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2.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(5): 100287, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683718

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms underlying severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease remain poorly understood. We analyze several thousand plasma proteins longitudinally in 306 COVID-19 patients and 78 symptomatic controls, uncovering immune and non-immune proteins linked to COVID-19. Deconvolution of our plasma proteome data using published scRNA-seq datasets reveals contributions from circulating immune and tissue cells. Sixteen percent of patients display reduced inflammation yet comparably poor outcomes. Comparison of patients who died to severely ill survivors identifies dynamic immune-cell-derived and tissue-associated proteins associated with survival, including exocrine pancreatic proteases. Using derived tissue-specific and cell-type-specific intracellular death signatures, cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, and our data, we infer whether organ damage resulted from direct or indirect effects of infection. We propose a model in which interactions among myeloid, epithelial, and T cells drive tissue damage. These datasets provide important insights and a rich resource for analysis of mechanisms of severe COVID-19 disease.

3.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:75-75, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1595251

ABSTRACT

Proximity extension assays measured plasma renin, ACE2, and renin-receptor, as well as >40 markers of endothelial, alveolar, cardiac, and renal injury. Over time, critically ill patients develop higher RAS markers that are associated with non-pulmonary organ injury and worse 28-day outcome. B Introduction: b The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is not well characterized over the course of severe COVID-19 illness. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(5): 507-519, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560818

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Alveolar and endothelial injury may be differentially associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) severity over time. Objectives: To describe alveolar and endothelial injury dynamics and associations with COVID-19 severity, cardiorenovascular injury, and outcomes. Methods: This single-center observational study enrolled patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support at emergency department presentation. More than 40 markers of alveolar (including receptor for advanced glycation endproducts [RAGE]), endothelial (including angiopoietin-2), and cardiorenovascular injury (including renin, kidney injury molecule-1, and troponin-I) were serially compared between invasively and spontaneously ventilated patients using mixed-effects repeated-measures models. Ventilatory ratios were calculated for intubated patients. Associations of biomarkers with modified World Health Organization scale at Day 28 were determined with multivariable proportional-odds regression. Measurements and Main Results: Of 225 patients, 74 (33%) received invasive ventilation at Day 0. RAGE was 1.80-fold higher in invasive ventilation patients at Day 0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-2.17) versus spontaneous ventilation, but decreased over time in all patients. Changes in alveolar markers did not correlate with changes in endothelial, cardiac, or renal injury markers. In contrast, endothelial markers were similar to lower at Day 0 for invasive ventilation versus spontaneous ventilation, but then increased over time only among intubated patients. In intubated patients, angiopoietin-2 was similar (fold difference, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.17) to nonintubated patients at Day 0 but 1.80-fold higher (95% CI, 1.56-2.06) at Day 3; cardiorenovascular injury markers showed similar patterns. Endothelial markers were not consistently associated with ventilatory ratios. Endothelial markers were more often significantly associated with 28-day outcomes than alveolar markers. Conclusions: Alveolar injury markers increase early. Endothelial injury markers increase later and are associated with cardiorenovascular injury and 28-day outcome. Alveolar and endothelial injury likely contribute at different times to disease progression in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium/injuries , Patient Acuity , Pulmonary Alveoli/injuries , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , Critical Care Outcomes , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia has been associated with severe disease and death in COVID-19 in small-scale cohort studies. The mechanisms behind this association remain elusive.METHODSWe evaluated the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viremia, disease outcome, and inflammatory and proteomic profiles in a cohort of COVID-19 emergency department participants. SARS-CoV-2 viral load was measured using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based platform. Proteomic data were generated with Proximity Extension Assay using the Olink platform.RESULTSThis study included 300 participants with nucleic acid test-confirmed COVID-19. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 viremia levels at the time of presentation predicted adverse disease outcomes, with an adjusted OR of 10.6 (95% CI 4.4-25.5, P < 0.001) for severe disease (mechanical ventilation and/or 28-day mortality) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = 0.006) for 28-day mortality. Proteomic analyses revealed prominent proteomic pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 viremia, including upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors (ACE2, CTSL, FURIN), heightened markers of tissue damage to the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and endothelium/vasculature, and alterations in coagulation pathways.CONCLUSIONThese results highlight the cascade of vascular and tissue damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia that underlies its ability to predict COVID-19 disease outcomes.FUNDINGMark and Lisa Schwartz; the National Institutes of Health (U19AI082630); the American Lung Association; the Executive Committee on Research at Massachusetts General Hospital; the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Arthur, Sandra, and Sarah Irving for the David P. Ryan, MD, Endowed Chair in Cancer Research; an EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (ALTF 486-2018); a Cancer Research Institute/Bristol Myers Squibb Fellowship (CRI2993); the Harvard Catalyst/Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH awards UL1TR001102 and UL1TR002541-01); and by the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 5P30AI060354).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/blood , Viremia/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(598)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314110

