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Chest ; 162(4):A2407, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060943


SESSION TITLE: Racial Disparities in Pulmonary Embolism Risk Factors and Mortality in the SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 1:30 pm - 2:30 pm PURPOSE: Racial disparities in pulmonary embolism (PE) related mortality rates have been reported for decades in the United States (US). The risk factors contributing to the observed disparity remain unclear. Our objective is to examine recent PE-related mortality trends and PE risk factors by race. We hypothesize racial disparity gap in PE-related mortality and risk factors has persisted and might have widened with the COVID 19 pandemic. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) wide-ranging online data for epidemiologic research for both underlying cause of death (UCOD) and multiple causes of death (MCOD) in the US between the years 1999-2020 was used for this study. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) decedents aged 25 years and older with an ICD-10 code for PE (I26) were included. Age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were computed by race for age groups, year, Health & Human Services (HHS) regions, and urbanization and PE risk factors. Risk factors examined were trauma, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, sepsis, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and COVD-19 among PE decedents. RESULTS: Between the years 1999-2020, PE was the UCOD in 168,540 decedents, with 137,128 (81.4%) NHWs and 31,412 (18.6%) NHBs. The overall age-adjusted mortality rate (AAMR) decreased from 1999(5.3;95% CI, 5.2 - 5.4) to 2009(3.6;95% CI, 3.5 - 3.7), and then increased from 2010(3.8;95% (3.7 - 3.8) to 2020(4.2;95% CI, 4.1 - 4.3).There was a steep rise in the overall AAMR for 2020 (4.2;95% CI, 4.1 - 4.3) compared to the year prior 2019 (3.9;95% CI, 3.8 - 4.0) with highest annual % change among NHBs when compared to NHWs (NHB men (13%), NHB women (15%), NHW men (8.3%), NHW women (6%).) NHB men (AAMR 7.2;95% CI, 7.1-7.4) and NHB women (AAMR 6.6;95% CI, 6.5-6.7) had 2-fold higher AAMR compared to NHW men (AAMR 3.8;95% CI, 3.8-3-9) and NHW women (AAMR 3.7;95% CI, 3.7-3.7). Similar trends were also noted in geographical regions. The highest AAMRs were in HHS regions 3, 4, 5,6, 7, and 8. Within these HHS regions, NHBs and NHWs who resided in small metro and non-metropolitan areas had the highest AAMRs. However, NHB-NHW disparity in AAMR was seen in all 10 HHS regions and Urbanization. When risk factors such as trauma, cancer, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sepsis, and chronic lower respiratory diseases were each mentioned as MCOD with PE decedents, rates varied by risk factor but NHBs had consistently higher AAMR than NHWs. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that PE-related mortality has increased over the past decade and racial disparities persisted and varied by gender, region, urbanization, and risk factors. The decades-long disparity observed in PE-related mortality may be narrowed by allocating resources to the management of common comorbidities. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Racial disparity in PE-related mortality is related to comorbidities listed in MCOD data. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Isaac Ikwu No relevant relationships by Alem Mehari No relevant relationships by Lamiaa Rougui

Chest ; 162(4):A2217-A2218, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060912


SESSION TITLE: Autoimmune Diseases Gone Wild: Rare Cases of Pulmonary Manifestations SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Post-Covid-19 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a severe hyperinflammatory syndrome associated with either the acute or recovery phase of covid-19 infection affecting multiple organ systems requiring hospitalization. This syndrome has been described in both children (MIS-C) and adults (MIS-A). Several case reports and systematic reviews have reported an association between post-covid-19 MIS-A and several autoimmune diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: We herein report a case of a 27-year-old female with no known chronic medical condition and a non-contributory family history who was diagnosed with post-covid-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). She presented with generalized partial thickness erythematous skin ulcerations with tender blistering and painful erosion of her mucus membranes (oral and vaginal mucosa). This was diagnosed as Steven Johnsons syndrome. She was pulsed with intravenous methylprednisone. During this therapy, she progressed to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation (fig 1). Bronchoscopy revealed mild pulmonary hemorrhage fig 2a&b). Serological testing heralded a new onset systemic lupus erythematosus in light of positive antinuclear antibodies, anti Ds DNA and anti Smith antibodies. Her course was complicated by significant proteinuria and an active renal cast suggestive of lupus nephritis. This necessitated further treatment for active lupus. She was successfully extubated and discharged home. DISCUSSION: We arrived at the diagnosis of post-covid-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) in light of her presenting with fever, hypotension, persistent sinus tachycardia and new onset atrial fibrillation), acute pancreatitis, acute kidney injury, elevation in transaminases, new onset skin rash, elevated inflammatory markers and a recent history of positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Covid-19 has been reported to induce wide spread vasculitis resulting in MIS-A or MIS-C by triggering type 3 hypersensitivity (1). Also, multiple case reports and systemic reviews have reported a direct association between MIS-A and several autoimmune diseases including SLE, SJS (2). The patient recovered with high dose corticosteroid and supportive therapy indicating her severe ARDS was most likely due associated to SJS, SLE and MIS-A. Clinicians should also keep in mind that SARS-CoV-2 PCR swab may be negative at the time patient presents with symptoms of MIS-A as the infection might have occurred about 4-5weeks prior just as in our patient(3) CONCLUSIONS: We cannot underscore enough the importance of clinicians having a high index of suspicion for this syndrome in patients with acute or recent covid-19 infection, with or without a positive PCR covid-19 test. Early involvement of a multidisciplinary approach and appropriate management is essential to mitigate morbidity and mortality in these patients. Reference #1: Roncati L, Ligabue G, Fabbiani L, Malagoli C, Gallo G, Lusenti B, et al. Type 3 hypersensitivity in COVID-19 vasculitis. Clin Immunol Orlando Fla. 2020 Aug;217:108487. Reference #2: Gracia-Ramos AE, Martin-Nares E, Hernández-Molina G. New Onset of Autoimmune Diseases Following COVID-19 Diagnosis. Cells [Internet]. 2021 Dec 20 [cited 2022 Mar 22];10(12):3592. Available from: Reference #3: Morris SB. Case Series of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection — United Kingdom and United States, March–August 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2022 Mar 22];69. Available from: DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Isaac Ikwu No relevant relationships by Anthony Lyonga Ngonge No relevant relationships by Alem Mehari No relevant relationships by Noordeep Panesar no disclosure on file for Vis al Poddar;No relevant relationships by Emnet Yibeltal