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1.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 51(2): 69-70, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744322
2.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-11, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of individuals report persistent, debilitating and disparate symptoms despite resolution of acute COVID-19 infection (i.e. long COVID). Numerous registered clinical trials investigating treatment of long COVID are expected to be completed in 2021-2022. The aim of this review is to provide a scope of the candidate treatments for long COVID. A synthesis of ongoing long COVID clinical trials can inform methodologic approaches for future studies and identify key research vistas. METHODS: Scoping searches were conducted on multiple national and international clinical trial registries. Interventional trials testing treatments for long COVID were selected. The search timeline was from database inception to 28 July 2021. RESULTS: This scoping review included 59 clinical trial registration records from 22 countries with a total projected enrolment of 6718. Considerable heterogeneity was exhibited amongst component records with respect to the characterization of long COVID (i.e. name, symptoms- including frequency, intensity, trajectory and duration- mode of ascertainment, and definition of acute phase). In addition, the majority of proposed interventions were non-pharmacological and either targeted multiple long COVID symptoms simultaneously, or focussed on treatment of respiratory/pulmonary sequelae. Multiple interventions targeted inflammation, as well as tissue oxygenation and cellular recovery, and several interventions were repurposed from analogous conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this scoping review investigating ongoing clinical trials testing candidate treatments for long COVID suggest that a greater degree of definitional stringency and homogeneity is needed insofar as the characterization of long COVID and inclusion/exclusion criteria.

3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 84-92, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719342

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to quantify the immediate psychological effects and psychoneuroimmunity prevention measures of a workforce returning to work during the COVID-19 epidemic. Workforce returning to work was invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding their attitude toward the COVID-19 epidemic and return-to-work along with psychological parameters including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale- 21 (DASS-21) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Psychoneuroimmunity prevention measures include precautions at personal and organization levels. From 673 valid questionnaires, we found that 10.8% of respondents met the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after returning to work. The respondents reported a low prevalence of anxiety (3.8%), depression (3.7%), stress (1.5%) and insomnia (2.3%). There were no significant differences in the severity of psychiatric symptoms between workers/technicians and executives/managers. >95% reported psychoneuroimmunity prevention measures including good ventilation in the workplace and wore a face mask as protective. Factors that were associated with the severity of psychiatric symptoms in the workforce were marital status, presence of physical symptom, poor physical health and viewing return to work as a health hazard (p < 0.05). In contrast, personal psychoneuroimmunity prevention measures including hand hygiene and wearing face masks as well as organizational measures including significant improvement of workplace hygiene and concerns from the company were associated with less severe psychiatric symptoms (p < 0.05). Contrary to expectations, returning to work had not caused a high level of psychiatric symptoms in the workforce. The low prevalence of psychiatric symptoms could be due to confidence instilled by psychoneuroimmunity prevention measures before the resumption of work. Our findings would provide information for other countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Return to Work/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hand Hygiene , Health Status , Humans , Male , Marital Status , Masks , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychoneuroimmunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Ventilation , Workplace , Young Adult
4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 40-48, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719336

ABSTRACT

In addition to being a public physical health emergency, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected global mental health, as evidenced by panic-buying worldwide as cases soared. Little is known about changes in levels of psychological impact, stress, anxiety and depression during this pandemic. This longitudinal study surveyed the general population twice - during the initial outbreak, and the epidemic's peak four weeks later, surveying demographics, symptoms, knowledge, concerns, and precautionary measures against COVID-19. There were 1738 respondents from 190 Chinese cities (1210 first-survey respondents, 861 s-survey respondents; 333 respondents participated in both). Psychological impact and mental health status were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), respectively. IES-R measures PTSD symptoms in survivorship after an event. DASS -21 is based on tripartite model of psychopathology that comprise a general distress construct with distinct characteristics. This study found that there was a statistically significant longitudinal reduction in mean IES-R scores (from 32.98 to 30.76, p < 0.01) after 4 weeks. Nevertheless, the mean IES-R score of the first- and second-survey respondents were above the cut-off scores (>24) for PTSD symptoms, suggesting that the reduction in scores was not clinically significant. During the initial evaluation, moderate-to-severe stress, anxiety and depression were noted in 8.1%, 28.8% and 16.5%, respectively and there were no significant longitudinal changes in stress, anxiety and depression levels (p > 0.05). Protective factors included high level of confidence in doctors, perceived survival likelihood and low risk of contracting COVID-19, satisfaction with health information, personal precautionary measures. As countries around the world brace for an escalation in cases, Governments should focus on effective methods of disseminating unbiased COVID-19 knowledge, teaching correct containment methods, ensuring availability of essential services/commodities, and providing sufficient financial support.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Epidemics , Female , Hand Hygiene , Health Behavior , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Masks , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Psychotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Young Adult
5.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2000132, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684418

