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1.
Nanoscale Adv ; 4(20): 4210-4236, 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321156

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, the whole scientific community has witnessed great advances and progress in the various fields of nanoscience. Among the different nanomaterials, zirconia nanomaterials have found numerous applications as nanocatalysts, nanosensors, adsorbents, etc. Additionally, their exceptional biomedical applications in dentistry and drug delivery, and interesting biological properties, viz. anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer activity, have further motivated the researchers to explore their physico-chemical properties using different synthetic pathways. With such an interest in zirconia-based nanomaterials, the present review focuses systematically on different synthesis approaches and their impact on the structure, size, shape, and morphology of these nanomaterials. Broadly, there are two approaches, viz., chemical synthesis which includes hydrothermal, solvothermal, sol-gel, microwave, solution combustion, and co-precipitation methods, and a greener approach which employs bacteria, fungus, and plant parts for the preparation of zirconia nanoparticles. In this review article, the aforementioned methods have been critically analyzed for obtaining specific phases and shapes. The review also incorporates a detailed survey of the applications of zirconia-based nanomaterials. Furthermore, the influence of specific phases, morphology, and the comparison with their counterpart composites for different applications have also been included. Finally, the concluding remarks, prospects and possible scope are given in the last section.

2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; : 109654, 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data from the COVID-19 pandemic describes increases in drug use and related harms, especially fatal overdose. However, evidence is needed to better understand the pathways from pandemic-related factors to substance use behaviours. Thus, we investigated stockpiling drugs among people who use drugs (PWUD) in five cities in the United States and Canada. METHODS: We used data from two waves of interviews among participants in nine prospective cohorts to estimate the prevalence and correlates of stockpiling drugs in the previous month. Longitudinal correlates were identified using bivariate and multivariate generalized linear mixed-effects modeling analyses. RESULTS: From May 2020 to February 2021, we recruited 1873 individuals who completed 2242 interviews, of whom 217 (11.6%) reported stockpiling drugs in the last month at baseline. In the multivariate model, stockpiling drugs was significantly and positively associated with reporting being greatly impacted by COVID-19 (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]= 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09-1.45), and at least daily use of methamphetamine (AOR = 4.67, 95% CI: 2.75-7.94) in the past month. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that approximately one-in-ten participants reported stocking up on drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This behaviour was associated with important drug-related risk factors including high-intensity methamphetamine use. While these correlations need further inquiry, it is possible that addressing the impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable PWUD could help limit drug stockpiling, which may lower rates of high-intensity stimulant use.

3.
Heliyon ; 8(10): e10939, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36247167

ABSTRACT

Electrochemical water splitting is one of the most important method for energy conversion and storage. For this, the design and development of a low-cost robust electrocatalyst are highly desirable. In this study, Cobalt-based electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction was synthesized by thermal treatment of Cobalt-dehydroacetic acid (Co-DHA). The as-synthesized Co nanostructures and Co-DHA crystals were characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy thermo-gravimetric analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical O2 evolution study shows the overpotential (at 10 mV/cm-2) correspond to 294 mV vs reference hydrogen electrode (RHE) for K-300 (Co3O4@300), whereas K-500 (Co3O4@500) shows 170 mV vs RHE values in 1 M KOH solution, respectively. Similar trends have been observed for electrochemical O2 evolution studies in 0.5 M H2SO4, where K-300 and K-500 shows the overpotential (at 10mV/cm-2) of 234 mV vs RHE, and 199 mV vs RHE, respectively. The outcomes show better catalytic efficiency of K-500 as compared to K-300.

4.
Facts Views Vis Obgyn ; 14(3): 265-273, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206801

ABSTRACT

Background: Ovarian cancer cytoreductive surgery necessitates the use of advanced Simulation-Based Learning (SBL) to optimise skill-based teaching and achieve technical proficiency. Objective: We describe and appraise the role of a novel postgraduate cadaveric course for cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian/fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer. Materials and Methods: Several consultant-level surgeons with expertise in upper gastrointestinal, colorectal, hepatobiliary and urological surgery, were invited to teach their counterpart GO surgeons. The 2-day course curriculum involved advanced dissections on thiel-embalmed cadavers. All dissections included applicable steps required during GO cytoreductive surgeries. Outcome measures: We used a feedback questionnaire and structured interviews to capture trainers and delegates views respectively. Results: All delegates reported a positive educational experience and improvement of knowledge in all course components. There was no difference in the perception of feedback across junior versus senior consultants. Trainers perceived this opportunity as a "2-way learning" whether they got to explore in depth the GO perspective in how and which of their skills are applicable during cytoreductive surgery. Conclusions: Collaborating with other surgical specialities promotes a "learning from the experts" concept and has potential to meet the rapidly increased demand for multi-viscera surgical excellence in GO surgery. What's new?: The concept of involving experts from other surgical disciplines in advanced cadaveric courses for cytoreductive surgery in ovarian cancer, will solidify the effort to achieve excellence in the GO training. Such courses can be essential educational adjunct for most GO fellowships.

