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Hypertension ; 79(5): 898-905, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741745


BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest age-adjusted burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). SSA also experiences many viral infections due to unique environmental and societal factors. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine evidence around how hypertension, CVD, and emerging viral infections interact in SSA. METHODS: In September 2021, we conducted a search in MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus, limited to English language studies published since 1990, and found a total of 1169 articles. Forty-seven original studies were included, with 32 on COVID-19 and 15 on other emerging viruses. RESULTS: Seven articles, including those with the largest sample size and most robust study design, found an association between preexisting hypertension or CVD and COVID-19 severity or death. Ten smaller studies found no association, and 17 did not calculate statistics to compare groups. Two studies assessed the impact of COVID-19 on incident CVD, with one finding an increase in stroke admissions. For other emerging viruses, 3 studies did not find an association between preexisting hypertension or CVD on West Nile and Lassa fever mortality. Twelve studies examined other emerging viral infections and incident CVD, with 4 finding no association and 8 not calculating statistics. CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence from COVID-19 suggests viruses, hypertension, and CVD interact on multiple levels in SSA, but research gaps remain especially for other emerging viral infections. SSA can and must play a leading role in the study and control of emerging viral infections, with expansion of research and public health infrastructure to address these interactions.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Risk Factors
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(8): 2378-2385, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260607


BACKGROUND: The clinical course of COVID-19 includes multiple disease phases. Data describing post-hospital discharge outcomes may provide insight into disease course. Studies describing post-hospitalization outcomes of adults following COVID-19 infection are limited to electronic medical record review, which may underestimate the incidence of outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine 30-day post-hospitalization outcomes following COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Quaternary referral hospital and community hospital in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19 infected patients discharged alive from the emergency department (ED) or hospital between March 3 and May 15, 2020. MEASUREMENT: Outcomes included return to an ED, re-hospitalization, and mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-day follow-up data were successfully collected on 94.6% of eligible patients. Among 1344 patients, 16.5% returned to an ED, 9.8% were re-hospitalized, and 2.4% died. Among patients who returned to the ED, 50.0% (108/216) went to a different hospital from the hospital of the index presentation, and 61.1% (132/216) of those who returned were re-hospitalized. In Cox models adjusted for variables selected using the lasso method, age (HR 1.01 per year [95% CI 1.00-1.02]), diabetes (1.54 [1.06-2.23]), and the need for inpatient dialysis (3.78 [2.23-6.43]) during the index presentation were independently associated with a higher re-hospitalization rate. Older age (HR 1.08 [1.05-1.11]) and Asian race (2.89 [1.27-6.61]) were significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients discharged alive following their index presentation for COVID-19, risk for returning to a hospital within 30 days of discharge was substantial. These patients merit close post-discharge follow-up to optimize outcomes.

COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(6): 1771-1774, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152098


A virtual hospitalist program expanded our ability to confront the challenges of the COVID-19 crisis at the epicenter of the pandemic in New York City. In concert with on-site hospitalists and redeployed physicians, virtual hospitalists aimed to expand capacity while maintaining high-quality care and communication. The program addressed multiple challenges created by our first COVID-19 surge: high patient census and acuity; limitations of and due to personal protective equipment; increased communication needs due to visitor restrictions and the uncertain nature of the novel disease, and limitations to in-person work for some physicians. The program created a mechanism to train and support new hospitalists and provide and expand palliative care services. We describe how our virtual hospitalist program operated during our COVID-19 surge in April and May 2020 and reflect on potential roles of virtual hospitalists after the COVID-19 crisis passes.

COVID-19 , Hospitalists , Telemedicine , Humans , New York City , SARS-CoV-2