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1.
Recent Adv Antiinfect Drug Discov ; 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID- 19 vaccines have been released, giving a major hope of getting rid of the dark pandemic crisis. Availability of vaccine does not necessarily mean that the mass vaccination program is a success. We aimed to investigate COVID-19 vaccination knowledge level, acceptance rate, and perception state among Egyptians. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional online survey was carried out utilizing a self-administered adult questionnaire which assesses vaccination acceptance with related socio-demographic factors and perceptions based on health belief model perspectives. Predictors of vaccination acceptance were based on logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed data for 957 participants, aged 18-78 years, 55.7% were females, and 66.9% were healthcare workers (HCWs). About one-fourth had history of confirmed COVID-19 infection and 56.5% would accept to have one of COVID-19 vaccines where "Pfizer" was the most preferable one (37.8%), while "AstraZeneca" was the most rejected vaccine (26.8%). The 1st vaccine dose was received by 273 (28.5%) of which 260 were intended to receive the 2nd dose. Vaccine efficacy, side effects, protection time, and administration route were essentially among factors that may influence their decision to accept COVID-19 vaccines. About 83.1% had good knowledge about vaccination which was significantly higher with increased age, among graduates/professionals, governmental workers, HCWs in addition to those able to save/invest money, had history of confirmed COVID-19 infection, and intending to have COVID-19 vaccine.. Perceptions that vaccination decreases chance of getting COVID-19 or its complications (OR=9.28; CI: 5.03-17.12), vaccination makes less worry about catching COVID-19 (OR=6.76; CI: 3.88-11.76), and being afraid of getting COVID-19 (OR=2.04; CI: 1.26-3.31) were strong significant predictors for vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine campaigns should emphasize vaccine benefits and highlight severity of infection, while addressing barriers to vaccination in order to improve vaccine coverage among populations.

2.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 23(3): 165-171, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Currently, there is no therapy approved for COVID-19. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and nitazoxanide for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial included one hundred and ninety patients with non-severe COVID-19 infection. Patients were randomized into three groups. All groups received standard care treatment (SCT). In addition, group 1 received sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, and group 2 received nitazoxanide. Follow-up by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was done at intervals of 5, 8, 11, and 14 days. The primary endpoint was viral clearance. RESULTS: Viral clearance was significantly higher in the sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and nitazoxanide groups compared to the SCT group in all follow-up intervals (p < 0.001). In the sofosbuvir/ledipasvir arm, 36.9% showed early viral clearance by day 5. By day 14, 83.1% of the sofosbuvir/ledipasvir group, 39.7% of the nitazoxanide group, and 19.4% of the SCT group tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and nitazoxanide treatment were the only significant factors in Cox regression of negative RT-PCR with the highest OR (17.88, 95% CI: 6.66-47.98 and 2.59, 95% CI: 1.11-6.07, respectively). No mortality or serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSION: The addition of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir or nitazoxanide to the SCT results in an early and high viral clearance rate in mild and moderate patients with COVID-19. These drugs represent a safe and affordable treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sofosbuvir , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fluorenes , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Humans , Nitro Compounds , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Thiazoles , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 6951-6966, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various liver and gastrointestinal involvements occur in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at variable prevalence. Most studies report mild liver function disturbances correlated with COVID-19 severity, though liver failure is unusual. AIM: To study liver and gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Egyptian patients with COVID-19 and their relation to disease outcomes. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study was conducted on 547 Egyptian patients from April 15, 2020 to July 29, 2020. Consecutive polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included from four quarantine hospitals affiliated to the Egyptian ministry of health. Demographic information, laboratory characteristics, treatments, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, COVID-19 severity, and outcomes were recorded and compared according to the degree of liver enzyme elevation and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Follow-ups were conducted until discharge or death. Regression analyses were performed to determine the independent factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: This study included 547 patients, of whom 53 (9.68%) died during hospitalization and 1 was discharged upon his request. Patients' mean age was 45.04 ± 17.61 years, and 21.98% had severe or critical COVID-19. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were available for 430 and 428 patients, respectively. In total, 26% and 32% of patients had elevated ALT and AST, respectively. Significant liver injury with ALT or AST elevation exceeding 3-fold was recorded in 21 (4.91%) and 16 (3.73%) patients, respectively. Male gender, smoking, hypertension, chronic hepatitis C, and lung involvement were associated with elevated AST or ALT. AST was elevated in 50% of patients over 60-years-old. FIB-4 was significantly higher in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), those with more severe COVID-19, and non-survivors. The independent variables affecting outcome were supplementary vitamin C intake (1 g daily capsules) [odds ratio (OR): 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.008-0.337]; lung consolidation (OR: 4.540, 95%CI: 1.155-17.840); ICU admission (OR: 25.032, 95%CI: 7.110-88.128); and FIB-4 score > 3.25 (OR: 10.393, 95%CI: 2.459-43.925). Among 60 (13.98%) patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 52 (86.67%) had diarrhoea. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were predominantly females with higher body mass index, and 50 (83.40%) patients had non-severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Few Egyptian patients with COVID-19 developed a significant liver injury. The independent variables affecting mortality were supplementary vitamin C intake, lung consolidation, ICU admission, and FIB-4 score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5833-5838, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432414

ABSTRACT

Researchers around the world are working at record speed to find the best ways to treat and prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of hospitalized mild to moderate COVID-19 infected patients. This was a randomized open-label controlled study that included 164 patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomized into two groups where Group 1 (Ivermectin group) included patients who received ivermectin 12 mg once daily for 3 days with standard care and Group 2 (control group) included patients who received standard protocol of treatment alone for 14 days. The main outcomes were mortality, the length of hospital stay, and the need for mechanical ventilation. All patients were followed up for 1 month. Overall, 82 individuals were randomized to receive ivermectin plus standard of care and 82 to receive standard of care alone. Patients in the ivermectin group had a shorter length of hospital stay (8.82 ± 4.94 days) than the control group (10.97 ± 5.28 days), but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.085). Three patients (3.7%) in each group required mechanical ventilation (p = 1.00). The death rate was three patients in the ivermectin group (3.7%) versus four patients (4.9%) in the control group without any significant difference between the two groups (p = 1.00). Although there was no statistically significant difference in any endpoints by ivermectin doses (12 mg/day for 3 days); there was an observed trend to reducing hospital stay in the ivermectin-treated group.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 1935-1944, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334845

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular manifestations of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative study included 100 patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and 100 controls who were recruited by stratified randomization from hospital registration system and analyzed regarding history, full ophthalmological examination, general examination including internal medicine and neurological evaluation. Laboratory tests were done. RESULTS: Mean±SD of age were 55.5 ± 6.2 in COVID group vs 56.5 ± 5.8 in control group; P value = 0.7. In COVID group, 57 patients (57%) were males vs 51 patients (51%) in control group (P value = 0.39), the other compared parameters including history and risk factors showed non-significant difference except for ESR and D-dimer which were elevated in COVID group. In COVID group, 5 patients (5%) were having retinal vascular occlusion, 2 patients (2%) were having anterior ischemic optic neuropathy AION, 3 patients (3%) were having uveitis and 2 patients (2%) were having central serous chorioretinopathy CSCR. While in control group, 2 patients (2%) were having retinal vascular occlusion, and none had AION, uveitis or CSCR (P value = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome could affect the eyes in the form of coagulation problems, neurological morbidities, and other manifestations. This necessitates meticulous follow-up of recovered patients from COVID-19.