5.
Heliyon ; 8(8): e10464, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090216

ABSTRACT

Northeast (NE) India possesses a rich diversity of rice cultivars including pigmented and non pigmented varieties. The pigmented rice is reported to possess a considerable amount of antioxidant compounds, free radical scavengers etc. In this study, eleven (black, red and white) rice cultivars of NE India were analyzed for antioxidant potentials, mineral and protein contents. Total phenolic content ranged from 94.8 (Idaw) to 900.90 mg GAE/100 g (Lumre). Total flavonoid content varied from 3.46 (Idaw) to 286.76 mg QE/100 g (Menil mibabaret). Total anthocyanin content varied from 0.23 (Farel) to 93.52 mg/100 g (Chakhao poireiton). The pigmented rice is also good sources of Catalase (CAT), Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) that can significantly reduce stress oxidative reactions. Chakhao poireiton possessed the highest Ni and Mn content, Tsulu tsuk had the highest Zn content, while Fazu and Tasung contained the highest Fe and Ca. The highest total protein was found in Chakhao poireiton (11.06%). And all the cultivars were found to be aromatic. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) identified various signature peaks and could discriminate the cultivars into pigmented and non pigmented. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the grouping of the cultivars based on the functional groups present. The present study could provide a better understanding of choosable rice lines for human consumption and also as germplasm resources for future rice improvement programs.

6.
J Behav Med ; 45(5): 674-689, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921055

ABSTRACT

There is growing interest in offering Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) to individuals with chronic health conditions, with this process often being guided by a single clinician. Due to lack of full time personnel, it is sometimes necessary to have multiple clinicians offer guidance or for no guidance to be offered. In this randomized trial, we compared team-guided ICBT (n = 90) to self-guided ICBT (n = 88). Participants completed measures at pre-, post-, and 3-months post-ICBT. Both groups showed similar rates of treatment completion and large improvements on depression and anxiety at post-treatment and follow-up. Unexpectedly, more participants in the self-guided versus team-guided condition showed clinically significant improvement on depression at post-treatment (76.5% vs 49.2%) and follow-up (70% vs 45.6%). Thus, team-guided ICBT may not provide significant benefits compared to self-guided ICBT. However, it may be an alternative approach to consider among a population of high risk individuals that wants or requires closer monitoring of symptoms.Trail registration TRN: NCT03500237; Date: April 18, 2018.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Chronic Disease , Humans , Internet , Treatment Outcome
7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 217: 112640, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752021

ABSTRACT

Assessing the interaction between microbes and nanocatalysts for finding an inclusive, proactive and deep understanding of nanoparticles-based toxicity is vital for discovering their broad range of applications. Palladium based photocatalysts owing to their unique fundamental characteristics and brilliant physicochemical potential have gained immense interest in environment remediation as disinfection system. In the present study, we report synthesis of a novel palladium nanoparticles decorated bismuth oxybromide (Pd/BiOBr) nanostructures using an energy efficient solution-based method, having excellent photocatalytic antibacterial action. The synthesized nanomaterials was thoroughly characterized using various analytical techniques. The photocatalytic antibacterial efficiency of Pd/BiOBr was evaluated against some common pathogenic strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas salmonicida, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis). In our results Pd/BiOBr showed excellent photocatalytic disinfection efficacy with > 99.9% bacterial inactivation. A very low concentration of Pd/BiOBr (0.5 µg/mL) effectively inhibited the bacterial growth in response to just 2 h of visible light irradiation, while 1 µg/mL of Pd/BiOBr completely killed all the tested bacterial strains proving their magnificent bactericidal potential. The developed materials with exceptional antibacterial broad range efficiency can be used in different photocatalytic disinfection systems including water purification systems, biofilm exclusion and combating differential antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Palladium , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bismuth/chemistry , Bismuth/pharmacology , Catalysis , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Light , Palladium/pharmacology
8.
RSC Adv ; 9(40): 23129-23141, 2019 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514495

