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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e059159, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The increasing burden of mental distress reported by healthcare professionals is a matter of serious concern and there is a growing recognition of the role of the workplace in creating this problem. Magnet hospitals, a model shown to attract and retain staff in US research, creates positive work environments that aim to support the well-being of healthcare professionals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Magnet4Europe is a cluster randomised controlled trial, with wait list controls, designed to evaluate the effects of organisational redesign, based on the Magnet model, on nurses' and physicians' well-being in general acute care hospitals, using a multicomponent implementation strategy. The study will be conducted in more than 60 general acute care hospitals in Belgium, England, Germany, Ireland, Norway and Sweden. The primary outcome is burnout among nurses and physicians, assessed in longitudinal surveys of nurses and physicians at participating hospitals. Additional data will be collected from them on perceived work environments, patient safety and patient quality of care and will be triangulated with data from medical records, including case mix-adjusted in-hospital mortality. The process of implementation will be evaluated using qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee Research UZ/KU Leuven, Belgium; additionally, ethics approval is obtained in all other participating countries either through a central or decentral authority. Findings will be disseminated at conferences, through peer-reviewed manuscripts and via social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN10196901.


Subject(s)
Nurses , Physicians , Hospitals , Humans , Mental Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Workplace
2.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent COVID-19 surges are attributed to emergence of more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). The relative severity of VOCs in children is unknown. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of children ≤18 years old diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 2020-February 2022 and whose SARS-CoV-2 isolate underwent Illumina sequencing. We measured the frequency of five markers of COVID-19 severity. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds of each severity marker with each VOC. RESULTS: Among 714 children, 471 (66.0%) were infected with a VOC: 96 (13.4%) alpha, 38 (5.3%) gamma, 119 (16.7%) delta, and 215 (30.1%) omicron. High-risk medical conditions and increasing age were independently associated with COVID-19 severity. After adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, high-risk medical conditions, and COVID-19 community incidence, neither alpha, delta, nor omicron was associated with severe COVID-19. Gamma was independently associated with hospitalization (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.0-22.1); pharmacologic treatment (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.2-26.8); respiratory support (OR 11.9, 95% CI 2.7-62.4); and severe disease per the WHO Clinical Progression Scale (OR 11.7, 95% CI 2.1-90.5). Upon subgroup analyses, omicron was independently associated with ICU admission and severe disease per the WHO Clinical Progression Scale in children without SARS-CoV-2 immunization or prior COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to non-VOC COVID-19, the gamma VOC was independently associated with increased COVID-19 severity, as was omicron in children without SARS-CoV-2 immunization or prior COVID-19 infection. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and prior COVID-19 prevented severe outcomes during the omicron surge.

3.
Hosp Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe COVID-19-related pediatric hospitalizations during a period of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance and to determine age-specific factors associated with severe illness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We abstracted data from medical charts to conduct a cross-sectional study of patients aged <21 years hospitalized at 6 US children's hospitals during July-August 2021 for COVID-19 or with an incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Among patients with COVID-19, we assessed factors associated with severe illness by calculating age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR). We defined severe illness as receiving high-flow nasal cannula, positive airway pressure, or invasive mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Of 947 hospitalized patients, 759 (80.1%) had COVID-19, of whom 287 (37.8%) had severe illness. Factors associated with severe illness included coinfection with RSV (PR 3.64) and bacteria (PR 1.88) in infants; RSV coinfection in patients aged 1-4 years (PR 1.96); and obesity in patients aged 5-11 (PR 2.20) and 12-17 years (PR 2.48). Having ≥2 underlying medical conditions was associated with severe illness in patients aged <1 (PR 1.82), 5-11 (PR 3.72), and 12-17 years (PR 3.19). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, factors associated with severe illness included RSV coinfection in those aged <5 years, obesity in those aged 5-17 years, and other underlying conditions for all age groups <18 years. These findings can inform pediatric practice, risk communication, and prevention strategies, including vaccination against COVID-19.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1766-1772, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727019