6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(10): 3642-3646, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947061

ABSTRACT

No specific treatment for COVID-19 infection is available up till now, and there is a great urge for effective treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality during this pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the effect of combining chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) and zinc in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. This was a randomized clinical trial conducted at three major University hospitals in Egypt. One hundred ninety-one patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were randomized into two groups: group I (96) patients received both HCQ and zinc, and group II (95) received HCQ only. The primary endpoints were the recovery within 28 days, the need for mechanical ventilation, and death. The two groups were matched for age and gender. They had no significant difference regarding any of the baseline laboratory parameters or clinical severity grading. Clinical recovery after 28 days was achieved by 79.2% in the zinc group and 77.9% in zinc-free treatment group, without any significant difference (p = 0.969). The need for mechanical ventilation and the overall mortality rates did not show any significant difference between the 2 groups either (p = 0.537 and 0.986, respectively). The age of the patient and the need for mechanical ventilation were the only risk factors associated with the patients' mortality by the univariate regression analysis (p = 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). Zinc supplements did not enhance the clinical efficacy of HCQ. More randomized studies are needed to evaluate the value of adding zinc to other therapies for COVID 19. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04447534.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Zinc
7.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 3409-3422, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in a worldwide devastating effect with a diagnostic challenge. Identifying risk factors of severity aids in assessment for the need of early hospitalization. We aimed to demonstrate, for the first time, the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, to identify the predictors of severity and to describe the antimicrobial resistance profile in patients from Upper Egypt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic characters, clinical presentations, laboratory, and radiological data were recorded and analyzed. Presence of other respiratory microorganisms and their sensitivity patterns were identified using the VITEK2 system. Resistance-associated genes were tested by PCR. RESULTS: The study included 260 COVID-19 patients. The majority were males (55.4%) aged between 51 and 70 years. Hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease were common comorbidities. Main clinical manifestations were fever (63.8%), cough (57.7%), dyspnea (40%) and fatigue (30%). According to severity, 51.5% were moderate, 25.4% mild and 23% severe/critical. Lymphopenia, elevated CRP, ferritin, and D-dimer occurred in all patients with significantly higher value in the severe group. Age >53 years and elevated ferritin ≥484 ng/mL were significant risk factors for severity. About 10.7% of the COVID-19 patients showed bacterial and/or fungal infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant isolated bacteria while Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were the predominant isolated fungi. All Staphylococci were methicillin-resistant and carried the mecA gene. Gram-negative isolates were multidrug-resistant and carried different resistance-associated genes, including NDM-1, KPC, TEM, CTX-M, and SHV. CONCLUSION: Older age and elevated serum ferritin were significant risk factors for severe COVID-19. Bacterial co-infection and multidrug resistance among patients with COVID-19 in Upper Egypt is common. Testing for presence of other co-infecting agents should be considered, and prompt treatment should be carried out according to the antimicrobial sensitivity reports.

8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1635-1639, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727472

ABSTRACT

RETRACTED ARTICLE: The COVID-19 pandemic is showing an exponential growth, mandating an urgent need to develop an effective treatment. Indeed, to date, a well-established therapy is still lacking. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) added to standard care in patients with COVID-19. This was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial conducted at three major university hospitals in Egypt. One hundred ninety-four patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study after signing informed consent. They were equally randomized into two arms: 97 patients administrated HCQ plus standard care (HCQ group) and 97 patients administered only standard care as a control arm (control group). The primary endpoints were recovery within 28 days, need for mechanical ventilation, or death. The two groups were matched for age and gender. There was no significant difference between them regarding any of the baseline characteristics or laboratory parameters. Four patients (4.1%) in the HCQ group and 5 (5.2%) patients in the control group needed mechanical ventilation (P = 0.75). The overall mortality did not differ between the two groups, as six patients (6.2%) died in the HCQ group and 5 (5.2%) died in the control group (P = 0.77). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that HCQ treatment was not significantly associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients. So, adding HCQ to standard care did not add significant benefit, did not decrease the need for ventilation, and did not reduce mortality rates in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19 , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Repositioning , Egypt , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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