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1.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 54(1): 41-45, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766049

ABSTRACT

The new omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in South Africa in November 2021 has been declared as a Variant of Concern by the World Health Organization. This variant has been found to carry multifold mutations that have not been observed in any of the variants detected so far. The majority of these mutations are present in spike protein, contributing to its ability to escape the currently available neutralizing antibodies and vaccines, as well as increasing the chances of reinfection. This brief communication provides an insight into mutations detected in the omicron variant and their impact on currently available interventions against SARS-CoV-2 and the need for a booster dose. We also discuss the severity status of infection due to this variant. Additionally, we highlight the hypothesis supporting the association of high HIV prevalence and the appearance of the omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in immune-compromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Envelope Proteins , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319311

ABSTRACT

Importance: The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early the sign and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 positive patients which further help in early management of patients. Objective: Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 “SARS” and 2012 “MERS” pandemics. Methods: : The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15 th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neural sign and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross sectional studies which included COVID-19 positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological sign and symptoms in COVID-19 patients relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data were analyzed by using the “ MedCalc Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Heterogeneity was investigated (standard I 2 test). Results: : We have collected and screened about a total 2615 articles, finally we have included 31 articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms during the COVID-19 positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which is next tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment associated with seizure or meningitis. Conclusion: & Relevance: Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19. However, none of the publication found with the primary or secondary objective of finding the neurological manifestation in the COVID-19 patients and their mechanism which strengthen the importance to start more precise clinical trials.

3.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(6): 499-510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Till now, no meta-analysis is available to address the clinical profile, risk factors, different interventions, and outcomes among COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (C-ROCM) cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight literature databases were screened using appropriate keywords from November 1, 2019, to June 30, 2021. The objectives were to analyze the clinical and microbiological profile, risk factor/comorbidity, intervention, and outcome. "R-metafor package" was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies were included. The mean age of presentation of C-ROCM was 54.6 years. The most common presentation was ptosis (72.7%), lid edema (60.6%), proptosis (60.6%), ophthalmoplegia (57.3%), loss of vision (53.7%), facial edema (34.7%), and nasal-blockage (11.8%). Evidence of intracranial spread was seen in 42.8% of cases. Rhizopus was the most common fungus (57.1%) isolated in fungal culture. Among C-ROCM patients, diabetes was the commonest comorbid condition, and the use of corticosteroids related to COVID-19 treatment was the most common risk factor (85.75%). Compared to controlled diabetics, C-ROCM was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetics (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 0.041-0.544, P = 0.0010). However, no significant association was seen between C-ROCM and COVID-19 severity (OR 0.930, 95% C.I. 0.212-4.087, P = 0.923). For treatment, amphotericin-B was the most common antifungal drug used which was followed by surgical options. However, mortality was high (prevalence 0.344, 95% C.I. 0.205-0.403) despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Although local rhino-orbito symptoms were the first to appear, rapid intracranial extension was seen in a significant number of C-ROCM cases. Uncontrolled diabetes and excessive use of corticosteroid were the most common risk factors present among the C-ROCM cases. High index clinical suspicion is imperative (specifically among COVID-19 patients with diabetes), and routine screening may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Nose Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
J Crit Care ; 67: 172-181, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521256

ABSTRACT

Ferritin is a known inflammatory biomarker in COVID-19. However, many factors and co-morbidities can confound the level of serum ferritin. This current metaanalysis evaluates serum ferritin level in different severity levels in COVID-19. Studies evaluating serum ferritin level in different clinical contexts (COVID-19 vs. control, mild to moderate vs. severe to critical, non-survivor vs. survivor, organ involvement, ICU and mechanical ventilation requirement) were included (total 9 literature databases searched). Metaanalysis and metaregression was carried out using metaphor "R" package. Compared to control (COVID-19 negative), higher ferritin levels were found among the COVID-19 patients [SMD -0.889 (95% C.I. -1.201, -0.577), I2 = 85%]. Severe to critical COVID-19 patients showed higher ferritin levels compared to mild to moderate COVID-19 patients [SMD 0.882 (0.738, 1.026), I2 = 85%]. In meta-regression, high heterogeneity was observed could be attributed to difference in "mean age", and "percentage of population with concomitant co-morbidities". Non-survivors had higher serum ferritin level compared to survivors [SMD 0.992 (0.672, 1.172), I2 = 92.33%]. In meta-regression, high heterogeneity observed could be attributed to difference in "mean age" and "percentage of male sex". Patients requiring ICU [SMD 0.674 (0.515 to 0.833), I2 = 80%] and mechanical ventilation [SMD 0.430 (0.258, 0.602), I2 = 32%] had higher serum ferritin levels compared to those who didn't. To conclude, serum ferritin level may serve as an important biomarker which can aid in COVID-19 management. However, presence of other co-morbid conditions/confounders warrants cautious interpretation.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Ferritins/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Regression Analysis
6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505760

