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Respiration ; 100(12): 1208-1217, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956956


Bronchoscopy is a commonly performed procedure within thoracic and critical care medicine. Modern bronchoscopes are technologically advanced tools made of fragile electronic components. Their design is catered to allow maximum maneuverability within the semi-rigid tracheobronchial tree. Effective cleaning and reprocessing of these tools can be a challenge. Although highly functional, the design poses several challenges when it comes to reprocessing. It is a very important step, and lapses in the procedure have been tied to nosocomial infections. The process lacks universal standardization; several organizations have developed their own recommendations. Data have shown that key stakeholders are not fully versed in the essentials of endoscope reprocessing. A significant knowledge gap exists between those performing bronchoscopy and those who are stewards of effective endoscope reprocessing. To service as a resource for bronchoscopists, this study summarizes the steps of effective reprocessing, details the important elements within a health-care facility that houses this process, and reviews some of the current data regarding the use of disposable endoscopes.

Disinfection , Equipment Contamination , Bronchoscopes , Disinfection/methods , Endoscopes , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , Reference Standards
Ann Thorac Med ; 16(3): 221-224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468581
Clin Imaging ; 72: 22-30, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064956


The global pandemic of COVID-19 pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has strained healthcare resources across the world with emerging challenges of mass testing, resource allocation and management. While reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is the most commonly utilized test and considered the current gold standard for diagnosis, the role of chest imaging has been highlighted by several studies demonstrating high sensitivity of computed tomography (CT). Many have suggested using CT chest as a first-line screening tool for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, with advancement of laboratory testing and challenges in obtaining a CT scan without significant risk to healthcare providers, the role of imaging in diagnosis has been questioned. Several imaging societies have released consensus statements and guidelines on utilizing imaging resources and optimal reporting. In this review, we highlight the current evidence on various modalities in thoracic imaging for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and describe an algorithm on how to use these resources in an optimal fashion in accordance with the guidelines and statements released by major imaging societies.

COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(4): 506-514, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975195


OBJECTIVES: Current knowledge of the pulmonary pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is based largely on postmortem studies. In most, the interval between disease onset and death is relatively short (<1 month). Information regarding lung pathology in patients who survive for longer periods is scant. We describe the pathology in three patients with severe COVID-19 who underwent antemortem examination of lung tissue at least 8 weeks after initial diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series. RESULTS: The first patient developed acute respiratory failure and was started on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on day 21, with subsequent hemothorax. Debridement (day 38) showed extensive lung infarction with diffuse alveolar damage and Candida overgrowth. The second patient developed acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation that did not improve despite ECMO. Surgical lung biopsy on day 74 showed diffuse interstitial fibrosis with focal microscopic honeycomb change. The third patient also required ECMO and underwent bilateral lung transplantation on day 126. The explanted lungs showed diffuse interstitial fibrosis with focal microscopic honeycomb change. CONCLUSIONS: This series provides histologic confirmation that complications of COVID-19 after 8 weeks to 4 months of severe disease include lung infarction and diffuse interstitial fibrosis.

COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lung/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors