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1.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 36(3): 397-406, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea results from abnormal communications between the subarachnoid and sinonasal spaces. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and localization are vital for positive clinical outcomes. However, the diagnosis and localization of CSF rhinorrhea remain suboptimal due to a lack of accurate understanding of test characteristics. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various tests and imaging modalities for diagnosing and localizing CSF rhinorrhea. METHODS: A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: Our search identified 4039 articles-53 cohort studies and 24 case series describing 1622 patients were included. The studies were heterogeneous and had a wide range of sensitivities and specificities. Many specificities were incalculable due to a lack of true negative and false positive results, thus precluding a meta-analysis. Median sensitivities and specificities were calculated for cohort studies of the following investigations: high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) 0.93/0.50 (sensitivity/specificity), magnetic resonance cisternography (MRC) 0.94/0.77, computed tomography cisternography (CTC) 0.95/1.00, radionuclide cisternography (RNC) 0.90/0.50, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cisternography (CEMRC) 0.99/1.00, endoscopy 0.58/1.00, topical intranasal fluorescein (TIF) 1.00/incalculable, intrathecal fluorescein (ITF) 0.96/1.00. Case series were reviewed separately. Etiology and site-specific data were also analyzed. CONCLUSION: MR cisternography is more accurate than high-resolution CT at diagnosing and localizing CSF rhinorrhea. CT cisternography, contrast-enhanced MR cisternography, and radionuclide cisternography have good diagnostic characteristics but are invasive. Intrathecal fluorescein shows promising data but has not been widely adopted for purely diagnostic use. Office endoscopy has limited data but does not sufficiently diagnose CSF rhinorrhea independently. These findings confirm with current guidelines and evidence.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea/diagnosis , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea/surgery , Fluorescein , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 12(5): 744-756, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients demonstrate olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OGD). Self-reporting for OGD is widely used as a predictor of COVID-19. Although psychophysical assessment is currently under investigation in this role, the sensitivity of these screening tests for COVID-19 remains unclear. In this systematic review we assess the sensitivity of self-reporting and psychophysical tests for OGD. METHODS: A systematic search was performed on PubMed, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception until February 16, 2021. Studies of suspected COVID-19 patients with reported smell or taste alterations were included. Data were pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were reported in the outcomes. RESULTS: In the 50 included studies (42,902 patients), self-reported olfactory dysfunction showed a sensitivity of 43.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.8%-50.2%), a specificity of 91.8% (95% CI, 89.0%-93.9%), and a DOR of 8.74 (95% CI, 6.67-11.46) for predicting COVID-19 infection. Self-reported gustatory dysfunction yielded a sensitivity of 44.9% (95% CI, 36.4%-53.8%), a specificity of 91.5% (95% CI, 87.7%-94.3%), and a DOR of 8.83 (95% CI, 6.48-12.01). Olfactory psychophysical tests analysis revealed a sensitivity of 52.8% (95% CI, 25.5%-78.6%), a specificity of 88.0% (95% CI, 53.7%-97.9%), and a DOR of 8.18 (95% CI, 3.65-18.36). One study used an identification test for gustatory sensations assessment. CONCLUSION: Although demonstrating high specificity and DOR values, neither self-reported OGD nor unvalidated and limited psychophysical tests were sufficiently sensitive in screening for COVID-19. They were not suitable adjuncts in ruling out the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smell , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Physical Examination , Self Report , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 728715, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568386

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 has forced a transformation in continuing professional development (CPD), shifting to virtual platforms. We report the results of a rapidly-implemented COVID-19 online interdisciplinary CPD webinar series. We aimed to determine if this virtual approach for large-scale CPD was relevant, appreciated, and effective for specialist physicians in Quebec. Methods and Analysis: This was a retrospective descriptive online survey-based study. The weekly virtual educational webinars took place between March 3, 2020 to June 15, 2020, resulting in a total of 26 webinars over 16 weeks. The study included all individuals who attended any of the webinar sessions, namely specialist physicians and department chiefs. Number of participants and overall appreciation of webinar sessions were data points collected. Results: Across all webinars, there were 8,500 unique specialist physicians which comprises 80.7% of the entire specialist practicing population in Quebec. Of note, every medical and surgical specialty was represented by attendance in at least one session. In total, 27,504 evaluation forms were completed out of all the sessions, meaning a 78.4% response rate. In post-webinar surveys, 97.6% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the webinars were pertinent to their practice and 94.6% agreed or strongly agreed that the presentation met their continuing professional needs. Conclusions: This novel interdisciplinary COVID-19 webinar series is a successful and appreciated strategy to maintain CPD amidst a global pandemic. One year later, it has become a mainstay in our toolbox and we trust this unique model of large-scale interdisciplinary CPD via webinar sessions is useful in normal times as well as in times of crisis.