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 is a transmissible disease and has caused havoc throughout the world. The present study identifies the novel potential antiviral inhibitors against the nucleocapsid C-terminal domain that aids in RNA-binding and replication. A total of 485,629 compounds were screened, and MD was performed. The trajectory analysis (DCCM & PCA), structural integrity, and degree of compaction depicted the protein-ligand complex stability (PDB-PISA and Rgyr). Results obtained from screening shortlists 13 compounds possessing high Docking score. Further, seven compounds had a permissible RMSD limit (3 Å), with robust RMSF. Post-MD analysis of the top two compounds (204 and 502), DCCM & PCA analysis show a positive atomic displacements correlation among residues of active sites-dimer (Chain A and Chain B) & residual clustering. The ΔGint of RNA-bound (-83.5 kcal/mol) and drug-bound N-CTD-204 (-40.8 kcal/mol) and 502(-39.7 kcal/mol) as compared to Apo (-35.95 kcal/mol) suggests stabilization of protein, with less RNA-binding possibility. The Rgyr values depict the loss of compactness on RNA-binding when compared to the drug-bound N-CTD complex. Further, overlapping the protein complexes (0 ns and 100 ns) display significant changes in RMSD of the protein (204-2.07 Å and 502-1.89 Å) as compared to the Apo (1.72 Å) and RNA-bound form (1.76 Å), suggesting strong interaction for compound 204 as compared to 502. ADMET profiling indicates that these compounds can be used for further experiments (in vitro and pre-clinical). Compound 204 could be a promising candidate for targeting the N-protein-RNA assembly and viral replication.

7.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474134

ABSTRACT

During this COVID-19 pandemic, except steroid, none of the therapeutic measures have showed any evidence of efficacy. Traditionally jala-neti using lukewarm salted water remains a yogic way of maintaining upper airway hygiene. Saline irrigation decreases the concentration of inflammatory mediators (e.g. histamine, leukotriene etc.) in nasal secretions, reduces the severity and frequency of sinusitis, reduce need of antibiotic therapy and restores competency of nasal mucosa. Jala-neti is an integral part of six cleansing techniques of yogic kriyas practised in India since thousands of years. Jala-neti can clean the upper airways, prevents colonization of infectious agents, removes foreign bodies, prevents stasis of mucous and subsequently enhances the drainage of paranasal sinuses and maintain health. Regular practice of Jala neti improves nasal symptoms and overall health status of patients with sinusitis. Jala-neti sample can even be used for COVID-19 diagnosis. Povidone iodine (PVP-I) has been utilized as a time tested antimicrobial agent with broad spectrum coverage against wide range of bacteria and viruses. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of PVP-I was seen at a concentration as low as 0.45%. PVP-I is generally well tolerated upto 5%, however nasal ciliotoxicity is reported at this concentration, however, this toxicity is not reported with lower concentrations(1.25% and 0.5%). So, theoretically, by using neti-kriya with povidone iodine (0.5-1%) as irrigation solution can combine and enhance the protection against COVID-19 and this can be an important armor in the fight against COVID-19. However, this hypothesis needs to be validated in real life clinical trial scenario before implementing.

8.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(3): 383-390, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462214

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, a dreadful pandemic that has impacted human life like no other pathogenic invasion, has claimed the lives of over 100 million people. The need for effective treatment strategies is still a subject of intense research considering the rapidly evolving genome and continental diversity. Indomethacin is administered mostly as co-treatment for affected patients as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). However, the underlying mechanism of action is unresolved. This study explores the basal mechanism of indomethacin and potency in alleviating the damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 and discusses the experimental and clinical efficacy in recent studies. AREAS COVERED: The literature search and system biology-based network formation were employed to describe the potent effects and risks associated with indomethacin in in-vitro, in-vivo, and clinical studies. This study also highlights the plausible mechanism of antiviral action of indomethacin with its apparent viral protein targets. The SARS-CoV-2 protein, the interacting host proteins, and the effect of indomethacin on this interactome as a standalone treatment or as part of a co-therapy strategy are particularly emphasized using network modeling. EXPERT OPINION: Indomethacin has demonstrated excellent clinical endpoint characteristics in several studies, and we recommend that it be utilized in the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Indomethacin , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Indomethacin/therapeutic use
9.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367965

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of a new mutant strain of SARS-coronavirus (CoV-2) is enormously essential to identify a targeted drug and for the development of the vaccine. In this article, we systematically reviewed the different mutation strains (variant of concern [VOC] and variant of interest [VOI]) which were found in different countries such as the UK, Singapore, China, Germany, Vietnam, Western Africa, Dublin, Ireland, Brazil, Iran, Italy, France, America, and Philippines. We searched four literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, NATURE, and Willey online library) with suitable keywords and the time filter was November 2019 to June 16, 2021. To understand the worldwide spread of variants of SARS-CoV-2, we included a total of 27 articles of case reports, clinical and observational studies in the systematic review. However, these variants mostly spread because of their ability to increase transmission, virulence, and escape immunity. So, in this paper is we found mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2 like VOCs that are found in different regions across the globe are ALPHA strain in the U.K, BETA strain in South Africa, GAMMA strain in Brazil, Gamma and Beta strains in European Countries, and some VOIs like Theta variant in the Philippines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genotype , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(4): 317-327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367964

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic, parallel opportunistic infections have also been emerging as another disease spectrum. Among all these opportunistic infection, mucormycosis has become a matter of concern with its rapid increase of cases with rapid spread as compared to pre-COVID-19 era. Cases have been reported in post-COVID-19-related immune suppression along with the presence of comorbidity which adds on the deadly outcome. There is no systematic review addressing the issue of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. This is the first systematic review of published studies of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. The aim was to analyze the real scenario of the disease statement including all the published studies from first November 2019 to 30th June to analyze the contemporary epidemiology, clinical manifestations, risk factor, prognosis, and treatment outcome of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis. A comprehensive literature search was done in following databases, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE using keywords mucormycosis, rhino orbital cerebral mucormycosis, COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 (from November 01, 2019 to June 30, 2021). Our study shows that, while corticosteroids have proved to be lifesaving in severe to critical COVID-19 patients, its indiscriminate use has come with its price of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis epidemic, especially in India especially in patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus with higher mortality. Corticosteroid use should be monitored and all COVID-19 patients should be closely evaluated/monitored for sequelae of immunosuppression following treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/immunology , Meningitis, Fungal/mortality , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/mortality , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/immunology , Orbital Diseases/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355898

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(3): 236-243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Present systematic review aimed to analyze the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the treatment of severe COVID-19 and to compare it to standard of care (SOC), antiviral medications, and other medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, BioRxiv and MedRxiv, and Cochrane (up to April 20, 2021) were the search databases. Two reviewers (SK and CK) independently selected the electronic published literature that studied the effect of nitric oxide with SOC or control. The clinical and physiological outcomes such as prevention of progressive systemic de-oxygenation/clinical improvement, mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, improvement in pulmonary arterial pressure, and adverse events were assessed. RESULTS: The 14 retrospective/protective studies randomly assigning 423 patients met the inclusion criteria. Cumulative study of the selected articles showed that iNO has a mild impact on ventilation time or ventilator-free days. iNO has increased the partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of fraction of inspired oxygen in a few patients as compared to baseline. However, in most of the studies, it does not have better outcome when compared to the baseline improvement. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome, nitric oxide is linked to a slight increase in oxygenation but has no effect on mortality.


Subject(s)
Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Administration, Inhalation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12888, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275957

ABSTRACT

The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early signs and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 positive patients which will further help in early management of patients. Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 "SARS" and 2012 "MERS" pandemics. The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neurological signs and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross-sectional studies which included COVID-19 positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological signs and symptoms in COVID-19 patients with relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data was analyzed by using the "MedCalc" Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Standard I2 test was used to analyze the heterogeneity. We have collected and screened about a total 2615articles, finally we have included 31articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which was further tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment associated with seizure or meningitis. Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19. However, none of the publication had primary or secondary objectives of searching neurological manifestations in the COVID-19 patients and the pathogenic mechanism which will subsequently strengthen the importance to start more prospective clinical trials. The prevalence of neurological signs and symptoms were taken as primary objective. Thereafter, the prevalence of each CNS/PNS symptoms was categorized and their prevalence studied. The selection of Bagheri et al., 2020 may be discussed because they have done the cross-sectional study with the neurological finding and correlated the data with prevalence of the COVID-19 positive patients. The proportion of patients presenting with neurological outcome and clinical/PCR positivity were done. We had searched and followed all the possible online/web source, still the data collection process may remain a limitation of work due to addition of several publications on COVID-19 every day. Due to lack of data of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, we have included the case reports, MERS and COVID-19 in CNS/PNS manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence
15.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4456-4484, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270486

ABSTRACT

Traditional Indian medical practices (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and homeopathy) are a vast reservoir of knowledge about medicinal plants. The promising pharmacological properties of these plants have paved the way for developing therapy against novel Coronavirus (CoV) infection. The current review will summarize published works of literature on the effects of traditional Indian medicinal plants against acute respiratory infection (COVID-19, SARS, Influenza, and Respiratory syncytial virus infection) and registered clinical trials of traditional Indian herbal medicines in COVID-19. The current study aims to comprehensively evaluate the data of traditional Indian medicinal plants to warrant their use in COVID-19 management. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched along with different clinical trial databases. A total of 22 relevant traditional Indian medicinal plants (35 relevant studies) were included in the current study having potential antiviral properties against virus-induced respiratory illness along with promising immunomodulatory and thrombolytic properties. Further, 36 randomized and nonrandomized registered clinical trials were also included that were aimed at evaluating the efficacy of herbal plants or their formulations in COVID-19 management. The antiviral, immunomodulatory, and thrombolytic activities of the traditional Indian medicinal plants laid down a strong rationale for their use in developing therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study identified some important potential traditional Indian medicinal herbs such as Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora cordifolia, Achyranthes bidentata, Cinnamomum cassia, Cydonia oblonga, Embelin ribes, Justicia adhatoda, Momordica charantia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale, Camphor, and Kabusura kudineer, which could be used in therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , India , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 906: 174233, 2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260717

ABSTRACT

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of pyrimidone which catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotate to orotate. Orotate is utilized in the biosynthesis of uridine-monophosphate. DHODH inhibitors have shown promise as antiviral agent against Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, Influenza, Epstein Barr and Picornavirus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of DHODH inhibitors are also coming up. In this review, we have reviewed the safety and efficacy of approved DHODH inhibitors (leflunomide and teriflunomide) against COVID-19. In target-centered in silico studies, leflunomide showed favorable binding to active site of MPro and spike: ACE2 interface. In artificial-intelligence/machine-learning based studies, leflunomide was among the top 50 ligands targeting spike: ACE2 interaction. Leflunomide is also found to interact with differentially regulated pathways [identified by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and reactome pathway analysis of host transcriptome data] in cogena based drug-repurposing studies. Based on GSEA (gene set enrichment analysis), leflunomide was found to target pathways enriched in COVID-19. In vitro, both leflunomide (EC50 41.49 ± 8.8 µmol/L) and teriflunomide (EC50 26 µmol/L) showed SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. In clinical studies, leflunomide showed significant benefit in terms of decreasing the duration of viral shredding, duration of hospital stay and severity of infection. However, no advantage was seen while combining leflunomide and IFN alpha-2a among patients with prolonged post symptomatic viral shredding. Common adverse effects of leflunomide were hyperlipidemia, leucopenia, neutropenia and liver-function alteration. Leflunomide/teriflunomide may serve as an agent of importance to achieve faster virological clearance in COVID-19, however, findings needs to be validated in bigger sized placebo controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Crotonates/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , Toluidines/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Crotonates/adverse effects , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates/adverse effects , Hydroxybutyrates/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/adverse effects , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Nitriles/adverse effects , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Toluidines/adverse effects , Toluidines/therapeutic use
17.
Comput Biol Med ; 134: 104495, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230418

