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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1188-1193, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196500

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health crisis. Very few studies have reported association between obesity and severity of COVID-19. In this meta-analysis, we assessed the association of obesity and outcomes in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Data from observational studies describing the obesity or body mass index and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019, to August 15, 2020, was extracted following PRISMA guidelines with a consensus of two independent reviewers. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were obtained and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A total of 10 studies with 10,233 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. The overall prevalence of obesity in our study was 33.9% (3473/10,233). In meta-analysis, COVID-19 patient with obesity had higher odds of poor outcomes compared with better outcomes with a pooled OR of 1.88 (95% CI: 1.25-2.80; p = 0.002), with 86% heterogeneity between studies (p < 0.00001). Our study suggests a significant association between obesity and COVID-19 severity and poor outcomes. Our results findings may have important suggestions for the clinical management and future research of obesity and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/complications , Body Mass Index , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/virology , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
3.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020506, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154781

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic that brought the whole world to a standstill, has led to financial and health care burden. We aimed to evaluate epidemiological characteristics, needs of resources, outcomes, and global burden of the disease. Methods: Systematic review was performed searching PubMed from December 1, 2019, to March 25, 2020, for full-text observational studies that described epidemiological characteristics, following MOOSE protocol. Global data were collected from the JHU-Corona Virus Resource Center, WHO-COVID-2019 situation reports, KFF.org, and Worldometers.info until March 31, 2020. The prevalence percentages were calculated. The global data were plotted in excel to calculate case fatality rate (CFR), predicted CFR, COVID-19 specific mortality rate, and doubling time for cases and deaths. CFR was predicted using Pearson correlation, regression models, and coefficient of determination. Results: From 21 studies of 2747 patients, 8.4% of patients died, 20.4% recovered, 15.4% were admitted to ICU and 14.9% required ventilation. COVID-19 was more prevalent in patients with hypertension (19.3%), smoking (11.3%), diabetes mellitus (10%), and cardiovascular diseases (7.4%). Common complications were pneumonia (82%), cardiac complications (26.4%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (15.7%), secondary infection (11.2%), and septic shock (4.3%). Though CFR and COVID-19 specific death rates are dynamic, they were consistently high for Italy, Spain, and Iran. Polynomial growth models were best fit for all countries for predicting CFR. Though many interventions have been implemented, stern measures like nationwide lockdown and school closure occurred after very high infection rates (>10cases per 100 000population) prevailed. Given the trend of government measures and decline of new cases in China and South Korea, most countries will reach the peak between April 1-20, if interventions are followed. Conclusions: A collective approach undertaken by a responsible government, wise strategy implementation and a receptive population may help contain the spread of COVID-19 outbreak. Close monitoring of predictive models of such indicators in the highly affected countries would help to evaluate the potential fatality if the second wave of pandemic occurs. The future studies should be focused on identifying accurate indicators to mitigate the effect of underestimation or overestimation of COVID-19 burden.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
AME Case Rep ; 5: 6, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106646

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause a cluster of flu-like illnesses and pneumonia with evolving understanding of other systemic manifestations. Currently, the known cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 include myocardial injury, acute coronary syndrome, and arrhythmias. In this report, we describe a case of pericarditis-an unusual cardiac manifestation observed in a patient with COVID-19. A 63-year-old male presented with history of fever, cough and chest pain. Electrocardiogram (EKG) demonstrated diffuse ST-T wave changes on all the leads, with normal troponin-T levels. Echocardiograph showed mild pericardial effusion without any regional wall motion abnormality. Subsequent chest radiograph and coronary angiography were normal. In view of ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, nasopharyngeal swab was performed, which was positive. Detailed etiological workup for pericarditis, including infectious and inflammatory causes were unremarkable. Viral pericarditis (possibly caused by COVID-19) was diagnosis of exclusion and patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice a day, colchicine 0.5 mg twice a day, and lopinavir/ritonavir 200 mg/50 mg tablet twice a day for 10 days during admission. He was discharged with hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice daily and colchicine 0.5 mg once daily for 15 days. On subsequent follow-up clinic visit, he reported resolution of symptoms. The purpose of this report is to add a potential cardiovascular complication of COVID-19 to the literature. Awareness of this manifestation can lead to timely laboratory and imaging examinations with potential to provide correct treatment and good outcome.