4.
Children (Basel) ; 8(7)2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209559

ABSTRACT

Adenotonsillectomy is performed in children on an outpatient basis, and pain is managed by parents. A pain diary would facilitate pain management in the ambulatory setting. Our objective was to evaluate the parental response rate and the compliance of a prototype electronic pain diary (e-diary) with cloud storage in children aged 2-12 years recovering from adenotonsillectomy and to compare the e-diary with a paper diary (p-diary). Parents recorded pain scores twice daily in a pain diary for 2 weeks post-operation. Parents were given the choice of an e-diary or p-diary with picture message. A total of 208 patients were recruited, of which 35 parents (16.8%) chose the e-diary. Most parents (98%) chose to be contacted by text message. Eighty-one families (47%) returned p-diaries to us by mail. However, the response rate increased to 77% and was similar to that of the e-diary (80%) when we included data texted to the research phone from 53 families. The proportion of diaries with Complete (e-diary:0.37 vs. p-diary:0.4) and Incomplete (e-diary:0.43 vs. p-diary:0.38) data entries were similar. E-diaries provide a means to follow patients in real time after discharge. Our findings suggest that a smartphone-based medical health application coupled with a cloud would meet the needs of families and health care providers alike.

5.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(7): 646-655, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042963

ABSTRACT

Importance: Approximately 5% to 15% of patients with COVID-19 require invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and, at times, tracheostomy. Details regarding the safety and use of tracheostomy in treating COVID-19 continue to evolve. Objective: To evaluate the association of tracheostomy with COVID-19 patient outcomes and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among health care professionals (HCPs). Data Sources: EMBASE (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), and Web of Science from January 1, 2020, to March 4, 2021. Study Selection: English-language studies investigating patients with COVID-19 who were receiving IMV and undergoing tracheostomy. Observational and randomized clinical trials were eligible (no randomized clinical trials were found in the search). All screening was performed by 2 reviewers (P.S. and M.L.). Overall, 156 studies underwent full-text review. Data Extraction and Synthesis: We performed data extraction in accordance with Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. We used a random-effects model, and ROBINS-I was used for the risk-of-bias analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 transmission between HCPs and levels of personal protective equipment, in addition to complications, time to decannulation, ventilation weaning, and intensive care unit (ICU) discharge in patients with COVID-19 who underwent tracheostomy. Results: Of the 156 studies that underwent full-text review, only 69 were included in the qualitative synthesis, and 14 of these 69 studies (20.3%) were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 4669 patients were included in the 69 studies, and the mean (range) patient age across studies was 60.7 (49.1-68.8) years (43 studies [62.3%] with 1856 patients). We found that in all studies, 1854 patients (73.8%) were men and 658 (26.2%) were women. We found that 28 studies (40.6%) investigated either surgical tracheostomy or percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Overall, 3 of 58 studies (5.17%) identified a small subset of HCPs who developed COVID-19 that was associated with tracheostomy. Studies did not consistently report the number of HCPs involved in tracheostomy. Among the patients, early tracheostomy was associated with faster ICU discharge (mean difference, 6.17 days; 95% CI, -11.30 to -1.30), but no change in IMV weaning (mean difference, -2.99 days; 95% CI, -8.32 to 2.33) or decannulation (mean difference, -3.12 days; 95% CI, -7.35 to 1.12). There was no association between mortality or perioperative complications and type of tracheostomy. A risk-of-bias evaluation that used ROBINS-I demonstrated notable bias in the confounder and patient selection domains because of a lack of randomization and cohort matching. There was notable heterogeneity in study reporting. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that enhanced personal protective equipment is associated with low rates of SARS-CoV-2 transmission during tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 may reduce ICU stay, but this finding is limited by the observational nature of the included studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 165(4): 528-531, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433261