ABSTRACT

During June 2021, the highly transmissible† B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. U.S. pediatric COVID-19-related hospitalizations increased during July-August 2021 following emergence of the Delta variant and peaked in September 2021.§ As of May 12, 2021, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥12 years,¶ and on November 2, 2021, COVID-19 vaccinations were recommended for persons aged 5-11 years.** To date, clinical signs and symptoms, illness course, and factors contributing to hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance have not been well described in pediatric patients. CDC partnered with six children's hospitals to review medical record data for patients aged <18 years with COVID-19-related hospitalizations during July-August 2021.†† Among 915 patients identified, 713 (77.9%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 (acute COVID-19 as the primary or contributing reason for hospitalization), 177 (19.3%) had incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (asymptomatic or mild infection unrelated to the reason for hospitalization), and 25 (2.7%) had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious inflammatory condition associated with COVID-19.§§ Among the 713 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24.7% were aged <1 year, 17.1% were aged 1-4 years, 20.1% were aged 5-11 years, and 38.1% were aged 12-17 years. Approximately two thirds of patients (67.5%) had one or more underlying medical conditions, with obesity being the most common (32.4%); among patients aged 12-17 years, 61.4% had obesity. Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 15.8% had a viral coinfection¶¶ (66.4% of whom had respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] infection). Approximately one third (33.9%) of patients aged <5 years hospitalized for COVID-19 had a viral coinfection. Among 272 vaccine-eligible (aged 12-17 years) patients hospitalized for COVID-19, one (0.4%) was fully vaccinated.*** Approximately one half (54.0%) of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 received oxygen support, 29.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 1.5% died; of those requiring respiratory support, 14.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among pediatric patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations, many had severe illness and viral coinfections, and few vaccine-eligible patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were vaccinated, highlighting the importance of vaccination for those aged ≥5 years and other prevention strategies to protect children and adolescents from COVID-19, particularly those with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
6.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-5, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the impact of universal masking on COVID-19 incidence and putative SARS-CoV-2 transmissions events among children's hospital healthcare workers (HCWs). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Single academic free-standing children's hospital. METHODS: We performed whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2- PCR-positive samples collected from HCWs 3 weeks before and 6 weeks after implementing a universal masking policy. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify clusters of clonally related SARS-CoV-2 indicative of putative transmission events. We measured COVID-19 incidence, SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rates, and frequency of putative transmission events before and after the masking policy was implemented. RESULTS: HCW COVID-19 incidence and test positivity declined from 14.3 to 4.3 cases per week, and from 18.4% to 9.0%, respectively. Putative transmission events were only identified prior to universal masking. CONCLUSIONS: A universal masking policy was associated with reductions in HCW COVID-19 infections and occupational acquisition of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 30(8): 639-647, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724873

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to enact nurse staffing legislation often lack timely, local evidence about how specific policies could directly impact the public's health. Despite numerous studies indicating better staffing is associated with more favourable patient outcomes, only one US state (California) sets patient-to-nurse staffing standards. To inform staffing legislation actively under consideration in two other US states (New York, Illinois), we sought to determine whether staffing varies across hospitals and the consequences for patient outcomes. Coincidentally, data collection occurred just prior to the COVID-19 outbreak; thus, these data also provide a real-time example of the public health implications of chronic hospital nurse understaffing. METHODS: Survey data from nurses and patients in 254 hospitals in New York and Illinois between December 2019 and February 2020 document associations of nurse staffing with care quality, patient experiences and nurse burnout. RESULTS: Mean staffing in medical-surgical units varied from 3.3 to 9.7 patients per nurse, with the worst mean staffing in New York City. Over half the nurses in both states experienced high burnout. Half gave their hospitals unfavourable safety grades and two-thirds would not definitely recommend their hospitals. One-third of patients rated their hospitals less than excellent and would not definitely recommend it to others. After adjusting for confounding factors, each additional patient per nurse increased odds of nurses and per cent of patients giving unfavourable reports; ORs ranged from 1.15 to 1.52 for nurses on medical-surgical units and from 1.32 to 3.63 for nurses on intensive care units. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital nurses were burned out and working in understaffed conditions in the weeks prior to the first wave of COVID-19 cases, posing risks to the public's health. Such risks could be addressed by safe nurse staffing policies currently under consideration.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses/psychology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , New York/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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