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1.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(5):171-176, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1818814

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness because of a higher prevalence of comorbidities. What is added by this report? COVID-19 vaccination coverage and vaccine confidence were higher among gay or lesbian adults than among heterosexual adults and higher among gay men than gay or lesbian women. There were no significant differences in vaccination coverage among persons based on gender identity. Vaccination coverage was lowest among non-Hispanic Black LGBT persons across all categories of sexual orientation and gender identity. What are the implications for public health practice? To prevent serious illness and death, all persons in the United States, including those in the LGBT community, should stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(5): 171-176, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675341

ABSTRACT

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have higher prevalences of health conditions associated with severe COVID-19 illness compared with non-LGBT populations (1). The potential for low vaccine confidence and coverage among LGBT populations is of concern because these persons historically experience challenges accessing, trusting, and receiving health care services (2). Data on COVID-19 vaccination among LGBT persons are limited, in part because of the lack of routine data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity at the national and state levels. During August 29-October 30, 2021, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccination coverage and confidence in COVID-19 vaccines among LGBT adults aged ≥18 years. By sexual orientation, gay or lesbian adults reported higher vaccination coverage overall (85.4%) than did heterosexual adults (76.3%). By race/ethnicity, adult gay or lesbian non-Hispanic White men (94.1%) and women (88.5%), and Hispanic men (82.5%) reported higher vaccination coverage than that reported by non-Hispanic White heterosexual men (74.2%) and women (78. 6%). Among non-Hispanic Black adults, vaccination coverage was lower among gay or lesbian women (57.9%) and bisexual women (62.1%) than among heterosexual women (75.6%). Vaccination coverage was lowest among non-Hispanic Black LGBT persons across all categories of sexual orientation and gender identity. Among gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults, vaccination coverage was lower among women (80.5% and 74.2%, respectively) than among men (88.9% and 81.7%, respectively). By gender identity, similar percentages of adults who identified as transgender or nonbinary and those who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary were vaccinated. Gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults were more confident than were heterosexual adults in COVID-19 vaccine safety and protection; transgender or nonbinary adults were more confident in COVID-19 vaccine protection, but not safety, than were adults who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. To prevent serious illness and death, it is important that all persons in the United States, including those in the LGBT community, stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gender Identity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
3.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 70(35):1206-1213, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1573349

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Although more common among adults, severe COVID-19 illness and hospitalization occur among adolescents. What is added by this report? As of July 31, 2021, coverage with 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine among adolescents aged 12-17 years was 42%, and 32% had completed the series. Series completion rates varied widely by state, ranging from 11% to 60%, and was 25% for adolescents aged 12-13 years, 30% for those aged 14-15 years, and 40% for those aged 16-17 years. What are the implications for public health practice? Improving adolescent COVID-19 vaccination coverage is crucial to reduce COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality among adolescents and can help facilitate safer reopening of schools for in-person learning.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1206-1213, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413204

ABSTRACT

Although severe COVID-19 illness and hospitalization are more common among adults, these outcomes can occur in adolescents (1). Nearly one third of adolescents aged 12-17 years hospitalized with COVID-19 during March 2020-April 2021 required intensive care, and 5% of those hospitalized required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (2). On December 11, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents aged 16-17 years; on May 10, 2021, the EUA was expanded to include adolescents aged 12-15 years; and on August 23, 2021, FDA granted approval of the vaccine for persons aged ≥16 years. To assess progress in adolescent COVID-19 vaccination in the United States, CDC assessed coverage with ≥1 dose* and completion of the 2-dose vaccination series† among adolescents aged 12-17 years using vaccine administration data for 49 U.S. states (all except Idaho) and the District of Columbia (DC) during December 14, 2020-July 31, 2021. As of July 31, 2021, COVID-19 vaccination coverage among U.S. adolescents aged 12-17 years was 42.4% for ≥1 dose and 31.9% for series completion. Vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose varied by state (range = 20.2% [Mississippi] to 70.1% [Vermont]) and for series completion (range = 10.7% [Mississippi] to 60.3% [Vermont]). By age group, 36.0%, 40.9%, and 50.6% of adolescents aged 12-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years, respectively, received ≥1 dose; 25.4%, 30.5%, and 40.3%, respectively, completed the vaccine series. Improving vaccination coverage and implementing COVID-19 prevention strategies are crucial to reduce COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality among adolescents and to facilitate safer reopening of schools for in-person learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
5.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 70(23):858-864, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1395452

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination began in the United States in December 2020, and adults aged 65 years were prioritized in early phases. To visualize trends before and after the introduction of COVID-19, the rates of hospitalisations, ED visits, and deaths by age group were presented for 6 September, 2020 to 1 May, 2021, and daily hospital admission data for patients with a laboratory-confirmed COvid-19 diagnosis were collected from the National Syndromic surveillance program. Results showed that the total number of doses administered per day for COVID-19 vaccine increased from 3 million to over 6 million by mid-April 2020. By May 2021, 96% of the persons aged 65 years had been fully vaccinated. The number of cases of COVID-19 increased in all age groups from 6 September, 2020 to 2 January, 2021. The rate of COVID-19 incidence among adults decreased in all age groups except for persons aged 65 years. The proportion of cases diagnosed in persons aged 65 years or older decreased from 10.6% to 7.8%. During the week of 6 September, 2020 to May 1, 2021, the number of COVID-19 ED visits by older adults increased significantly compared to those of younger adults. However, the rate of visits among all adults declined significantly compared to the pre-vaccination period of 29 November to 12 December, 2020. The weekly rate of hospitalisations for COVID-19 was at its peak during the week of January 3 to January 9, 2021. This pattern followed a similar pattern as the pattern for ED visits. The proportion of hospital admissions for COVID-19 in persons aged 70 years decreased from 45.6% to 27.6% during the period from 29 November to December 2020, to 18 April to 1 May, 2021. The weekly COVID-19 death rate peaked in September of 2020 and then decreased through May of 2021. It was highest among persons aged 64 years in December of that year. The rate of COVID-19 death among persons aged 18 to 49 years decreased 66% in April 2021. Thus, from 22 November, 2020, to 1 May, 2021, the number of hospitalisations and deaths due to COVID-19 decreased among older adults. This decline in hospitalisations and deaths was largely due to the increasing number of vaccinations among all eligible age groups.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(32): 1075-1080, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355296

ABSTRACT

Population-based analyses of COVID-19 data, by race and ethnicity can identify and monitor disparities in COVID-19 outcomes and vaccination coverage. CDC recommends that information about race and ethnicity be collected to identify disparities and ensure equitable access to protective measures such as vaccines; however, this information is often missing in COVID-19 data reported to CDC. Baseline data collection requirements of the Office of Management and Budget's Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity (Statistical Policy Directive No. 15) include two ethnicity categories and a minimum of five race categories (1). Using available COVID-19 case and vaccination data, CDC compared the current method for grouping persons by race and ethnicity, which prioritizes ethnicity (in alignment with the policy directive), with two alternative methods (methods A and B) that used race information when ethnicity information was missing. Method A assumed non-Hispanic ethnicity when ethnicity data were unknown or missing and used the same population groupings (denominators) for rate calculations as the current method (Hispanic persons for the Hispanic group and race category and non-Hispanic persons for the different racial groups). Method B grouped persons into ethnicity and race categories that are not mutually exclusive, unlike the current method and method A. Denominators for rate calculations using method B were Hispanic persons for the Hispanic group and persons of Hispanic or non-Hispanic ethnicity for the different racial groups. Compared with the current method, the alternative methods resulted in higher counts of COVID-19 cases and fully vaccinated persons across race categories (American Indian or Alaska Native [AI/AN], Asian, Black or African American [Black], Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander [NH/PI], and White persons). When method B was used, the largest relative increase in cases (58.5%) was among AI/AN persons and the largest relative increase in the number of those fully vaccinated persons was among NH/PI persons (51.6%). Compared with the current method, method A resulted in higher cumulative incidence and vaccination coverage rates for the five racial groups. Method B resulted in decreasing cumulative incidence rates for two groups (AI/AN and NH/PI persons) and decreasing cumulative vaccination coverage rates for AI/AN persons. The rate ratio for having a case of COVID-19 by racial and ethnic group compared with that for White persons varied by method but was <1 for Asian persons and >1 for other groups across all three methods. The likelihood of being fully vaccinated was highest among NH/PI persons across all three methods. This analysis demonstrates that alternative methods for analyzing race and ethnicity data when data are incomplete can lead to different conclusions about disparities. These methods have limitations, however, and warrant further examination of potential bias and consultation with experts to identify additional methods for analyzing and tracking disparities when race and ethnicity data are incomplete.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Data Analysis , /statistics & numerical data , Bias , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Data Collection/standards , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(23): 858-864, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264715

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, older U.S. adults have been at increased risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness and death (1). On December 14, 2020, the United States began a nationwide vaccination campaign after the Food and Drug Administration's Emergency Use Authorization of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended prioritizing health care personnel and residents of long-term care facilities, followed by essential workers and persons at risk for severe illness, including adults aged ≥65 years, in the early phases of the vaccination program (2). By May 1, 2021, 82%, 63%, and 42% of persons aged ≥65, 50-64, and 18-49 years, respectively, had received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose. CDC calculated the rates of COVID-19 cases, emergency department (ED) visits, hospital admissions, and deaths by age group during November 29-December 12, 2020 (prevaccine) and April 18-May 1, 2021. The rate ratios comparing the oldest age groups (≥70 years for hospital admissions; ≥65 years for other measures) with adults aged 18-49 years were 40%, 59%, 65%, and 66% lower, respectively, in the latter period. These differential declines are likely due, in part, to higher COVID-19 vaccination coverage among older adults, highlighting the potential benefits of rapidly increasing vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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