ABSTRACT

The objective of this short scientific communication is to describe and test a strategy to overcome communication barriers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era otolaryngology operating rooms. Thirteen endoscopic sinus surgeries, 4 skull base surgeries, and 1 tracheotomy were performed with powered air-purifying respirators. During these surgeries, surgical team members donned headsets with microphones linked via conference call. Noise measurements and survey responses were obtained and compared to pre-COVID-19 data. Noise was problematic and caused miscommunication as per 93% and 76% of respondents, respectively. Noise in COVID-19 era operating rooms was significantly higher compared to pre-COVID-19 era data (73.8 vs 70.2 decibels, P = .04). Implementation of this headset strategy significantly improved communication. Respondents with headsets were less likely to encounter communication problems (31% vs 93%, P < .001). Intraoperative measures to protect surgical team members during aerosolizing surgeries may impair communication. Linking team members via a conference call is a solution to improve communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication Barriers , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noise, Occupational , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures , Respiratory Protective Devices , Aerosols , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Wireless Technology
7.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 45(4): 574-583, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a histological subtype of CRS that is generally recognised as being more difficult to manage. Patients with ECRS tend to have greater disease severity and poorer treatment outcomes after sinus surgery when compared with non-ECRS patients. The histopathology and biomarker assessments of ECRS are often unavailable prior to surgery and may be impractical and costly to analyse. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to understand clinical comorbidities associated with ECRS. DESIGN/SETTING: We searched three independent databases for articles that reported clinical CRS comorbidities associated with tissue eosinophilia. Data from studies with the same reported comorbidities were pooled, and a forest plot analysis was used to assess potential associations with four different conditions including allergic rhinitis, ASA sensitivity, asthma and atopy. The association between the phenotype of nasal polyps and ECRS was also quantified as a secondary objective. ECRS cut-off levels were as defined by papers included. MAIN OUTCOME/RESULTS: Eighteen articles were identified. The presence of nasal polyps (the first numbers in brackets represent odds ratios) (5.85, 95% CI [3.61, 9.49], P < .00001), ASA sensitivity (5.63, 95% CI [3.43, 9.23], P < .00001), allergic rhinitis (1.84, 95% CI [1.27, 2.67], P = .001) and asthma (3.15, 95% CI [2.61, 3.82], P < .00001) were found to be significantly associated with tissue eosinophilia. Atopy, however, was not significantly associated with tissue eosinophilia (1.71, 95% CI [0.59, 4.95], P = .32). CONCLUSION: Certain clinical disease characteristics such as ASA sensitivity, allergic rhinitis and asthma are more associated with CRS patients with eosinophilia when compared to those without eosinophilia. The phenotype of nasal polyps was also associated with ECRS. It is important for surgeons to recognise these comorbidities to ensure correct diagnoses, management and follow-up are implemented.


Subject(s)
Eosinophilia/complications , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/complications , Aspirin/adverse effects , Asthma/complications , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Humans , Nasal Polyps/complications , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 30(3): 347-352, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasonography of the airway is becoming a first-line noninvasive adjunct assessment tool of the pediatric airway. It is defined as a focused and goal-directed portable ultrasonography brought to the patient and performed and interpreted on the spot by the provider. Successful use requires a thorough understanding of airway anatomy and ultrasound experience. AIMS: To outline the many benefits, and some limitations, of airway ultrasonography in the clinical and perioperative setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expert review of the recent literature. RESULTS: Ultrasound assessment of the airway may provide the clinician with valuable information that is specific to the individual airway static and dynamic anatomy of the patient. Ultrasound can help identify vocal cord dysfunction and pathology, assess airway size, predict the appropriate diameter of endotracheal and tracheostomy tubes, differentiate tracheal from esophageal intubation, localize the cricothyroid membrane for emergency airway access and identify tracheal rings for US-guided tracheostomy. Ultrasonography is also a great tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of a pneumothorax, the visualization of the movement of the diaphragms, and quantifying the amount of gastric content. Ultrasonography signs, tips, and pearls that allow these diagnoses are highlighted. The major disadvantage of ultrasonography remains interobserver variability, and operator dependence, as it requires specific training and experience. CONCLUSION: Although it is not standard of care yet, there is significant potential for the integration of ultrasound technology into the routine care of the airway.