ABSTRACT

Bacterial sepsis and severe COVID-19 share similar clinical manifestations and are both associated with dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment. We previously reported an expanded CD14+ monocyte state, MS1, in patients with bacterial sepsis and validated expansion of this cell subpopulation in publicly available transcriptomics data. Here, using published datasets, we show that the gene expression program associated with MS1 correlated with sepsis severity and was up-regulated in monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19. To examine the ontogeny and function of MS1 cells, we developed a cellular model for inducing CD14+ MS1 monocytes from healthy bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). We found that plasma from patients with bacterial sepsis or COVID-19 induced myelopoiesis in HSPCs in vitro and expression of the MS1 gene program in monocytes and neutrophils that differentiated from these HSPCs. Furthermore, we found that plasma concentrations of IL-6, and to a lesser extent IL-10, correlated with increased myeloid cell output from HSPCs in vitro and enhanced expression of the MS1 gene program. We validated the requirement for these two cytokines to induce the MS1 gene program through CRISPR-Cas9 editing of their receptors in HSPCs. Using this cellular model system, we demonstrated that induced MS1 cells were broadly immunosuppressive and showed decreased responsiveness to stimulation with a synthetic RNA analog. Our in vitro study suggests a potential role for systemic cytokines in inducing myelopoiesis during severe bacterial or SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Sepsis , Humans , Myeloid Cells , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia has been associated with severe disease and death in COVID-19 in small-scale cohort studies. The mechanisms behind this association remain elusive.METHODSWe evaluated the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viremia, disease outcome, and inflammatory and proteomic profiles in a cohort of COVID-19 emergency department participants. SARS-CoV-2 viral load was measured using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based platform. Proteomic data were generated with Proximity Extension Assay using the Olink platform.RESULTSThis study included 300 participants with nucleic acid test-confirmed COVID-19. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 viremia levels at the time of presentation predicted adverse disease outcomes, with an adjusted OR of 10.6 (95% CI 4.4-25.5, P < 0.001) for severe disease (mechanical ventilation and/or 28-day mortality) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = 0.006) for 28-day mortality. Proteomic analyses revealed prominent proteomic pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2 viremia, including upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors (ACE2, CTSL, FURIN), heightened markers of tissue damage to the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and endothelium/vasculature, and alterations in coagulation pathways.CONCLUSIONThese results highlight the cascade of vascular and tissue damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia that underlies its ability to predict COVID-19 disease outcomes.FUNDINGMark and Lisa Schwartz; the National Institutes of Health (U19AI082630); the American Lung Association; the Executive Committee on Research at Massachusetts General Hospital; the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative; Arthur, Sandra, and Sarah Irving for the David P. Ryan, MD, Endowed Chair in Cancer Research; an EMBO Long-Term Fellowship (ALTF 486-2018); a Cancer Research Institute/Bristol Myers Squibb Fellowship (CRI2993); the Harvard Catalyst/Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH awards UL1TR001102 and UL1TR002541-01); and by the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 5P30AI060354).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viremia/blood , Viremia/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(598)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262379

