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Chest ; 162(4):A1582-A1583, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060844


SESSION TITLE: Using Imaging for Diagnosis Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Point of care ultrasonography (POCUS) uses an ultrasound technique that helps physicians augment physical examination findings and guide clinical decision-making at the bedside. We present a case that became a watershed moment for internal medicine residents at Abington Jefferson Hospital to use POCUS for every patient with atrial flutter/fibrillation with RVR prior to initiating diltiazem drip. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old male presented to the emergency department with complaints of palpitations. He was tachycardic with a heart rate in the 150s, and his rhythm was irregular. His basic labs were normal;an electrocardiogram investigation showed that he was experiencing an atrial flutter with 2:1 and 3:1 blocks. Chest X-ray was clear. He was given IV metoprolol 10 mg twice without achieving rate control and then started on a diltiazem drip, which initially improved his heart rate to 70s with rhythm changing to atrial flutter with 4:1 block. However, he started to become hypoxic, requiring intubation and then hemodynamically unstable, requiring initiation of pressors. Postintubation CXR indicated bilateral diffuse pulmonary edema and vascular congestion. Subsequently, he had Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) arrest. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved after 3 minutes of chest compression and one round of epinephrine injection. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 10%. He had a right heart catheterization which showed a CI of 1.7 and elevated PCWP and RVP. He was started on milrinone for ionotropic support and needed norepinephrine, vasopressin and phenylephrine to sustain his blood pressure. DISCUSSION: Atrial flutter and fibrillation are routinely seen arrhythmias in hospital settings. Patients with irregular rhythm who are in rapid ventricular rate and normotensive are often given IV metoprolol few times and then started on a diltiazem drip if RVR continues. Diltiazem not only decreases heart rate (negative chronotropic) but also decreases ventricular squeeze (negative ionotropic). It is contraindicated in patients with reduced ejection fraction. Patients’ ejection fraction values are not always known, especially if they have never had a transthoracic echocardiogram in the past or prior records are not available. POCUS helps physicians and residents to access and estimate LV function quickly and augments clinical decision making at the bedside. CONCLUSIONS: Internal Medicine Residents at Abington Hospital have made it a part of their protocol to always perform bedside ultrasonography in patients with atrial flutter/fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate before initiating diltiazem drip to prevent further avoidable cardiogenic shocks. Reference #1: Fey H, Jost M, Geise AT, Bertsch T, Christ M. Kardiogener Schock nach bradykardisierender Therapie bei tachykardem Vorhofflimmern : Fallvorstellung einer 89-jährigen Patientin [Cardiogenic shock after drug therapy for atrial fibrillation with tachycardia : Case report of an 89-year-old woman]. Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed. 2016 Jun;111(5):458-62. German. doi: 10.1007/s00063-015-0089-9. Epub 2015 Oct 6. PMID: 26440099. Reference #2: Bitar ZI, Shamsah M, Bamasood OM, Maadarani OS, Alfoudri H. Point-of-Care Ultrasound for COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients in the ICU. J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021 Jan;29(1):60-68. doi: 10.4250/jcvi.2020.0138. PMID: 33511802;PMCID: PMC7847790. Reference #3: Murray A, Hutchison H, Popil M, Krebs W. The Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound to Accurately Measure Cardiac Output in Flight. Air Med J. 2020 May-Jun;39(3):218-220. doi: 10.1016/j.amj.2019.12.008. Epub 2020 Jan 14. PMID: 32540116. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Fnu Aisha No relevant relationships by Lucy Checchio No relevant relationships by Ans Dastgir No relevant relationships by Shravya Ginnaram No relevant relationships by Syeda Hassan No relevant relationships by Chaitra Janga No relev nt relationships by Rameesha Mehreen No relevant relationships by Rahat Ahmed Memon No relevant relationships by Binod Poudel No relevant relationships by Shreeja Shah

