Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 41
Filter
1.
Sci Immunol ; : eabq7647, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986327

ABSTRACT

Spike-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are generally considered key correlates of vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently, robust vaccine prevention of severe disease with SARS-CoV-2 variants that largely escape NAb responses has been reported, suggesting a role for other immune parameters for virologic control. However, direct data demonstrating a role of CD8+ T cells in vaccine protection has not yet been reported. In this study, we show that vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells contribute substantially to virologic control following SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques. We vaccinated 30 macaques with a single immunization of the adenovirus vector-based vaccine Ad26.COV2.S or sham and then challenged them with 5x105 TCID50 SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) by the intranasal and intratracheal routes. All vaccinated animals were infected by this high-dose challenge but showed rapid virologic control in nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage by day 4 following challenge. However, administration of an anti-CD8α or anti-CD8ß depleting monoclonal antibody in vaccinated animals prior to SARS-CoV-2 challenge resulted in higher levels of peak and day 4 virus in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These data demonstrate that CD8+ T cells contribute substantially to vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 replication in macaques.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226335, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981507

ABSTRACT

Importance: Antibody responses elicited by current messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines decline rapidly and require repeated boosting. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity and durability of heterologous and homologous prime-boost regimens involving the adenovirus vector vaccine Ad26.COV2.S and the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, 68 individuals who were vaccinated at least 6 months previously with 2 immunizations of BNT162b2 were boosted with either Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2. Enrollment of participants occurred from August 12, 2021, to October 25, 2021, and this study involved 4 months of follow-up. Data analysis was performed from November 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Participants who were previously vaccinated with BNT162b2 received a boost with either Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses were assessed by neutralizing, binding, and functional antibody responses for 16 weeks following the boost. CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were evaluated by intracellular cytokine staining assays. Results: Among 68 participants who were originally vaccinated with BNT162b2 and boosted with Ad26.COV2.S (41 participants; median [range] age, 36 [23-84] years) or BNT162b2 (27 participants; median [range] age, 35 [23-76] years), 56 participants (82%) were female, 7 (10%) were Asian, 4 (6%) were Black, 4 (6%) were Hispanic or Latino, 3 (4%) were more than 1 race, and 53 (78%) were White. Both vaccines were found to be associated with increased humoral and cellular immune responses, including against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. BNT162b2 boosting was associated with a rapid increase of Omicron neutralizing antibodies that peaked at a median (IQR) titer of 1018 (699-1646) at week 2 and declined by 6.9-fold to a median (IQR) titer of 148 (95-266) by week 16. Ad26.COV2.S boosting was associated with increased Omicron neutralizing antibodies titers that peaked at a median (IQR) of 859 (467-1838) week 4 and declined by 2.1-fold to a median (IQR) of 403 (208-1130) by week 16. Conclusions and Relevance: Heterologous Ad26.COV2.S boosting was associated with durable humoral and cellular immune responses in individuals who originally received the BNT162b2 vaccine. These data suggest potential benefits of heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
PLoS Biol ; 20(5): e3001609, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962969

ABSTRACT

Despite the rapid creation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, the precise correlates of immunity against severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still unknown. Neutralizing antibodies represent a robust surrogate of protection in early Phase III studies, but vaccines provide protection prior to the evolution of neutralization, vaccines provide protection against variants that evade neutralization, and vaccines continue to provide protection against disease severity in the setting of waning neutralizing titers. Thus, in this study, using an Ad26.CoV2.S dose-down approach in nonhuman primates (NHPs), the role of neutralization, Fc effector function, and T-cell immunity were collectively probed against infection as well as against viral control. While dosing-down minimally impacted neutralizing and binding antibody titers, Fc receptor binding and functional antibody levels were induced in a highly dose-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibody and Fc receptor binding titers, but minimally T cells, were linked to the prevention of transmission. Conversely, Fc receptor binding/function and T cells were linked to antiviral control, with a minimal role for neutralization. These data point to dichotomous roles of neutralization and T-cell function in protection against transmission and disease severity and a continuous role for Fc effector function as a correlate of immunity key to halting and controlling SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Primates , Receptors, Fc , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabo6160, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949957

ABSTRACT

Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the spike glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) offer a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given suboptimal global vaccination rates, waning immunity in vaccinated individuals, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the use of mAbs for COVID-19 prevention may increase and may need to be administered together with vaccines in certain settings. However, it is unknown whether administration of mAbs will impact the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Using an adenovirus vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, we show that simultaneous administration of the vaccine with SARS-CoV-2 mAbs does not diminish vaccine-induced humoral or cellular immunity in cynomolgus macaques. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 mAbs and viral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines can be administered together without loss of potency of either product. Additional studies will be required to evaluate co-administration of mAbs with other vaccine platforms.

