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1.
Journal of neurosurgery. Case lessons ; 3(21), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1897628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Hypercoagulability with thrombosis and associated inflammation has been well-documented in COVID-19, and catastrophic cerebral venous sinus thromboses (CVSTs) have been described. Another COVID-19–related complication is bacterial superinfection, including sinusitis. Here, the authors reported three cases of COVID-19–associated sinusitis, meningitis, and CVST and summarized the literature about septic intracranial thrombotic events as a cause of headache and fever in COVID-19. OBSERVATIONS The authors described three adolescent patients with no pertinent past medical history and no prior COVID-19 vaccinations who presented with subacute headaches, photosensitivity, nausea, and vomiting after testing positive for COVID-19. Imaging showed subdural collections, CVST, cerebral edema, and severe sinus disease. Two patients had decline in mental status and progression of neurological symptoms. In all three, emergency cranial and sinonasal washouts uncovered pus that grew polymicrobial cultures. After receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobials and various additional treatments, including two of three patients receiving anticoagulation, all patients eventually became neurologically intact with varying ongoing sequelae. LESSONS These cases demonstrated similar original presentations among previously healthy adolescents with COVID-19 infections, concurrent sinusitis precipitating CVST, and subdural empyemas. Better recognition and understanding of the multisystem results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the complicated sequelae allows for proper treatment.

2.
Asian Journal of Wto & International Health Law and Policy ; 16(1):25-58, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1567469

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread around the world, unprecedented disruption to the global economy and international trade have prompted widespread fears especially when it comes to the scramble for personal protective equipment (hereinafter "PPE"), as a result of critical shortages. Government officials around the world have raised concerns about how to ensure that their countries have adequate access to PPE. Many governments have introduced trade-related measures, such as restricting exports of critical PPE and medical supplies. Governments are also mounting special efforts including temporarily revising import procedures and easing technical barriers to ensure the supply of PPE in response to a crisis-within-a-crisis. Such trade-related measures on both export restrictions and import facilitation in response to COVID-19 have brought considerable attention to the role of the multilateral trading system in promoting stability and predictability of international trade flows in a time of global crisis and have also exposed the existing limits of international trade law. This article presents an overview of both the European Union's export restrictions and import facilitation measures on PPE, as an example, and provides analyses of issues associated measures in the international trade law regime.

3.
O'Toole, A.; Hill, V.; Pybus, O. G.; Watts, A.; Bogoch, II, Khan, K.; Messina, J. P.; consortium, Covid- Genomics UK, Network for Genomic Surveillance in South, Africa, Brazil, U. K. Cadde Genomic Network, Tegally, H.; Lessells, R. R.; Giandhari, J.; Pillay, S.; Tumedi, K. A.; Nyepetsi, G.; Kebabonye, M.; Matsheka, M.; Mine, M.; Tokajian, S.; Hassan, H.; Salloum, T.; Merhi, G.; Koweyes, J.; Geoghegan, J. L.; de Ligt, J.; Ren, X.; Storey, M.; Freed, N. E.; Pattabiraman, C.; Prasad, P.; Desai, A. S.; Vasanthapuram, R.; Schulz, T. F.; Steinbruck, L.; Stadler, T.; Swiss Viollier Sequencing, Consortium, Parisi, A.; Bianco, A.; Garcia de Viedma, D.; Buenestado-Serrano, S.; Borges, V.; Isidro, J.; Duarte, S.; Gomes, J. P.; Zuckerman, N. S.; Mandelboim, M.; Mor, O.; Seemann, T.; Arnott, A.; Draper, J.; Gall, M.; Rawlinson, W.; Deveson, I.; Schlebusch, S.; McMahon, J.; Leong, L.; Lim, C. K.; Chironna, M.; Loconsole, D.; Bal, A.; Josset, L.; Holmes, E.; St George, K.; Lasek-Nesselquist, E.; Sikkema, R. S.; Oude Munnink, B.; Koopmans, M.; Brytting, M.; Sudha Rani, V.; Pavani, S.; Smura, T.; Heim, A.; Kurkela, S.; Umair, M.; Salman, M.; Bartolini, B.; Rueca, M.; Drosten, C.; Wolff, T.; Silander, O.; Eggink, D.; Reusken, C.; Vennema, H.; Park, A.; Carrington, C.; Sahadeo, N.; Carr, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Diego, Search Alliance San, National Virus Reference, Laboratory, Seq, Covid Spain, Danish Covid-19 Genome, Consortium, Communicable Diseases Genomic, Network, Dutch National, Sars-CoV-surveillance program, Division of Emerging Infectious, Diseases, de Oliveira, T.; Faria, N.; Rambaut, A.; Kraemer, M. U. G..
Wellcome Open Research ; 6:121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450989

ABSTRACT

Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal of lineages B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 (variant 501Y-V2). We account for potential biases in genomic surveillance efforts by including passenger volumes from location of where the lineage was first reported, London and South Africa respectively. Using the software tool grinch (global report investigating novel coronavirus haplotypes), we track the international spread of lineages of concern with automated daily reports, Further, we have built a custom tracking website (cov-lineages.org/global_report.html) which hosts this daily report and will continue to include novel SARS-CoV-2 lineages of concern as they are detected.

4.
Global Trade and Customs Journal ; 16(1):31-38, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1141027

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world, international trade has prompted widespread fears especially when it comes to the scramble of essential goods. Technical barriers to trade (TBT) are necessary to ensure the quality of exports, and for the protection of human, animal, and plant life or health. TBT varies from country to country and this issue is more pronounced when it comes to personal protective equipment (PPE) amid COVID-19. Mutual recognition plays an important role in facilitating the trade of essential goods, in particular during a pandemic. However, the number of existing mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) on essential goods for a pandemic is limited. It is envisaged that in the post-pandemic future, more countries will endeavour to negotiate MRAs on essential goods. However, issues such as origin-based bias under MRAs remain arguably unclear. This article seeks to analyse the role mutual recognition plays when it comes to trade in PPE in time of global pandemic, identify the issues with existing MRAs on PPE and suggest a model provision for the future MRA negotiations. © 2021 Kluwer Law International BV, The Netherlands

5.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-8057

ABSTRACT

Background Public health emergencies - such as the 2020 COVID19 pandemic -accelerate the need for both evidence generation and rapid dissemination and implementation (D&I) of evidence where it is most needed. In this paper, we reflect on how D&I frameworks and methods can be pragmatic (i.e., relevant to real-world context) tools for rapid and iterative planning, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence to address public health emergencies. The Pragmatic, Rapid, and Iterative D&I (PRIDI) Cycle : The PRIDI Cycle is based on a "double-loop" learning process, reflecting the iterative and adaptive D&I, along with iterative re-consideration of goals and priorities, interventions and corresponding D&I strategies, and needs and capacities of individuals and contexts. Stakeholder engagement is essential- which itself is an evolving activity. The results of iterative evaluations should be communicated with local implementers and stakeholders through customized feedbacks. Conclusion Even when the health system priority is provision of the best care to the individuals in need, and scientists are focused on development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic technologies, planning for D&I is critical. Without a flexible and adapting process of D&I, which is responsive to emerging evidence generation cycles, and is closely connected to stakeholders and target users through engagement and feedback, the interventions to mitigate public health emergencies - such as the COVID19 pandemic - will have limited reach and impact on populations that would most benefit. The PRIDI cycle is intended to provide a pragmatic approach to support planning for D&I throughout the evidence generation process.

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