ABSTRACT

Bacterial sepsis and severe COVID-19 share similar clinical manifestations and are both associated with dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment. We previously reported an expanded CD14+ monocyte state, MS1, in patients with bacterial sepsis and validated expansion of this cell subpopulation in publicly available transcriptomics data. Here, using published datasets, we show that the gene expression program associated with MS1 correlated with sepsis severity and was up-regulated in monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19. To examine the ontogeny and function of MS1 cells, we developed a cellular model for inducing CD14+ MS1 monocytes from healthy bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). We found that plasma from patients with bacterial sepsis or COVID-19 induced myelopoiesis in HSPCs in vitro and expression of the MS1 gene program in monocytes and neutrophils that differentiated from these HSPCs. Furthermore, we found that plasma concentrations of IL-6, and to a lesser extent IL-10, correlated with increased myeloid cell output from HSPCs in vitro and enhanced expression of the MS1 gene program. We validated the requirement for these two cytokines to induce the MS1 gene program through CRISPR-Cas9 editing of their receptors in HSPCs. Using this cellular model system, we demonstrated that induced MS1 cells were broadly immunosuppressive and showed decreased responsiveness to stimulation with a synthetic RNA analog. Our in vitro study suggests a potential role for systemic cytokines in inducing myelopoiesis during severe bacterial or SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Sepsis , Humans , Myeloid Cells , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252799, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259248

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) enabling entrance of the virus into cells and causing the infection termed coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we investigate associations between plasma ACE2 and outcome of COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: This analysis used data from a large longitudinal study of 306 COVID-19 positive patients and 78 COVID-19 negative patients (MGH Emergency Department COVID-19 Cohort). Comprehensive clinical data were collected on this cohort, including 28-day outcomes. The samples were run on the Olink® Explore 1536 platform which includes measurement of the ACE2 protein. High admission plasma ACE2 in COVID-19 patients was associated with increased maximal illness severity within 28 days with OR = 1.8, 95%-CI: 1.4-2.3 (P < 0.0001). Plasma ACE2 was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with hypertension compared with patients without hypertension (P = 0.0045). Circulating ACE2 was also significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing heart conditions and kidney disease compared with patients without these pre-existing conditions (P = 0.0363 and P = 0.0303, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that measuring plasma ACE2 is potentially valuable in predicting COVID-19 outcomes. Further, ACE2 could be a link between COVID-19 illness severity and its established risk factors hypertension, pre-existing heart disease and pre-existing kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Hospitalization , Kidney Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Kidney Diseases/blood , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(5): 100287, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213572

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms underlying severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease remain poorly understood. We analyze several thousand plasma proteins longitudinally in 306 COVID-19 patients and 78 symptomatic controls, uncovering immune and non-immune proteins linked to COVID-19. Deconvolution of our plasma proteome data using published scRNA-seq datasets reveals contributions from circulating immune and tissue cells. Sixteen percent of patients display reduced inflammation yet comparably poor outcomes. Comparison of patients who died to severely ill survivors identifies dynamic immune-cell-derived and tissue-associated proteins associated with survival, including exocrine pancreatic proteases. Using derived tissue-specific and cell-type-specific intracellular death signatures, cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, and our data, we infer whether organ damage resulted from direct or indirect effects of infection. We propose a model in which interactions among myeloid, epithelial, and T cells drive tissue damage. These datasets provide important insights and a rich resource for analysis of mechanisms of severe COVID-19 disease.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6319, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966313

ABSTRACT

The relationship of SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary infection and severity of disease is not fully understood. Here we show analysis of autopsy specimens from 24 patients who succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection using a combination of different RNA and protein analytical platforms to characterize inter-patient and intra-patient heterogeneity of pulmonary virus infection. There is a spectrum of high and low virus cases associated with duration of disease. High viral cases have high activation of interferon pathway genes and a predominant M1-like macrophage infiltrate. Low viral cases are more heterogeneous likely reflecting inherent patient differences in the evolution of host response, but there is consistent indication of pulmonary epithelial cell recovery based on napsin A immunohistochemistry and RNA expression of surfactant and mucin genes. Using a digital spatial profiling platform, we find the virus corresponds to distinct spatial expression of interferon response genes demonstrating the intra-pulmonary heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Host Microbial Interactions , Interferons/metabolism , Lung , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Interferons/genetics , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucins/genetics , Mucins/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Transcriptome , Viral Load
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