5.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 648-660, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832989

ABSTRACT

There is a need to standardize pathologic endpoints in animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection to help benchmark study quality, improve cross-institutional comparison of data, and assess therapeutic efficacy so that potential drugs and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly advance. The Syrian hamster model is a tractable small animal model for COVID-19 that models clinical disease in humans. Using the hamster model, the authors used traditional pathologic assessment with quantitative image analysis to assess disease outcomes in hamsters administered polyclonal immune sera from previously challenged rhesus macaques. The authors then used quantitative image analysis to assess pathologic endpoints across studies performed at different institutions using different tissue processing protocols. The authors detail pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection longitudinally and use immunohistochemistry to quantify myeloid cells and T lymphocyte infiltrates during SARS-CoV-2 infection. High-dose immune sera protected hamsters from weight loss and diminished viral replication in tissues and reduced lung lesions. Cumulative pathology scoring correlated with weight loss and was robust in distinguishing IgG efficacy. In formalin-infused lungs, quantitative measurement of percent area affected also correlated with weight loss but was less robust in non-formalin-infused lungs. Longitudinal immunohistochemical assessment of interstitial macrophage infiltrates showed that peak infiltration corresponded to weight loss, yet quantitative assessment of macrophage, neutrophil, and CD3+ T lymphocyte numbers did not distinguish IgG treatment effects. Here, the authors show that quantitative image analysis was a useful adjunct tool for assessing SARS-CoV-2 treatment outcomes in the hamster model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rodent Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immune Sera , Immunoglobulin G , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Mesocricetus , Rodent Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
6.
Med (N Y) ; 3(4): 262-268.e4, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829236

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has proven to be highly transmissible and has outcompeted the Delta variant in many regions of the world. Early reports have also suggested that Omicron may result in less severe clinical disease in humans. Here, we show that Omicron is less pathogenic than prior SARS-CoV-2 variants in Syrian golden hamsters. Methods: Hamsters were inoculated with either SARS-CoV-2 Omicron or other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Animals were followed for weight loss, and upper and lower respiratory tract tissues were assessed for viral loads and histopathology. Findings: Infection of hamsters with the SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020, Alpha, Beta, or Delta strains led to 4%-10% weight loss by day 4 and 10%-17% weight loss by day 6. In contrast, infection of hamsters with two different Omicron challenge stocks did not result in any detectable weight loss, even at high challenge doses. Omicron infection led to substantial viral replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts but demonstrated lower viral loads in lung parenchyma and reduced pulmonary pathology compared with WA1/2020 infection. Conclusions: These data suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant may result in robust upper respiratory tract infection, but less severe lower respiratory tract clinical disease, compared with prior SARS-CoV-2 variants. Funding: Funding for this study was provided by NIH grant CA260476, the Massachusetts Consortium for Pathogen Readiness, the Ragon Institute, and the Musk Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virulence , Weight Loss
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(641): eabn6150, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807307

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have been reported frequently in vaccinated individuals with waning immunity. In particular, a cluster of over 1000 infections with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant was identified in a predominantly fully vaccinated population in Provincetown, Massachusetts in July 2021. In this study, vaccinated individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 16) demonstrated substantially higher serum antibody responses than vaccinated individuals who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 23), including 32-fold higher binding antibody titers and 31-fold higher neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Vaccinated individuals who tested positive also showed higher mucosal antibody responses in nasal secretions and higher spike protein-specific CD8+ T cell responses in peripheral blood than did vaccinated individuals who tested negative. These data demonstrate that fully vaccinated individuals developed robust anamnestic antibody and T cell responses after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Moreover, these findings suggest that population immunity will likely increase over time by a combination of widespread vaccination and breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans
8.
J Infect Dis ; 225(7): 1124-1128, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774388

ABSTRACT

Individuals on immunosuppressive (IS) therapy have increased mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and delayed viral clearance may lead to new viral variants. IS therapy reduces antibody responses following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination; however, a comprehensive assessment of vaccine immunogenicity is lacking. Here we show that IS therapy reduced neutralizing, binding, and nonneutralizing antibody functions in addition to CD4 and CD8 T-cell interferon-γ responses following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination compared to immunocompetent individuals. Moreover, IS therapy reduced cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These data suggest that the standard COVID-19 mRNA vaccine regimens will likely not provide optimal protection in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic
9.
Cell ; 185(9): 1549-1555.e11, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748149