Chest ; 162(4):A1535, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060837


SESSION TITLE: Genetic and Developmental Disorders Case Report Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the more common hematologic disorders. Many individuals are asymptomatic until a triggering event. Events that lead to hemolysis in the setting of G6PD include certain medications, infections, and specific foods. We discuss a case of G6PD deficiency diagnosed in a hospitalized adult with COVID infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41 year old male presented to the hospital with altered mental status. On admission he was found to be in diabetic ketoacidosis and was COVID positive. He was admitted to the ICU and his acidosis was corrected with insulin. He did not require intubation but was treated with steroids, remdesivir, and supplemental oxygen for his COVID pneumonia. His hospitalization was complicated by hemolytic anemia. Testing for autoimmune hemolytic anemia and HIT (heparin induced thrombocytopenia) were negative. Genetic testing for G6PD deficiency came back positive. The patient was discharged and referred to hematology for follow up. DISCUSSION: Interestingly, our patient was asymptomatic prior to his COVID infection. It is likely that the stress from his COVID infection triggered worsening hemolysis. G6PD can be worsened with specific medications or foods but we cannot exclude infection. The inflammatory response secondary to COVID is the probable cause for the patient's hemolytic anemia presentation and subsequent G6PD deficiency diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: G6PD deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with COVID infection and labs consistent with hemolytic anemia. Reference #1: Buinitskaya Y, Gurinovich R, Wlodaver CG, Kastsiuchenka S. Centrality of G6PD in COVID-19: The Biochemical Rationale and Clinical Implications. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020;7:584112. Published 2020 Oct 22. doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.584112 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sarin Atam No relevant relationships by Kathleen Coppola No relevant relationships by Malik Muhammad Uzair Khan No relevant relationships by Mackenzie Kramer No relevant relationships by Rameesha Mehreen No relevant relationships by Stephanie Tzarnas No relevant relationships by Laura Walters

Chest ; 162(4):A419-A420, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060591


SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) related respiratory tract infections have been described in critically ill or immunocompromised patients. We present a case of HSV-1 pneumonia in a mechanically ventilated and immunocompromised patient in the setting of SARS CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female on Rituximab for Rheumatoid arthritis presented with shortness of breath and cough. She was afebrile, tachypneic and hypoxic. She was discharged 1 week prior after a 3 weeklong treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia. CT Angiogram showed extensive bilateral patchy consolidations with ground-glass infiltrates and subsegmental pulmonary emboli. Patient was initiated on heparin and broad-spectrum IV antibiotics with steroids for presumed ARDS with superimposed bacterial pneumonia. Her respiratory failure worsened requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Failing oxygenation despite aggressive therapy prompted further workup that showed a normal echo and negative blood cultures. Sputum was negative for Pneumocystis pneumonia and Tuberculosis. Cytology from tracheal aspirate showed bronchial cells with inclusions and multinucleations consistent with HSV-associated cytopathic changes. A positive serum HSV-1 IgG and serum quantitative PCR of HSV-1 DNA solidified the diagnosis. Ganciclovir therapy was initiated to cover for HSV and Cytomegalovirus (CMV), however, a serum CMV PCR was negative. Within a day, her clinical course took a downward spiral. CT chest was repeated which showed worsening airspace disease. Despite ganciclovir therapy, the severity of lung disease led to eventual failure of oxygenation and patient demise. DISCUSSION: Prolonged mechanical ventilation due to ARDS is a risk factor for HSV bronchopneumonia in patients with COVID-19 and has shown an increased mortality 1,2. Diagnosis can be achieved by viral culture or observing cytopathic effects of HSV on cells in tracheobronchial aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage, or biopsy3. In critically ill patients early treatment has been shown to prolong the ICU time to death and improved oxygenation4. It is important to test for co-infections as about 65% of HSV pneumonia cases are associated with pathogens like CMV and Pneumocystis5. CONCLUSIONS: Worsening respiratory disease in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients despite antibiotic therapy for suspected superimposed bacterial infection warrants a workup for secondary viral infections like HSV. Increased mortality is seen if not promptly treated. Reference #1: 1. Meyer A, Buetti N, Houhou-Fidouh N, et al. HSV-1 reactivation is associated with an increased risk of mortality and pneumonia in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Critical Care. 2021/12/06 2021;25(1):417. doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03843-8 Reference #2: Le Balc'h P, Pinceaux K, Pronier C, Seguin P, Tadié J-M, Reizine F. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus reactivations among severe COVID-19 patients. Critical Care. 2020/08/28 2020;24(1):530. doi:10.1186/s13054-020-03252-3 Reference #3: Shah JN, Chemaly RF. Herpes Simplex Virus Pneumonia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies. Pulmonary Involvement in Patients with Hematological Malignancies. 2010:301-311. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15742-4_24 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Andrew Cox No relevant relationships by Syeda Hassan No relevant relationships by Maria Khan No relevant relationships by Malik Muhammad Uzair Khan No relevant relationships by Rameesha Mehreen No relevant relationships by Rahat Ahmed Memon No relevant relationships by Ifrah Naeem No relevant relationships by Laura Walters