Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
JAC-antimicrobial resistance ; 4(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823905

ABSTRACT

Background Patients who develop serious illness due to COVID-19 are more likely to have bacterial coinfections, for which WHO recommends treatment with antibiotics. As a result, many countries are observing a change in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS), in addition to changes in infection prevention and control (IPC) practices such as the use of personal protective equipment, on COVID-19 wards. Few data on COVID-19 and its impact on nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are available from low and middle-income countries (LMICs). As these countries often have high rates of AMR, it is vital to report the effects of COVID-19 on AMS so as to inform clinical practice and IPC guidelines. This study aims to compare prevalence of AMR in COVID-19 wards with general non-COVID-19 hospital wards. Methods This pilot hospital-based study is being conducted in two sites in both Sudan and Zambia. IPC and AMS guidelines for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 wards were identified for each institution. This study is comparing bacterial isolates and AMR patterns of nosocomial associated infections acquired on COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 wards were compared, using microbiological and sequencing methods. A total of 200 patients have been recruited: 100 per country, 50 COVID-19 patients and 50 non-COVID-19 patients. AMR transmission patterns are being identified using Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. Results The study began recruiting in May 2021 and completed recruitment of patients in October 2021. The majority of microbiological laboratory work will be completed within Q3 2021, with analysis of the results and sequencing completed in Q4 2021. A half-way point summary analysis of the data suggests differences in patient profiles, both between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 wards at both sites, as well as differences between the two countries. Preliminary analysis also suggests a significant difference between the prevalence of MDR infections in Gram-negatives seen between COVID-19 (53% in Sudan and 83% in Zambia) and non-COVID-19 (14% Sudan, 33% Zambia) (t-test, P=0.0032 Sudan, P=0.0455 Zambia) ward patients in both countries (see Figure 1).Figure 1. Percentage of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients on COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 wards in Sudan and Zambia, showing significant difference between the wards in both countries (t-test, P = 0.0032 Sudan, P = 0.0455 Zambia). Conclusions The study is providing evidence to inform policy on IPC and AMS measures to be implemented on COVID-19 wards. In addition, the outcomes of the study will be used to create a pragmatic sequencing pipeline for potential AMR outbreaks suitable for use in LMICs clinical settings.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(3)2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765792

ABSTRACT

Combination therapy has, to some extent, been successful in limiting the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Drug combinations achieve this advantage by simultaneously acting on different targets and metabolic pathways. Additionally, drug combination therapies are shown to shorten the duration of therapy for tuberculosis. As new drugs are being developed, to overcome the challenge of finding new and effective drug combinations, systems biology commonly uses approaches that analyse mycobacterial cellular processes. These approaches identify the regulatory networks, metabolic pathways, and signaling programs associated with M. tuberculosis infection and survival. Different preclinical models that assess anti-tuberculosis drug activity are available, but the combination of models that is most predictive of clinical treatment efficacy remains unclear. In this structured literature review, we appraise the options to accelerate the TB drug development pipeline through the evaluation of preclinical testing assays of drug combinations.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S7-S12, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573985

ABSTRACT

The October 2020 Global TB report reviews TB control strategies and United Nations (UN) targets set in the political declaration at the September 2018 UN General Assembly high-level meeting on TB held in New York. Progress in TB care and prevention has been very slow. In 2019, TB remained the most common cause of death from a single infectious pathogen. Globally, an estimated 10.0 million people developed TB disease in 2019, and there were an estimated 1.2 million TB deaths among HIV-negative people and an additional 208, 000 deaths among people living with HIV. Adults accounted for 88% and children for 12% of people with TB. The WHO regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (25%), and the Western Pacific (18%) had the most people with TB. Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the global total: India (26%), Indonesia (8.5%), China (8.4%), the Philippines (6.0%), Pakistan (5.7%), Nigeria (4.4%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and South Africa (3.6%). Only 30% of the 3.5 million five-year target for children treated for TB was met. Major advances have been development of new all oral regimens for MDRTB and new regimens for preventive therapy. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic dislodged TB from the top infectious disease cause of mortality globally. Notably, global TB control efforts were not on track even before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many challenges remain to improve sub-optimal TB treatment and prevention services. Tuberculosis screening and diagnostic test services need to be ramped up. The major drivers of TB remain undernutrition, poverty, diabetes, tobacco smoking, and household air pollution and these need be addressed to achieve the WHO 2035 TB care and prevention targets. National programs need to include interventions for post-tuberculosis holistic wellbeing. From first detection of COVID-19 global coordination and political will with huge financial investments have led to the development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV2 infection. The world now needs to similarly focus on development of new vaccines for TB utilizing new technological methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Miliary , Adult , Child , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
6.
One Health Outlook ; 3(1): 5, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of high consequence pathogens such as Ebola and SARS-CoV-2, along with the continued burden of neglected diseases such as rabies, has highlighted the need for preparedness for emerging and endemic infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using a One Health approach. To identify trends in SSA preparedness, the World Health Organization (WHO) Joint External Evaluation (JEE) reports were analysed. JEEs are voluntary, collaborative processes to assess country's capacities to prevent, detect and rapidly respond to public health risks. This report aimed to analyse the JEE zoonotic disease preparedness data as a whole and identify strengths and weaknesses. METHODS: JEE zoonotic disease preparedness scores for 44 SSA countries who had completed JEEs were analysed. An overall zoonotic disease preparedness score was calculated as an average of the sum of all the SSA country zoonotic disease preparedness scores and compared to the overall mean JEE score. Zoonotic disease preparedness indicators were analysed and data were collated into regions to identify key areas of strength. RESULTS: The mean 'Zoonotic disease' preparedness score (2.35, range 1.00-4.00) was 7% higher compared to the mean overall JEE preparedness score (2.19, range 1.55-3.30), putting 'Zoonotic Diseases' 5th out of 19 JEE sub-areas for preparedness. The average scores for each 'Zoonotic Disease' category were 2.45 for 'Surveillance Systems', 2.76 for 'Veterinary Workforce' and 1.84 for 'Response Mechanisms'. The Southern African region scored highest across the 'Zoonotic disease' categories (2.87).A multisectoral priority zoonotic pathogens list is in place for 43% of SSA countries and 70% reported undertaking national surveillance on 1-5 zoonotic diseases. 70% of SSA countries reported having public health training courses in place for veterinarians and 30% had veterinarians in all districts (reported as sufficient staffing). A multisectoral action plan for zoonotic outbreaks was in place for 14% countries and 32% reported having an established inter-agency response team for zoonotic outbreaks. The zoonotic diseases that appeared most in reported country priority lists were rabies and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) (both 89%), anthrax (83%), and brucellosis (78%). CONCLUSIONS: With 'Zoonotic Diseases' ranking 5th in the JEE sub-areas and a mean SSA score 7% greater than the overall mean JEE score, zoonotic disease preparedness appears to have the attention of most SSA countries. However, the considerable range suggests that some countries have more measures in place than others, which may perhaps reflect the geography and types of pathogens that commonly occur. The category 'Response Mechanisms' had the lowest mean score across SSA, suggesting that implementing a multisectoral action plan and response team could provide the greatest gains.