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, including in highly vaccinated populations, has raised important questions about the efficacy of current vaccines. In this study, we show that the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine and the adenovirus-vector-based Ad26.COV2.S vaccine provide robust protection against high-dose challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in cynomolgus macaques. We vaccinated 30 macaques with homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S. Following Omicron challenge, vaccinated macaques demonstrated rapid control of virus in bronchoalveolar lavage, and most vaccinated animals also controlled virus in nasal swabs. However, 4 vaccinated animals that had moderate Omicron-neutralizing antibody titers and undetectable Omicron CD8+ T cell responses failed to control virus in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, virologic control correlated with both antibody and T cell responses. These data suggest that both humoral and cellular immune responses contribute to vaccine protection against a highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 variant.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Macaca , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
10.
Sci Adv ; 8(11): eabl6015, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745843

ABSTRACT

Authorized vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 remain less available in low- and middle-income countries due to insufficient supply, high costs, and storage requirements. Global immunity could still benefit from new vaccines using widely available, safe adjuvants, such as alum and protein subunits, suited to low-cost production in existing manufacturing facilities. Here, a clinical-stage vaccine candidate comprising a SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-hepatitis B surface antigen virus-like particle elicited protective immunity in cynomolgus macaques. Titers of neutralizing antibodies (>104) induced by this candidate were above the range of protection for other licensed vaccines in nonhuman primates. Including CpG 1018 did not significantly improve the immunological responses. Vaccinated animals challenged with SARS-CoV-2 showed reduced median viral loads in bronchoalveolar lavage (~3.4 log10) and nasal mucosa (~2.9 log10) versus sham controls. These data support the potential benefit of this design for a low-cost modular vaccine platform for SARS-CoV-2 and other variants of concern or betacoronaviruses.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(638): eabm4996, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705843

ABSTRACT

Ad26.COV2.S has demonstrated durability and clinical efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in humans. In this study, we report the correlates of durability of humoral and cellular immune responses in 20 rhesus macaques immunized with single-shot Ad26.COV2.S and the immunogenicity of a booster shot at 8 to 10 months after the initial immunization. Ad26.COV2.S elicited durable binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as memory B cells and long-lived bone marrow plasma cells. Innate immune responses and bone marrow plasma cell responses correlated with durable antibody responses. After Ad26.COV2.S boost immunization, binding and neutralizing antibody responses against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants increased 31- to 69-fold and 23- to 43-fold, respectively, compared with preboost concentrations. Antigen-specific B cell and T cell responses also increased substantially after the boost immunization. Boosting with a modified Ad26.COV2.S.351 vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from the beta variant led to largely comparable responses with slightly higher beta- and omicron-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that a late boost with Ad26.COV2.S or Ad26.COV2.S.351 resulted in a marked increase in humoral and cellular immune responses that were highly cross-reactive across multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 23, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703964

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with the potential to escape binding and neutralizing antibody responses pose a threat to vaccine efficacy. We recently reported expansion of broadly neutralizing activity of vaccine-elicited antibodies in humans 8 months following a single immunization with Ad26.COV2.S. Here, we assessed the 15-month durability of antibody responses and their neutralizing capacity to B.1.617.2 (delta) and B.1.351 (beta) variants following a single immunization of Ad26.COV2.S in mice. We report the persistence of binding and neutralizing antibody titers following immunization with a concomitant increase in neutralizing antibody breadth to delta and beta variants over time. Evaluation of bone marrow and spleen at 15 months postimmunization revealed that Ad26.COV2.S-immunized mice tissues contained spike-specific antibody-secreting cells. We conclude that immunization with Ad26.COV2.S elicits a robust immune response against SARS-CoV-2 spike, which expands over time to neutralize delta and beta variants more robustly, and seeds bone marrow and spleen with long-lived spike-specific antibody-secreting cells. These data extend previous findings in humans and support the use of a mouse model as a potential tool to further explore the dynamics of the humoral immune response following vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S.