6.
Ann Hepatol ; 21: 100273, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866413

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a challenge globally. In severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic 60% of patients had hepatic injury, due to phylogenetic similarities of the viruses it is assumed that COVID-19 is associated with acute liver injury. In this meta-analysis, we aim to study the occurrence and association of liver injury, comorbid liver disease and elevated liver enzymes in COVID-19 confirmed hospitalizations with outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from observational studies describing comorbid chronic liver disease, acute liver injury, elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020 was extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes were defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), oxygen saturation <90%, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), severe disease and in-hospital mortality. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were obtained. RESULTS: 24 studies with 12,882 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. Overall prevalence of CM-CLD was 2.6%, COVID-19-ALI was 26.5%, elevated AST was 41.1% and elevated ALT was 29.1%. CM-CLD had no significant association with poor outcomes (pooled OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.71-1.29; p=0.78). COVID-19-ALI (1.68;1.04-2.70; p=0.03), elevated AST (2.98; 2.35-3.77; p<0.00001) and elevated ALT (1.85;1.49-2.29; p<0.00001) were significantly associated with higher odds of poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggests that acute liver injury and elevated liver enzymes were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity. Future studies should evaluate changing levels of biomarkers amongst liver disease patients to predict poor outcomes of COVID-19 and causes of liver injury during COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Global Health , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 26(3): 107-108, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate association between biomarkers and outcomes in COVID-19 hospitalised patients. COVID-19 pandemic has been a challenge. Biomarkers have always played an important role in clinical decision making in various infectious diseases. It is crucial to assess the role of biomarkers in evaluating severity of disease and appropriate allocation of resources. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and meta-analysis. English full text observational studies describing the laboratory findings and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalised patients were identified searching PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, medRxiv using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms COVID-19 OR coronavirus OR SARS-CoV-2 OR 2019-nCoV from 1 December 2019 to 15 August 2020 following Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. PARTICIPANTS: Studies having biomarkers, including lymphocyte, platelets, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, procalcitonin (PCT) and creatine kinase (CK), and describing outcomes were selected with the consensus of three independent reviewers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite poor outcomes include intensive care unit admission, oxygen saturation <90%, invasive mechanical ventilation utilisation, severe disease, in-hospital admission and mortality. The OR and 95% CI were obtained and forest plots were created using random-effects models. Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed by sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: 32 studies with 10 491 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included. We found that lymphopenia (pooled-OR: 3.33 (95% CI: 2.51-4.41); p<0.00001), thrombocytopenia (2.36 (1.64-3.40); p<0.00001), elevated D-dimer (3.39 (2.66-4.33); p<0.00001), elevated CRP (4.37 (3.37-5.68); p<0.00001), elevated PCT (6.33 (4.24-9.45); p<0.00001), elevated CK (2.42 (1.35-4.32); p=0.003), elevated AST (2.75 (2.30-3.29); p<0.00001), elevated ALT (1.71 (1.32-2.20); p<0.00001), elevated creatinine (2.84 (1.80-4.46); p<0.00001) and LDH (5.48 (3.89-7.71); p<0.00001) were independently associated with higher risk of poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our study found a significant association between lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated levels of CRP, PCT, LDH, D-dimer and COVID-19 severity. The results have the potential to be used as an early biomarker to improve the management of COVID-19 patients, by identification of high-risk patients and appropriate allocation of healthcare resources in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision-Making , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
SN Compr Clin Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740989

ABSTRACT

The increasing COVID-19 cases in the USA have led to overburdening of healthcare in regard to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) utilization as well as mortality. We aim to identify risk factors associated with poor outcomes (IMV and mortality) of COVID-19 hospitalized patients. A meta-analysis of observational studies with epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and medRxiv from December 1, 2019 to May 31, 2020 following MOOSE guidelines was conducted. Twenty-nine full-text studies detailing epidemiological characteristics, symptoms, comorbidities, complications, and outcomes were included. Meta-regression was performed to evaluate effects of comorbidities, and complications on outcomes using a random-effects model. The pooled correlation coefficient (r), 95% CI, and OR were calculated. Of 29 studies (12,258 confirmed cases), 17 reported IMV and 21 reported deaths. The pooled prevalence of IMV was 23.3% (95% CI: 17.1-30.9%), and mortality was 13% (9.3-18%). The age-adjusted meta-regression models showed significant association of mortality with male (r: 0.14; OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.07-1.23; I 2: 95.2%), comorbidities including pre-existing cerebrovascular disease (r: 0.35; 1.42 (1.14-1.77); I 2: 96.1%), and chronic liver disease (r: 0.08; 1.08 (1.01-1.17); I 2: 96.23%), complications like septic shock (r: 0.099; 1.10 (1.02-1.2); I 2: 78.12%) and ARDS (r: 0.04; 1.04 (1.02-1.06); I 2: 90.3%), ICU admissions (r: 0.03; 1.03 (1.03-1.05); I 2: 95.21%), and IMV utilization (r: 0.05; 1.05 (1.03-1.07); I 2: 89.80%). Similarly, male (r: 0.08; 1.08 (1.02-1.15); I 2: 95%), comorbidities like pre-existing cerebrovascular disease (r: 0.29; 1.34 (1.09-1.63); I 2:93.4%), and cardiovascular disease (r: 0.28; 1.32 (1.1-1.58); I 2: 89.7%) had higher odds of IMV utilization. COVID-19 patients with comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic liver disease had poor outcomes. Diabetes and hypertension had higher prevalence but no association with mortality and IMV. Our study results will be helpful in right allocation of resources towards patients who need them the most.

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