Subject(s)
Airway Management/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Trachea/anatomy & histology , Ultrasonography/methods , Child , Humans
9.
Laryngoscope ; 130(9): 2148-2152, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine if troponin positivity (TP) in patients who undergo head and neck cancer mucosal resections (HNS) predicts noncardiac complications (NCC). BACKGROUND: Major HNSs are arduous operations that place stress on the patient's hemodynamic system. TP after noncardiac surgery previously has been shown in up to 25% of patients, which may signal cardiac complications (CC) or NCC. Although CC after HNS has been observed, no study has investigated the relationship of TP to NCC. METHODS: All patients who underwent HNS at a tertiary-care cancer center from July 2014 to July 2016 were included and underwent postoperative troponin measurements as part of an institutional cardiac protocol. Comparative and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare TP and troponin-negative (TN) patients for NCC. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-two patients underwent HNS. Of those, 15% developed TP during the postoperative period. There was no significant difference between TP and TN for gender, tumor-node-metastasis staging, Charlson comorbidity index, and smoking status. Risk of NCC in TP was 73.1% versus 28.1% in TN (P < 0.001). A significant difference (P < 0.05) in wound complications, length of hospital stay (LOHS), and incidence of pneumonia was found between both groups. Nonparametric testing confirmed significant difference in pneumonia (Z = -3.469, P = 0.001) and LOHS (-3.110, P = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed a significant difference in LOHS independent of CC (R2 = 0.122, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: TP is not an uncommon occurrence after HNS and is associated with statistically significant increases in wound complications, LOHS, and pneumonia. However, the overall significance of these findings remains unclear, and further research is warranted to determine if outcomes may be improved by closely monitoring these patients for TP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:2148-2152, 2020.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms/blood , Pneumonia/blood , Postoperative Complications/blood , Troponin/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Period , Predictive Value of Tests , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 8(12): 1421-1429, 2018 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) have been shown to have greater disease severity and poorer treatment outcomes after sinus surgery. Although the inflammatory pattern of ECRS is essential to diagnosing this subtype, there is currently no consensus for diagnosis. Our aim in this study was to determine whether high tissue eosinophilia (HTE), measured as eosinophils per high-power field (eos/HPF), could be used to define ECRS based on likelihood of recurrence. METHODS: Embase, Medline, and PubMed databases were searched for studies that reported HTE and recurrence in ECRS patients after surgical treatment. We used a random-effects bivariate meta-analysis to calculate summary sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) for detecting ECRS at different HTE cut-off scores using risk of recurrence as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We identified 11 articles (n = 3183) that reported HTE associated with recurrence. A cut-off value of >55 eos/HPF showed the highest sensitivity (0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.91), specificity (0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and DOR (232.7; 95% CI, 91.0-595.1). Meta-regression analysis performed showed that the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies score (p = 0.1287), geographic location (p = 0.3745), follow-up time (p = 0.2879), and study design (p = 0.1865) did not affect the test accuracy. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that using eos/HPF has good diagnostic accuracy and may be a useful tool for identifying ECRS patients. Based on the results of our meta-analysis, we recommend a cut-off value of >55 eos/HPF for predicting the likelihood of recurrence of ECRS.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Eosinophils/pathology , Nasal Polyps/diagnosis , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Chronic Disease , Humans , Nasal Polyps/surgery , Prognosis , Recurrence , Rhinitis/surgery , Sinusitis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
11.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 18(9): 46, 2018 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995271

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preliminary studies have suggested differences in endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) across ancestry/ethnic groups. Eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) is the predominant subtype for Western/European ancestry CRS patients and non-eosinophilic CRS (nECRS) for Asian patients. This review aims to re-analyze CRS endotypes across ancestry populations using one consistent criteria to existing data. RECENT FINDINGS: Although tissue eosinophilia is the most commonly used criterion for ECRS, various cut-off points are suggested. Surrogate markers have been extensively studied. Sixty-six cohorts with study criteria were included with a total of 8557 patients. Raw data from 11 studies 544 patients were re-analyzed using number of tissue eosinophils. At lower cut-off values of ≥ 5 and ≥ 10 cells/HPF, most patients of Asian and Western/European ancestry were classified as ECRS without difference. In contrast, at cut-off points of ≥ 70 and ≥ 120 cells/HPF, the majority of both groups became reclassified as nECRS. After applying one consistent criteria to existing data, differences across ancestry and geographic populations in endotypes of CRS were no longer evident.


Subject(s)
/classification , Rhinitis/classification , Sinusitis/classification , Biomarkers , Chronic Disease , Geography , Humans , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Rhinitis/ethnology , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/ethnology
12.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 152(1): 53-6, 2015 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25358344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the rate of postoperative hypocalcemia following completion thyroidectomy (CT), in comparison with the hypocalcemia rate following total thyroidectomy (TT). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study, performed at the McGill University Thyroid Cancer Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 2007 to 2012. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Medical records of adult patients undergoing CT and TT operated by a single surgeon were reviewed. Data were extracted for demographics, postoperative calcium levels, surgical logs, and final surgical pathology. Hypocalcemia was defined as corrected serum calcium level ≤ 1.90 mmol/L, with concurrent serum parathyroid hormone <8 ng/L, and/or any signs or symptoms of hypocalcemia. RESULTS: There were 68 CTs and 146 TTs. Transient hypocalcemia occurred in 1 of 68 (1.5%) and 18 of 146 (12.5%) patients in the CT and TT groups, respectively. The rate of hypocalcemia was significantly lower in the CT compared with the TT group (P = .02). In both groups, there were no cases of permanent hypocalcemia. CONCLUSION: The risk of transient of hypocalcemia in patients undergoing CT is significantly lower than the rate of hypocalcemia in patients undergoing TT.


Subject(s)
Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Thyroidectomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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