13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327461

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, including in highly vaccinated populations, has raised important questions about the efficacy of current vaccines. Immune correlates of vaccine protection against Omicron are not known. Methods 30 cynomolgus macaques were immunized with homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine and the adenovirus vector-based Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Following vaccination, animals were challenged with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant by the intranasal and intratracheal routes. Results Omicron neutralizing antibodies were observed following the boost immunization and were higher in animals that received BNT162b2, whereas Omicron CD8+ T cell responses were higher in animals that received Ad26.COV2.S. Following Omicron challenge, sham controls showed more prolonged virus in nasal swabs than in bronchoalveolar lavage. Vaccinated macaques demonstrated rapid control of virus in bronchoalveolar lavage, and most vaccinated animals also controlled virus in nasal swabs, showing that current vaccines provide substantial protection against Omicron in this model. However, vaccinated animals that had moderate levels of Omicron neutralizing antibodies but negligible Omicron CD8+ T cell responses failed to control virus in the upper respiratory tract. Virologic control correlated with both antibody and T cell responses. Conclusions BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S provided robust protection against high-dose challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in macaques. Protection against this highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 variant correlated with both humoral and cellular immune responses.

14.
Nature ; 603(7901): 493-496, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661970

ABSTRACT

The highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has been shown to evade a substantial fraction of neutralizing antibody responses elicited by current vaccines that encode the WA1/2020 spike protein1. Cellular immune responses, particularly CD8+ T cell responses, probably contribute to protection against severe SARS-CoV-2 infection2-6. Here we show that cellular immunity induced by current vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is highly conserved to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron spike protein. Individuals who received the Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2 vaccines demonstrated durable spike-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses, which showed extensive cross-reactivity against both the Delta and the Omicron variants, including in central and effector memory cellular subpopulations. Median Omicron spike-specific CD8+ T cell responses were 82-84% of the WA1/2020 spike-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These data provide immunological context for the observation that current vaccines still show robust protection against severe disease with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant despite the substantially reduced neutralizing antibody responses7,8.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296116

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported that a third dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine increased antibody titers and protective efficacy. Here we compare humoral and cellular immune responses in 65 individuals who were vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine and were boosted after at least 6 months with either Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson;N=41) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer;N=24).

16.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(618): eabj2641, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546435

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that result in increased transmissibility and partial evasion of neutralizing antibodies have recently emerged. Whether natural immunity induced by the original SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020 strain protects against rechallenge with these SARS-CoV-2 variants remains a critical unresolved question. In this study, we show that natural immunity induced by the WA1/2020 strain leads to partial but incomplete protection against the SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.351 (beta) in rhesus macaques. We challenged rhesus macaques with B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 and showed that infection with these variants resulted in high viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract. We then infected rhesus macaques with the WA1/2020 strain and rechallenged them on day 35 with the WA1/2020, B.1.1.7, or B.1.351 variants. Natural immunity to WA1/2020 led to robust protection against rechallenge with WA1/2020 but only partial protection against rechallenge with B.1.351. An intermediate degree of protection was observed in rhesus macaques against rechallenge with B.1.1.7. These data demonstrate partial but incomplete protective efficacy of natural immunity induced by WA1/2020 against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Our findings have important implications for both vaccination and public health strategies in the context of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Reinfection
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293488

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported that a third dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine increased antibody titers and protective efficacy. Here we compare humoral and cellular immune responses in 65 individuals who were vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine and were boosted after at least 6 months with either Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson;N=41) or BNT162b2 (Pfizer;N=24).

18.
J Infect Dis ; 225(7): 1124-1128, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522222

ABSTRACT

Individuals on immunosuppressive (IS) therapy have increased mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and delayed viral clearance may lead to new viral variants. IS therapy reduces antibody responses following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination; however, a comprehensive assessment of vaccine immunogenicity is lacking. Here we show that IS therapy reduced neutralizing, binding, and nonneutralizing antibody functions in addition to CD4 and CD8 T-cell interferon-γ responses following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination compared to immunocompetent individuals. Moreover, IS therapy reduced cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These data suggest that the standard COVID-19 mRNA vaccine regimens will likely not provide optimal protection in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic
19.
Nature ; 601(7893): 410-414, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521758

ABSTRACT

The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recently evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans1. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine containing non-modified nucleosides but with optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report the results of a head-to-head comparison of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV and CV2CoV in non-human primates. We immunized 18 cynomolgus macaques with two doses of 12 µg lipid nanoparticle-formulated CVnCoV or CV2CoV or with sham (n = 6 per group). Compared with CVnCoV, CV2CoV induced substantially higher titres of binding and neutralizing antibodies, memory B cell responses and T cell responses as well as more potent neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Delta variant. Moreover, CV2CoV was found to be comparably immunogenic to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine in macaques. Although CVnCoV provided partial protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, CV2CoV afforded more robust protection with markedly lower viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Binding and neutralizing antibody titres were correlated with protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in non-human primates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nucleosides/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Female , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Male , Nucleosides/genetics , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/standards , Viral Load , /standards
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL