact associated with aerosol exposures from these tested cartridges. Overall, this study demonstrates acute exposure to specific e-cig vape cartridges induces in vitro cytotoxicity, barrier dysfunction, and inflammation and in vivo mouse exposure induces acute inflammation with elevated proinflammatory markers in the pathogenesis of EVALI.