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1.
Eur J Radiol ; 152: 110341, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821220

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a new epidemic of COVID associated mucormycosis (CAM) emerged in India. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this deadly disease are of paramount importance in improving patient survival. MRI is the cornerstone of diagnosis of early extrasinus disease, particularly intracranial complications which have traditionally been associated with a high mortality rate. In this review, we depict the sinonasal, perisinus, orbital and intracranial involvement in CAM. Special emphasis is laid on intracranial disease which is categorized into vascular, parenchymal, meningeal, bony involvement and perineural spread. Vascular complications are the most common form of intracranial involvement. Some unusual yet interesting imaging findings such as nerve abscesses involving the optic, trigeminal and mandibular nerves and long segment vasculitis of the internal carotid artery extending till its cervical segment are also illustrated. In our experience, patient outcome in CAM (survival rate of 88.5%) was better compared to the pre-pandemic era. Presence of intracranial disease also did not affect prognosis as poorly as traditionally expected (survival rate of 82.8%). Involvement of brain parenchyma was the only subset of intracranial involvement that was associated with higher mortality (p value 0.016). The aim of this review is to familiarise the reader with the MR imaging spectrum of CAM with special focus on intracranial complications and a brief account of their impact on patient prognosis in our experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cytopathology ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a wide range of disease patterns, ranging from mild to life-threatening pneumonia. COVID-19 can be associated with a suppressed immune response and/or hyperinflammatory state due to cytokine storm. Reduced immunity, combined with steroid usage to prevent cytokine storm along with various pre-existing co morbidities can prove to be a fertile ground for various secondary bacterial and fungal infection, including mucormycosis. Diagnosis of mucor is a challenging task given high negativity rate of various detection methods. While histopathology is considered the gold standard, the acquisition of necessary tissue biopsy specimens requires invasive procedures and is time consuming. METHOD: In this study various methods of mucor detection, like conventional cytopathology (CCP), liquid-based cytology (LBC, BD SurepathTM ), potassium hydroxide mount (KOH) preparation, culture and histopathology were analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for various methods. RESULTS: This study showed that LBC has sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 72.4%,100%,100% and 38.4% respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed that, liquid-based cytology (LBC) can be a rapid and effective alternative to histopathology in mucor diagnosis.

4.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(5): 798-805, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent pandemic of COVID19 infection has witnessed a re-emergence of invasive fungal sinusitis especially of the Mucor species, which has been a rare entity in the pre covid era. Covid associated mucormycosis (CAM) is one of the dreaded and fatal complications which has surfaced up and early diagnosis is critical for management and survival .It is identified to affect both subset of patients, those with active COVID-19 infection and those who have recovered from the disease in the last 4-6 weeks. Imaging features suggestive of early invasion with supportive imaging examples and relevance of these findings in clinical decision making is presented. METHODS: This paper reviews the various imaging signs of early invasion in CAM A comprehensive checklist for clinically relevant and quick reporting is also presented. RESULTS: Emphysematous or ulcerative mucosal changes in the nasal cavity is an early imaging feature of CAM. Periantral soft tissue and soft tissue within the pterygopalatine fossa are important imaging signs to indicate extrasinus invasion. Disease within pterygopalatine fossa may lead to multidirectional spread and is an important check site. These findings are seen even in absence of bony erosions owing to the neurovascular spread of disease. Intra orbital and intracranial extensions were found to be fairly common and must be sought for. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of early subtle signs of CAM on imaging can aid in prompt diagnosis of this fatal entity in the pertinent clinical setting. Imaging signs of spread of disease and delineation of its extent as inferred from CT imaging aids in prognosis and appropriate surgical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinusitis , Acute Disease , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Otolaryngology Case Reports ; : 100400, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1634322

ABSTRACT

Keratosis obturans is a rare entity which presents with pain, conductive hearing loss and very rarely facial nerve palsy due to pressure effects. HRCT temporal bone can help in differentiating keratosis obturans from canal cholesteatoma and can also show any pressure effects on facial canal. Prompt diagnosis and its differentiation from other similar conditions like canal cholesteatoma and impacted wax is warranted to avoid complications.

6.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 38(3): 242-249, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593635

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To correlate the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features in Covid-associated Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis cases presenting with acute visual loss. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Covid-associated Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis cases with unilateral visual loss, planned for exenteration, underwent orbital and ophthalmological ocular examination. The available radiological sequences, doppler ultrasonography and histopathology findings were correlated with clinical manifestations. RESULTS: The median age was 51 years and the male: female ratio was 3:1. All except one presented with unilateral ophthalmoplegia. The ocular media were hazy in 2 eyes. In 8 eyes, retinal changes were suggestive of occlusion of CRA (6), combined occlusion of CRA and central retinal vein (1), and myopic degeneration with hypertensive retinopathy (1). The contralateral eye showed retinal ischemic changes in one patient. Radiological imaging showed orbital apex involvement in the 10 affected eyes and one contralateral eye. Ipsilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis, diffusion restriction on MRI of optic nerve, internal carotid artery narrowing/thrombosis, and cortical watershed infarcts were seen in 8, 4, 4, and 2 cases, respectively. The blood flow in CRA and ophthalmic artery was absent or reduced in all the 10 affected eyes and in 1 contralateral eye. On histopathology, orbital fat necrosis, fungal hyphae, acute inflammation, granuloma formation, ischemic thrombosis of ophthalmic artery was observed in 10 specimens. CRA was patent in 9 and thrombosed in 1 eye. Optic nerve was ischemic in 8 and viable in 2 eyes. CONCLUSION: Acute visual loss in ROCM cases is associated with orbital apex involvement and thrombotic ischemia of ophthalmic artery. Cessation of flow in CRA possibly occurs secondary to ophthalmic artery thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/etiology
7.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 15: 3505-3514, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To list the clinico-epidemiological profile and possible risk factors of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (CA-ROCM) patients presenting to a COVID dedicated hospital during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, single-center study was done on 60 cases of probable CA-ROCM based on clinical features and supportive diagnostic nasal endoscopic findings and/or radiologic findings. Patients with recent or active COVID-19 were included. The demographic profile, clinical features, possible risk factors and diagnostic workup (microbiological, pathological and radiological) were analysed to identify the triggering factors for CA-ROCM. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged from 29 to 75 years and male-female ratio was 3:1. The duration between the first positive COVID report and onset of CA-ROCM was 0 to 47 days. Forty-nine (81.66%) patients had a recent COVID infection and 11 (18.33%) had active COVID infection at presentation. Thirty-five patients (58%) had ocular/orbital involvement at presentation. In the affected eye, 10 had no perception of light and in the rest visual acuity ranged from log MAR 0 to +1.5. Ocular manifestations were ptosis (29), ophthalmoplegia (23), periocular tenderness and edema (33), proptosis (14), black discoloration of eyelids (3), facial palsy (3), endophthalmitis (4), retinal artery occlusion (8), disc edema (4) and disc pallor (5). Twenty-two (25%) patients had neither received steroids nor oxygen. Thirty patients (50%) were managed with oxygen while 38 patients (63.3%) with systemic steroids. The most common risk factor was diabetes in 59 patients. The average glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 10.31 ± 2.59%. Systemic Amphotericin B was started in all the patients. Radical surgical debridement was performed in 12 patients and the remaining were planned. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 variant with accompanying glycaemic dysregulation was found to be the triggering factor for the epidemic of CA-ROCM.

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