8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 106, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317129

ABSTRACT

Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of hospital-acquired TB infection due to persistent exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in healthcare settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an international system of infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions to interrupt the cycle of nosocomial TB transmission. The guidelines on TB IPC have proposed a comprehensive hierarchy of three core practices, comprising: administrative controls, environmental controls, and personal respiratory protection. However, the implementation of most recommendations goes beyond minimal physical and organisational requirements and thus cannot be appropriately introduced in resource-constrained settings and areas of high TB incidence. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) the lack of knowledge, expertise and practice on TB IPC is a major barrier to the implementation of essential interventions. HCWs often underestimate the risk of airborne Mtb dissemination during tidal breathing. The lack of required expertise and funding to design, install and maintain the environmental control systems can lead to inadequate dilution of infectious particles in the air, and in turn, increase the risk of TB dissemination. Insufficient supply of particulate respirators and lack of direction on the re-use of respiratory protection is associated with unsafe working practices and increased risk of TB transmission between patients and HCWs. Delayed diagnosis and initiation of treatment are commonly influenced by the effectiveness of healthcare systems to identify TB patients, and the availability of rapid molecular diagnostic tools. Failure to recognise resistance to first-line drugs contributes to the emergence of drug-resistant Mtb strains, including multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mtb. Future guideline development must consider the social, economic, cultural and climatic conditions to ensure that recommended control measures can be implemented in not only high-income countries, but more importantly low-income, high TB burden settings. Urgent action and more ambitious investments are needed at both regional and national levels to get back on track to reach the global TB targets, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/transmission , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/prevention & control , Incidence , Risk Factors
9.
Front Public Health ; 8: 596944, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979060

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization defines a zoonosis as any infection naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. The pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been classified as a zoonotic disease, however, no animal reservoir has yet been found, so this classification is premature. We propose that COVID-19 should instead be classified an "emerging infectious disease (EID) of probable animal origin." To explore if COVID-19 infection fits our proposed re-categorization vs. the contemporary definitions of zoonoses, we reviewed current evidence of infection origin and transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 virus and described this in the context of known zoonoses, EIDs and "spill-over" events. Although the initial one hundred COVID-19 patients were presumably exposed to the virus at a seafood Market in China, and despite the fact that 33 of 585 swab samples collected from surfaces and cages in the market tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, no virus was isolated directly from animals and no animal reservoir was detected. Elsewhere, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in animals including domesticated cats, dogs, and ferrets, as well as captive-managed mink, lions, tigers, deer, and mice confirming zooanthroponosis. Other than circumstantial evidence of zoonotic cases in mink farms in the Netherlands, no cases of natural transmission from wild or domesticated animals have been confirmed. More than 40 million human COVID-19 infections reported appear to be exclusively through human-human transmission. SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 do not meet the WHO definition of zoonoses. We suggest SARS-CoV-2 should be re-classified as an EID of probable animal origin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Zoonoses , Animals , Animals, Wild , China , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/classification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Humans , World Health Organization , Zoonoses/classification , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
10.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 19(1): 56, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949114

ABSTRACT

At the time of writing, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 49 million people causing more than 1.2 million deaths worldwide since its emergence from Wuhan, China in December 2019. Vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2 has drawn the global attention in order to stop the spread of the virus, with more than 10 vaccines being tested in phase III clinical trials, as of November 2020. However, critical to vaccine development is consideration of the immunological response elicited as well as biological features of the vaccine and both need to be evaluated thoroughly. Tuberculosis is also a major infectious respiratory disease of worldwide prevalence and the vaccine development for tuberculosis has been ongoing for decades. In this review, we highlight some of the common features, challenges and complications in tuberculosis vaccine development, which may also be relevant for, and inform, COVID-19 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tuberculosis Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL