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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879167

ABSTRACT

Rationale The leading cause of death in coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is severe pneumonia, with many patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) and diffuse alveolar damage(DAD). Whether DAD in fatal COVID-19 is distinct from other causes of DAD remains unknown. Objective To compare lung parenchymal and vascular alterations between patients with fatal COVID-19 pneumonia and other DAD-causing etiologies using a multidimensional approach. Methods This autopsy cohort consisted of consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia(n=20) and with respiratory failure and histologic DAD(n=21; non-COVID-19 viral and non-viral etiologies). Premortem chest computed tomography(CT) scans were evaluated for vascular changes. Postmortem lung tissues were compared using histopathological and computational analyses. Machine-learning-derived morphometric analysis of the microvasculature was performed, with a random forest classifier quantifying vascular congestion(CVasc) in different microscopic compartments. Respiratory-mechanics and gas-exchange parameters were evaluated longitudinally in patients with ARDS. Measurements and Main Results On premortem CT, COVID-19 patients showed more dilated vasculature when evaluating all lung segments (p=0.001) compared to DAD-controls. Histopathology revealed vasculopathic changes including hemangiomatosis-like-changes(p=0.043), thromboemboli(p=0.0038), pulmonary infarcts(p=0.047), and perivascular inflammation(p<0.001). Generalized estimating equations revealed significant regional differences in the lung microarchitecture among all DAD-causing entities. COVID-19 showed a larger overall CVasc-range(p=0.002). Alveolar-septal-congestion was associated with a significantly shorter time-to-death from symptom onset(p=0.03), length-of-hospital-stay(p=0.02), and increased ventilatory ratio[an estimate for pulmonary dead space fraction(Vd); p=0.043] in all cases of ARDS. Conclusions Severe COVID-19 pneumonia is characterized by significant vasculopathy and aberrant alveolar-septal-congestion. Our findings also highlight the role that vascular alterations may play in Vd and clinical outcomes in ARDS in general.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 39: 101066, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dyspnea and exercise intolerance are commonly reported post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), but routine diagnostic testing is often normal. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) offers comprehensive assessment of dyspnea to characterize pulmonary PASC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of CPET performed on patients reporting dyspnea and/or exercise intolerance following confirmed Covid-19 between August 1, 2020 and March 1, 2021, and compared them to age- and sex-matched patients with unexplained dyspnea referred for CPET at the same center in the pre-Covid-19 era. FINDINGS: Compared to matched unexplained dyspnea comparators, PASC patients shared similar medical comorbidities and subjective dyspnea at referral (mMRC score 1.6 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 0.9, P = 0.5). Fifteen (83.3%) PASC patients underwent high resolution computed tomography of the chest, of which half (46.7%) were normal, and 17 (94.4%) patients had pulmonary function testing, of which the majority (76.5%) were normal. All patients underwent CPET, and 12 (67%) had normal findings. Compared to matched comparators, PASC patients had similar peak oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption at ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and ventilatory efficiency measured by the minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope. INTERPRETATION: Despite prominent dyspnea, physiological abnormalities on CPET were mild across a range of initial Covid-19 severity and similar to matched comparators referred for dyspnea without antecedent SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: The project was supported by the NHLBI (R01HL131029, R01HL151841, U10HL110337, T32HL116275) and a KL2 award (5KL2TR002542-02) from Harvard Catalyst.

3.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0480, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that elevated soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 concentrations, a marker of pulmonary epithelial injury, reflect ongoing lung injury in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 and associate with continued ventilator dependence. DESIGN: We associated serial plasma soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 levels and markers of systemic inflammation including d-dimer, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate with 30-day mortality and ventilator dependence. SETTING: Adult medical ICUs and general medicine wards at an academic teaching hospital in Boston, MA. PATIENTS: Adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure admitted to the ICU (n = 72) and non-ICU patients managed with supplemental oxygen (n = 77). INTERVENTIONS: Observational study from April 25 to June 25, 2020. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: ICU patients had a higher baseline body mass index and median soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2, d-dimer, and C-reactive protein concentrations compared with non-ICU patients. Among ICU patients, elevated baseline modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) were associated with 30-day mortality, whereas initial Pao2/Fio2 and markers of systemic inflammation were similar between groups. Only log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) associated with ventilator dependence over time, with the last measured log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) concentration obtained on ICU day 11.5 (interquartile range [7-17]) higher in patients who required reintubation or tracheostomy placement compared with patients who were successfully extubated (2.10 [1.89-2.26] vs 1.87 ng/mL [1.72-2.13 ng/mL]; p = 0.03). Last measured systemic inflammatory markers, modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and Pao2/Fio2 were not different between patients who were successfully extubated compared with those with continued ventilator dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 is a biomarker readily measured in blood that can provide dynamic information about the degree of a patient's lung injury and real-time assessment of the likelihood of extubation success. Measures of systemic inflammation, illness severity, and oxygenation did not associate with ventilator outcomes.

5.
Chest ; 159(1): 73-84, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have respiratory failure with hypoxemia and acute bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, consistent with ARDS. Respiratory failure in COVID-19 might represent a novel pathologic entity. RESEARCH QUESTION: How does the lung histopathology described in COVID-19 compare with the lung histopathology described in SARS and H1N1 influenza? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to characterize the lung histopathologic features of COVID-19 and compare them against findings of other recent viral pandemics, H1N1 influenza and SARS. We systematically searched MEDLINE and PubMed for studies published up to June 24, 2020, using search terms for COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, and SARS with keywords for pathology, biopsy, and autopsy. Using PRISMA-Individual Participant Data guidelines, our systematic review analysis included 26 articles representing 171 COVID-19 patients; 20 articles representing 287 H1N1 patients; and eight articles representing 64 SARS patients. RESULTS: In COVID-19, acute-phase diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was reported in 88% of patients, which was similar to the proportion of cases with DAD in both H1N1 (90%) and SARS (98%). Pulmonary microthrombi were reported in 57% of COVID-19 and 58% of SARS patients, as compared with 24% of H1N1 influenza patients. INTERPRETATION: DAD, the histologic correlate of ARDS, is the predominant histopathologic pattern identified in lung pathology from patients with COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, and SARS. Microthrombi were reported more frequently in both patients with COVID-19 and SARS as compared with H1N1 influenza. Future work is needed to validate this histopathologic finding and, if confirmed, elucidate the mechanistic underpinnings and characterize any associations with clinically important outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/pathology , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Humans
7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(12): 1560-1564, 2020 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155108
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