ABSTRACT

Objective: To perform a systematic and meta-analysis on the prevalence rates of mental health symptoms including anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population in Eastern Europe, as well as three select sub-populations: students, general healthcare workers, and frontline healthcare workers. Data sources: Studies in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and medRxiv up to 6 February 2021. Eligibility criteria and data analysis: Prevalence rates of mental health symptoms in the general population and key sub-populations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Eastern Europe. Data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence rates of anxiety and depression. Results: The meta-analysis identifies and includes 21 studies and 26 independent samples in Eastern Europe. Poland (n = 4), Serbia (n = 4), Russia (n = 3), and Croatia (n = 3) had the greatest number of studies. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted in eleven Eastern European countries including Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The pooled prevalence of anxiety in 18 studies with 22 samples was 30% (95% CI: 24-37%) pooled prevalence of depression in 18 studies with 23 samples was 27% (95% CI: 21-34%). Implications: The cumulative evidence from the meta-analysis reveals high prevalence rates of clinically significant symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in Eastern Europe. The findings suggest evidence of a potential mental health crisis in Eastern Europe during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our synthesis also reveals a relative lack of studies in certain Eastern European countries as well as high heterogeneities among the existing studies, calling for more effort to achieve evidence-based mental healthcare in Eastern Europe.


Objetivo: Realizar un metanálisis sistemático sobre las tasas de prevalencia de síntomas de salud mental, incluidos ansiedad y depresión durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en la población general de Europa del Este, así como en tres subpoblaciones seleccionadas: estudiantes, trabajadores sanitarios generales y trabajadores sanitarios de primera línea.Fuentes de datos: Estudios en PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO y medRxiv hasta el 6 de febrero de 2021.Criterios de elegibilidad y análisis de datos: Tasas de prevalencia de síntomas de salud mental en la población general y subpoblaciones claves durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en Europa del Este. Los datos se combinaron mediante un metanálisis de efectos aleatorios para estimar las tasas de prevalencia de ansiedad y depresión.Resultados: El metanálisis identifica e incluye 21 estudios y 26 muestras independientes en Europa del Este. Polonia (n = 4), Serbia (n = 4), Rusia (n = 3) y Croacia (n = 3) tuvieron el mayor número de estudios. Hasta donde sabemos, no se han realizado estudios en once países de Europa del Este, incluidos Hungría, Eslovaquia y Eslovenia. La prevalencia combinada de ansiedad en 18 estudios con 22 muestras fue de 30% (IC del 95%: 24­37%) y la prevalencia combinada de depresión en 18 estudios con 23 muestras fue de 27% (IC del 95%: 21­34%).Implicaciones: La evidencia acumulada del metanálisis revela altas tasas de prevalencia de síntomas clínicamente significativos durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en Europa del Este. Los hallazgos sugieren evidencia de una posible crisis de salud mental en Europa del Este durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en curso. Nuestra síntesis también revela una relativa falta de estudios en ciertos países de Europa del Este, así como una gran heterogeneidad entre los estudios existentes, lo que exige un mayor esfuerzo para lograr una atención de la salud mental basada en la evidencia en Europa del Este.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Europe, Eastern/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data
6.
J Affect Disord ; 304: 66-77, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are associated with immune dysregulation as measured by serum levels of biological markers of immunity. Adults with mental disorders have also been reported to have attenuated post vaccine immune response. The COVID-19 pandemic has invited the need to determine whether individuals with mental disorders exhibit differential immune response following the administration of vaccines for other infections. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and PsycInfo was conducted from inception to May 2021 investigating vaccine response in persons with mental disorders, as measured by biological markers of immunity (i.e., antibodies, cytokines). RESULTS: Thirteen articles were identified which evaluated vaccine efficacy in persons with mental disorders. Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) or schizophrenia revealed attenuated immune response to vaccination, or no statistical difference compared to control subjects. Individuals with anorexia nervosa or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) displayed no attenuated post-vaccination antibody level. Individuals with insomnia displayed lower levels of antibodies after vaccination, whereas individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) displayed no difference in vaccine response compared to control subjects. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this review include the relatively few articles included (n = 13) and small sample sizes (less than thirty subjects) in the majority of articles. CONCLUSION: Vaccine response in adults with a mental disorder remains inconclusive. Notwithstanding the heterogeneity and relatively small number of studies, available evidence does suggest attenuated immune response across disparate vaccinations. Future research is required to confirm vaccine efficacy in persons with mental disorders, especially regarding immune responses to COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity , Pandemics , Vaccination
7.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 434-443, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637741

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reduce the spread of infection from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mental healthcare facilities were forced to make the rapid transition from face-to-face services to virtual care. This systematic review aims to synthesize the extant literature reporting on barriers of telemental health (TMH) during the COVID-19 pandemic and how facilities have worked to overcome these barriers, to inform best practices for TMH delivery. RECENT FINDINGS: Most recent findings came from case studies from mental health professionals which reported on barriers related to institutional, provider and patient factors, and how these barriers were overcome. Common barriers identified in the literature include: technological difficulties; issues regarding safety, privacy and confidentiality; therapeutic delivery and the patient-provider relationship; and a loss of sense of community. Studies also reported on the benefits to TMH interventions/tools, as well as suggestions for improvements in the delivery of TMH services. SUMMARY: As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, mental healthcare providers continue to find creative and feasible solutions to overcome barriers to the delivery of TMH. Dissemination of these solutions is imperative to ensure the best quality of mental healthcare for patients across the globe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services , Quality Improvement , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: General population, frontline healthcare workers (HCWs), and adult students in Spain are at risk of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms during the COVID-19 crisis. A meta-analysis of the individual studies on these symptoms would provide systematic evidence to aid policymakers and researchers in focusing on prevalence, risk, and best interventions. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to be the first meta-analysis and systematic review to calculate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms in Spain's adult population (general population, frontline healthcare workers (HCWs), and adult students) during the Covid-19 epidemic. METHOD: Random-effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. RESULTS: The meta-analysis includes 28 studies with 38 individual samples in Spain. The pooled prevalence of anxiety symptoms in 22 studies comprising a sample population of 82,024 was 20% (95% CI: 15-25%), that of depression symptoms in 22 articles with a total sample comprising 82,890 individuals was 22% (95% CI: 18-28%), and that of insomnia symptoms in three articles with a sample population of 745 was 57% (95% CI: 48-66%. CONCLUSIONS: The accumulative evidence reveals that adults in Spain suffered higher prevalence rates of mental symptoms during the COVID-19 crisis, with a significantly higher rate relative to other countries such as China. Our synthesis also reveals a relative lack of studies on frontline and general HCWs in Spain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 101: 93-135, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588234

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: COVID-19 is associated with clinically significant symptoms despite resolution of the acute infection (i.e., post-COVID-19 syndrome). Fatigue and cognitive impairment are amongst the most common and debilitating symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the proportion of individuals experiencing fatigue and cognitive impairment 12 or more weeks following COVID-19 diagnosis, and to characterize the inflammatory correlates and functional consequences of post-COVID-19 syndrome. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches were conducted without language restrictions from database inception to June 8, 2021 on PubMed/MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Embase, Web of Science, Google/Google Scholar, and select reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Primary research articles which evaluated individuals at least 12 weeks after confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and specifically reported on fatigue, cognitive impairment, inflammatory parameters, and/or functional outcomes were selected. DATA EXTRACTION & SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently extracted published summary data and assessed methodological quality and risk of bias. A meta-analysis of proportions was conducted to pool Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformed proportions using the random-effects restricted maximum-likelihood model. MAIN OUTCOMES & MEASURES: The co-primary outcomes were the proportions of individuals reporting fatigue and cognitive impairment, respectively, 12 or more weeks following COVID-19 infection. The secondary outcomes were inflammatory correlates and functional consequences associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 10,979 studies, and 81 studies were selected for inclusion. The fatigue meta-analysis comprised 68 studies, the cognitive impairment meta-analysis comprised 43 studies, and 48 studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Meta-analysis revealed that the proportion of individuals experiencing fatigue 12 or more weeks following COVID-19 diagnosis was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.27, 0.37; p < 0.001; n = 25,268; I2 = 99.1%). The proportion of individuals exhibiting cognitive impairment was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.17, 0.28; p < 0.001; n = 13,232; I2 = 98.0). Moreover, narrative synthesis revealed elevations in proinflammatory markers and considerable functional impairment in a subset of individuals. CONCLUSIONS & RELEVANCE: A significant proportion of individuals experience persistent fatigue and/or cognitive impairment following resolution of acute COVID-19. The frequency and debilitating nature of the foregoing symptoms provides the impetus to characterize the underlying neurobiological substrates and how to best treat these phenomena. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42021256965).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Brain Sci ; 11(12)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555010

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a predominantly global quarantine response that has been associated with social isolation, loneliness, and anxiety. The foregoing experiences have been amply documented to have profound impacts on health, morbidity, and mortality. This narrative review uses the extant neurobiological and theoretical literature to explore the association between social isolation, loneliness, and anxiety in the context of quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging evidence suggests that distinct health issues (e.g., a sedentary lifestyle, a diminished overall sense of well-being) are associated with social isolation and loneliness. The health implications of social isolation and loneliness during quarantine have a heterogenous and comorbid nature and, as a result, form a link to anxiety. The limbic system plays a role in fear and anxiety response; the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, HPA axis, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, insula, and locus coeruleus have an impact in a prolonged anxious state. In the conclusion, possible solutions are considered and remarks are made on future areas of exploration.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 129-137, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446901

ABSTRACT

Following recovery from COVID-19, an increasing proportion of individuals have reported the persistence and/or new onset of symptoms which collectively have been identified as post-COVID-19 syndrome by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Although depressive symptoms in the acute phase of COVID-19 have been well characterized, the frequency of depression following recovery of the acute phase remains unknown. Herein, we sought to determine the frequency of depressive symptoms and clinically-significant depression more than 12 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A systematic search of PubMed, Ovid Medline and Google Scholar for studies published between January 1, 2020 and June 5, 2021 was conducted. Frequency and factors associated with depression in post-COVID-19 syndrome were recorded and qualitatively assessed through narrative synthesis. Methodological quality and risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for prospective cohort studies. Of 316 articles identified through our systematic search, eight studies were included. The frequency of depressive symptoms +12 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection ranged from 11 to 28%. The frequency of clinically-significant depression and/or severe depressive symptoms ranged from 3 to 12%. The severity of acute COVID-19 was not associated with the frequency of depressive symptoms. However, the component studies were highly heterogeneous with respect to mode of ascertainment, time of assessment, and location and age of patients. The majority of studies did not include an unexposed control group. Future research should endeavour to produce a standardized classification of post-COVID-19 syndrome, and as well as include unexposed control groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 514-521, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the mortality risk due to covid-19 with death due to overdose in British Columbia, Canada. The opioid epidemic was declared a public health emergency in 2016. METHODS: Mortality risk was calculated in micromorts with covid-19 data for January-October 2020, derived from the BC center for Disease Control, and illicit drug toxicity deaths for January 2010-September 2020, derived from the BC Coroners Service. Age-stratified covid-19 incidence and deaths per 100,000 population and age-stratified illicit drug toxicity death rates per 100,000 population were calculated. A micromort is a unit of risk equivalent to a one-in-a-million chance of death. RESULTS: During the covid-19 pandemic, illicit drug toxicity deaths reached 1.0 micromorts per day, representing an increase of 0.5 micromorts per day relative to 2019 rates. In comparison, covid-19 mortality risk was 0.05 micromorts per day among individuals from the general population living in British Columbia and 21.1 micromorts per day among those infected with covid-19. Covid-related mortality risk was significantly lower among individuals aged <60 years, relative to older adults, whereas drug toxicity-related mortality was highest for individuals aged 30-59 years. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality associated with covid-19 is apparent and distributed unevenly across subpopulations. The mortality due to overdose has increased during covid-19 and exceeds mortality due to covid-19. Our results instantiate the triple threat caused by covid-19 (i.e., public health crisis, economic crisis and mental health crisis) and quantitatively highlight the externality of increased mortality due to deaths of despair in response to public health efforts to reduce covid-related mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Aged , British Columbia/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J R Soc Med ; 114(10): 473-479, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of federal, public health and social support programs on national suicide rates in Canada. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Canadian National Database (i.e., Statistics Canada) and Statista. PARTICIPANTS: Population-level data, and economic and consumer market data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide mortality data, population data and unemployment data were obtained from available statistical databases (e.g. Statistics Canada). We quantified suicide rate by dividing the total number of suicide deaths by the national population expressed as a rate per 100,000 population. RESULTS: Overall suicide mortality rate decreased in Canada from 10.82 deaths per 100,000 in the March 2019 - February 2020 period to 7.34 per 100,000 (i.e. absolute difference of 1300 deaths) in the March 2020 - February 2021 period. The overall Canadian unemployment rate changed from an average monthly rate of 5.7% in 2019 to 9.5% in 2020. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that for the first post-pandemic interval evaluated (i.e., March 2020 - February 2021), suicide rates in Canada decreased against a background of extraordinary public health measures intended to mitigate community spread of COVID-19. An externality of public health measures was a significant rise in national unemployment rates in population measures of distress. Our results suggest that government interventions that broadly aim to reduce measures of insecurity (i.e., economic, housing, health), and timely psychiatric services, should be prioritised as part of a national suicide reduction strategy, not only during but after termination of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Suicide/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Government , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Survival Rate/trends
14.
BJPsych Open ; 7(5): e146, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acceptance and willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine are unknown. AIMS: We compared attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in people suffering from depression or anxiety disorder and people without mental disorders, and their willingness to pay for it. METHOD: Adults with depression or anxiety disorder (n = 79) and healthy controls (n = 134) living in Chongqing, China, completed a cross-sectional study between 13 and 26 January 2021. We used a validated survey to assess eight aspects related to attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccines. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. RESULTS: Seventy-six people with depression or anxiety disorder (96.2%) and 134 healthy controls (100%) reported willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. A significantly higher proportion of people with depression or anxiety disorder (64.5%) were more willing to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine than healthy controls (38.1%) (P ≤ 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, severity of depression and anxiety was significantly associated with willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccination among psychiatric patients (P = 0.048). Non-healthcare workers (P = 0.039), health insurance (P = 0.003), living with children (P = 0.006) and internalised stigma (P = 0.002) were significant factors associated with willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine in healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, psychiatric patients in Chongqing, China, showed high acceptance and willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine. Factors associated with willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine differed between psychiatric patients and healthy controls.

15.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(10): 1079-1091, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328589

ABSTRACT

Importance: Preexisting noncommunicable diseases (eg, diabetes) increase the risk of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. Mood disorders are associated with impaired immune function and social determinants that increase the risk of COVID-19. Determining whether preexisting mood disorders represent a risk of COVID-19 would inform public health priorities. Objective: To assess whether preexisting mood disorders are associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalization, severe complications, and death. Data Sources: Systematic searches were conducted for studies reporting data on COVID-19 outcomes in populations with and without mood disorders on PubMed/MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Embase, Web of Science, Google/Google Scholar, LitCovid, and select reference lists. The search timeline was from database inception to February 1, 2021. Study Selection: Primary research articles that reported quantitative COVID-19 outcome data in persons with mood disorders vs persons without mood disorders of any age, sex, and nationality were selected. Of 1950 articles identified through this search strategy, 21 studies were included in the analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess methodological quality and risk of bias of component studies. Reported adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were pooled with unadjusted ORs calculated from summary data to generate 4 random-effects summary ORs, each corresponding to a primary outcome. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 4 a priori primary outcomes were COVID-19 susceptibility, COVID-19 hospitalization, COVID-19 severe events, and COVID-19 death. The hypothesis was formulated before study search. Outcome measures between individuals with and without mood disorders were compared. Results: This review included 21 studies that involved more than 91 million individuals. Significantly higher odds of COVID-19 hospitalization (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.12-1.53; P = .001; n = 26 554 397) and death (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.34-1.69; P < .001; n = 25 808 660) were found in persons with preexisting mood disorders compared with those without mood disorders. There was no association between mood disorders and COVID-19 susceptibility (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.73-2.19; n = 65 514 469) or severe events (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87-1.03; n = 83 240). Visual inspection of the composite funnel plot for asymmetry indicated the presence of publication bias; however, the Egger regression intercept test result was not statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between preexisting mood disorders and COVID-19 outcomes suggest that individuals with preexisting mood disorders are at higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and death and should be categorized as an at-risk group on the basis of a preexisting condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Causality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Brain Sci ; 11(8)2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325603

ABSTRACT

Impaired sense of smell occurs in a fraction of patients with COVID-19 infection, but its effect on cerebral activity is unknown. Thus, this case report investigated the effect of COVID-19 infection on frontotemporal cortex activity during olfactory stimuli. In this preliminary study, patients who recovered from COVID-19 infection (n = 6) and healthy controls who never contracted COVID-19 (n = 6) were recruited. Relative changes in frontotemporal cortex oxy-hemoglobin during olfactory stimuli was acquired using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The area under curve (AUC) of oxy-hemoglobin for the time interval 5 s before and 15 s after olfactory stimuli was derived. In addition, olfactory function was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks 12-identification test (SIT-12). Patients had lower SIT-12 scores than healthy controls (p = 0.026), but there were no differences in oxy-hemoglobin AUC between healthy controls and patients (p > 0.05). This suggests that past COVID-19 infection may not affect frontotemporal cortex function, and these preliminary results need to be verified in larger samples.

17.
Psychiatry Res ; 303: 114086, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303645

ABSTRACT

Herein we evaluate the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on antidepressant effectiveness of intravenous (IV) ketamine in adults with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We conducted a case series analysis of adults with TRD (n = 267) who received four ketamine infusions at an outpatient clinic in Ontario, Canada, during COVID-19 restrictions (from March 2020 - February 2021; n = 107), compared to patients who received treatment in the previous year (March 2019 - February 2020; n = 160). Both groups experienced significant and comparable improvements in depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and anxiety with repeated ketamine infusions. Effectiveness of IV ketamine was not attenuated during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , Ketamine , Adult , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/drug therapy , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Ontario , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Affect Disord ; 290: 364-377, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a public health, economic and mental health crisis. We hypothesized that timely government implementation of stringent measures to reduce viral transmission would benefit mental health, as evidenced by reduced rates of depressive symptoms (i.e., Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9≥10, PHQ-2≥3). METHODS: The systematic review herein (PROSPERO CRD42020200647) evaluated to what extent differences in government-imposed stringency and timeliness of response to COVID-19 moderate the prevalence of depressive symptoms across 33 countries (k=114, N=640,037). We included data from six lower-middle-income countries, nine upper-middle-income countries, and 18 higher-income countries. Government-imposed stringency and timeliness in response were operationalized using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response ("Stringency") Index. RESULTS: The overall proportion of study participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms was 21.39% (95% CI 19.37-23.47). The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was significantly lower in countries wherein governments implemented stringent policies promptly. The moderating effect of government response remained significant after including the national frequency of COVID cases at the time of study commencement, Healthcare Access and Quality index, and the inclusion of COVID patients in the study. LIMITATIONS: Factors that may have confounded our results include, for example, differences in lockdown duration, lack of study participant and outcome assessor blinding, and retrospective assessment of depressive symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: Governments that enacted stringent measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 benefited not only the physical, but also the mental health of their population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Mental Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Psychiatry International ; 2(1):71, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1215451

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to compare the severity of psychological impact, anxiety and depression between people from two developing countries, Iran and China, and to correlate mental health parameters with variables relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although China and Iran are developing countries based on the World Bank’s criteria, these two countries are different in access to resources and health care systems. We hypothesized that Iranians would show higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress as compared to Chinese. Methods: This study collected information related to the COVID-19 pandemic including physical health, precautionary measures and knowledge about the pandemic. We also used validated questionnaires such as the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess the mental health status. Results: There were a total of 1411 respondents (550 from Iran;861 from China). The mean IES-R scores of respondents from both countries were above the cut-off for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Iranians had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression (p < 0.01). Significantly more Iranians believed COVID-19 was transmitted via contact, practised hand hygiene, were unsatisfied with health information and expressed less confidence in their doctors, but were less likely to wear a facemask (p < 0.001). Significantly more Iranians received health information related to COVID-19 via television while Chinese preferred the Internet (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This cross-country study found that Iranians had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression as compared to Chinese. The difference in reported measures between respondents from Iran and China were due to differences in access to healthcare services and governments’ responses to the pandemic.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6481, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142470

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, impacting the lifestyles, economy, physical and mental health of individuals globally. This study aimed to test the model triggered by physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection, in which the need for health information and perceived impact of the pandemic mediated the path sequentially, leading to adverse mental health outcomes. A cross-sectional research design with chain mediation model involving 4612 participants from participating 8 countries selected via a respondent-driven sampling strategy was used. Participants completed online questionnaires on physical symptoms, the need for health information, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The results showed that Poland and the Philippines were the two countries with the highest levels of anxiety, depression and stress; conversely, Vietnam had the lowest mean scores in these areas. Chain mediation model showed the need for health information, and the perceived impact of the pandemic were sequential mediators between physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection (predictor) and consequent mental health status (outcome). Excessive and contradictory health information might increase the perceived impact of the pandemic. Rapid COVID-19 testing should be implemented to minimize the psychological burden associated with physical symptoms, whilst public mental health interventions could target adverse mental outcomes associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Asia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
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