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Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9896, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890264


Co-infections with bacterial or fungal pathogens could be associated with severity and outcome of disease in COVID-19 patients. We, therefore, used a 16S and ITS-based sequencing approach to assess the biomass and composition of the bacterial and fungal communities in endotracheal aspirates of intubated COVID-19 patients. Our method combines information on bacterial and fungal biomass with community profiling, anticipating the likelihood of a co-infection is higher with (1) a high bacterial and/or fungal biomass combined with (2) predominance of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. We tested our methods on 42 samples from 30 patients. We observed a clear association between microbial outgrowth (high biomass) and predominance of individual microbial species. Outgrowth of pathogens was in line with the selective pressure of antibiotics received by the patient. We conclude that our approach may help to monitor the presence and predominance of pathogens and therefore the likelihood of co-infections in ventilated patients, which ultimately, may help to guide treatment.

COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycobiome , Bacteria/genetics , Humans , Pilot Projects
Nat Microbiol ; 6(1): 112-122, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989837


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first diagnosed in Scotland on 1 March 2020. During the first month of the outbreak, 2,641 cases of COVID-19 led to 1,832 hospital admissions, 207 intensive care admissions and 126 deaths. We aimed to identify the source and number of introductions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into Scotland using a combined phylogenetic and epidemiological approach. Sequencing of 1,314 SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from available patient samples enabled us to estimate that SARS-CoV-2 was introduced to Scotland on at least 283 occasions during February and March 2020. Epidemiological analysis confirmed that early introductions of SARS-CoV-2 originated from mainland Europe (the majority from Italy and Spain). We identified subsequent early outbreaks in the community, within healthcare facilities and at an international conference. Community transmission occurred after 2 March, 3 weeks before control measures were introduced. Earlier travel restrictions or quarantine measures, both locally and internationally, would have reduced the number of COVID-19 cases in Scotland. The risk of multiple reintroduction events in future waves of infection remains high in the absence of population immunity.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Travel/statistics & numerical data