ABSTRACT

The advent of SARS-CoV-2 has become a universal health issue with no appropriate cure available to date. The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein combines viral genomic RNA into a ribonucleoprotein and protects the viral genome from the host's nucleases. Structurally, the N protein comprises two independent domains: the N-terminal domain (NTD) for RNA-binding and C-terminal domain (CTD) involved in RNA-binding, protein dimerization, and nucleocapsid stabilization. The present study explains the structural aspects associated with the involvement of nucleocapsid C-terminal domain in the subunit assembly that helps the RNA binding and further stabilizing the virus assembly by protecting RNA from the hosts exonucleases degradation. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the N-CTD and RNA complex suggests two active sites (site I: a monomer) and (site II: a dimer) with structural stability (RMSD: ~2 Å), Cα fluctuations (RMSF: ~3 Å) and strong protein-ligand interactions were estimated through the SiteMap module of Schrodinger. Virtual screening of 2456 FDA-approved drugs using structure-based docking identified top two leads distinctively against Site-I (monomer): Ceftaroline fosamil (MM-GBSA = -47.12 kcal/mol) and Cefoperazone (-45.84 kcal/mol); and against Site-II (dimer): Boceprevir, (an antiviral protease inhibitor, -106.78 kcal/mol) and Ceftaroline fosamil (-99.55 kcal/mol). The DCCM and PCA of drugs Ceftaroline fosamil (PC1+PC2 = 71.9%) and Boceprevir (PC1 +PC2 = 61.6%) show significant correlated residue motions which suggests highly induced conformational changes in the N-CTD dimer. Therefore, we propose N-CTD as a druggable target with two active binding sites (monomer and dimer) involved in specific RNA binding and stability. The RNA binding site with Ceftaroline fosamil binding can prevent viral assembly and can act as an antiviral for coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Catalytic Domain , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226478

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). One of the striking targets amongst all the proteins in coronavirus is the main protease (Mpro), as it plays vital biological roles in replication and maturation of the virus, and hence the potential target. The aim of this study is to repurpose the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved molecules via computer-aided drug designing against Mpro (PDB ID: 6Y2F) of SARS CoV-2 due to its high x-ray resolution of 1.95 Å as compared to other published Mprostructures. High Through Virtual Screening (HTVS) of 2456 FDA approved drugs using structure-based docking were analyzed. Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed to check the overall structural stability (RMSD), Cα fluctuations (RMSF) and protein-ligand interactions. Further, trajectory analysis was performed to assess the binding quality by exploiting the protein-residue motion cross correlation (DCCM) and binding free energy (MM/GBSA). Tenofovir, an antiretroviral for HIV-proteases and Terlipressin, a vasoconstrictor show stable RMSD, RMSF, better MM/GBSA with good cross correlation as compared to the Apo and O6K. Moreover, the results show concurrence with Nelfinavir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir which have shown significant inhibition in in vitro studies. Therefore, we conclude that Tenofovir and Terlipresssin might also show protease inhibition but are still open to clinical validation in case of SARS-CoV 2 treatment.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

19.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(1): 63-72, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225882

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented collaborative effort among industry, academia, regulatory bodies, and governments with huge financial investments. Scientists and researchers from India also left no stone unturned to find therapeutic and preventive measures against COVID-19. Indian pharmaceutical companies are one of the leading manufacturers of vaccine in the world, are utilizing its capacity to its maximum, and are one among the forerunners in vaccine research against COVID-19 across the globe. In this systematic review, the information regarding contribution of Indian scientists toward COVID-19 research has been gathered from various news articles across Google platform apart from searching PubMed, WHO site, COVID-19 vaccine tracker, CTRI, clinicaltrials.gov, and websites of pharmaceutical companies. The article summarizes and highlights the various therapeutic and vaccine candidates, diagnostic kits, treatment agents, and technology being developed and tested by Indian researcher community against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computer-Aided Design , Diffusion of Innovation , Drug Repositioning , Humans , India , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
20.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 219-226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), reported to inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in in vitro studies, has been recommended for prophylaxis of COVID-19 in healthcare workers (HCWs). The objective of this study was to assess short-term adverse events (AEs) of HCQ in HCWs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study among consenting HCWs taking prophylaxis and working in hospitals with COVID-19 patients used online forms to collect details of HCWs, comorbidities, prophylactic drugs used and AEs after the first dose of HCQ. Verification of dose and AEs was done by personal contact. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to determine the effect of age, gender and dose of HCQ on AE. RESULTS: Of the 1303 HCWs included, 98.4 per cent (n=1282) took HCQ and 66 per cent (n=861) took 800 mg as first day's dose. Among the 19.9 per cent (n=259) reporting AEs, 1.5 per cent (n=20) took treatment for AE, none were hospitalized and three discontinued HCQ. Gastrointestinal AEs were the most common (172, 13.2%), with less in older [odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.89], with more in females (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.78-3.38) and in those taking a total dose of 800 mg on day one compared to a lower dose. Hypoglycaemia (1.1%, n=14), cardiovascular events (0.7%, n=9) and other AEs were minimal. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: HCQ prophylaxis first dose was well tolerated among HCWs as evidenced by a low discontinuation. For adverse effects, a small number required treatment, and none required hospitalization. The study had limitations of convenience sampling and lack of laboratory and electrocardiography confirmation of AEs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hydroxychloroquine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
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