ABSTRACT

Considering the significant impact of magnetically retrievable nanostructures, herein, Fe3O4 and Ce-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were employed as scaffolds for the removal of the Reactive Black 5 (RB5) azo dye. We synthesized the Ce-doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles via hydrothermal treatment at 120 °C for 10 h with varying cerium concentrations (1.5-3.5%) and characterized them using basic techniques such as FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. The retention of their magnetic behaviors even after cerium amalgamation was demonstrated and confirmed by the VSM results. FESEM and EDX were used for the morphological and purity analysis of the synthesized nanoabsorbents. XPS was carried out to determine the electronic configuration of the synthesized samples. The porosity of the magnetic nanoparticles was investigated by BET analysis, and subsequently, the most porous sample was further used in the adsorption studies for the cleanup of RB5 from wastewater. The dye adsorption studies were probed via UV-visible spectroscopy, which indicated the removal efficiency of 87%. The prepared Ce-doped Fe3O4 nanoabsorbent showed the high adsorption capacity of 84.58 mg g-1 towards RB5 in 40 min. This is attributed to the electrostatic interactions between the nanoabsorbent and the dye molecules and high porosity of the prepared sample. The adsorption mechanism was also analyzed. The kinetic data well-fitted the pseudo-first-order model, and the adsorption capability at different equilibrium concentrations of the dye solution indicated monolayer formation and chemisorption phenomena. Furthermore, the magnetic absorbent could be rapidly separated from the wastewater using an external magnetic field after adsorption.

9.
RSC Adv ; 9(39): 22320-22326, 2019 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519473

ABSTRACT

In the present work, an attempt has been made to elucidate the structural features of synthesized graphite materials, i.e., expanded graphite (EG) and an expanded graphite/silver nanoparticles (EG/AgNPs) nanocomposite. In order to obtain knowledge about the functional groups present, the interlayer spacing between the carbon layers, topographical features, and the characterization of the materials were carried out using Fourier-transformer infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscope. Furthermore, the quenching efficiency of the synthesized graphite materials was also compared using Rhodamine B (Rhd B) as a fluorescent probe. The non-linear behaviour of the Stern-Volmer plots suggested that the complex quenching mechanism (a combination of static and dynamic quenching) was responsible for the decrease in photoluminescence intensity. At a lower concentration of the quencher, the static quenching mechanism was dominant whereas at a higher concentration dynamic processes seemed to be more likely. The binding strength of the complexation between the fluorophore and the quencher at lower concentrations was studied in detail for both of the synthesized materials. The analysis showed that the EG/AgNPs exhibited better quenching efficiency and possessed a strong binding strength in comparison to EG. The thermodynamic parameters of this association suggested that the interaction process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Thus, this work offers helpful insights into the fluorescence quenching mechanisms of the Rhd B/EG and its composite system.

10.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; : 1-24, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605318

ABSTRACT

The worldwide pollution of water bodies by potential contaminants such as heavy metals, dyes, and pesticides etc. have severely affected the entire eco-system due to their toxic mobility and tough degradation in water. Consequently, there is a requirement to develop cost-competitive and easily handleable sensing materials which can detect targets sensitively and with selectivity. Among the low-cost sensory materials, carbon dots (CDs) constitute an important class of carbon nanomaterial with unique photostability, electronic and fluorescent properties. This review is an effort to comprehend the recent improvements in the sensing applications of CDs with prominence on synthetic routes, the effect of various synthesis parameters on physical properties (quantum yield, size range), detection mechanisms, and detection parameters (limit of detection, interference etc.). Particularly, the scope and progress for the detection of potential water contaminants using CDs have been explored and a holistic view of mechanisms of their detection has been included.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2002, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We analyzed the association between substance use (SU) and condomless sex (CS) among HIV-negative adults reporting heterosexual sex in the Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) consortium. We describe the impact of SU as well as person/partner and context-related factors on CS, identifying combinations of factors that indicate the highest likelihood of CS. METHODS: We analyzed data from four US-based STTR studies to examine the effect of SU on CS using two SU exposures: 1) recent SU (within 3 months) and 2) SU before/during sex. Behavioral data were collected via 1:1 or self-administered computerized interviews. Adjusted individual-study, multivariable relative risk regression was used to examine the relationship between CS and SU. We also examined interactions with type of sex and partner HIV status. Pooled effect estimates were calculated using traditional fixed-effects meta-analysis. We analyzed data for recent SU (n = 6781; 82% men, median age = 33 years) and SU before/during sex (n = 2915; 69% men, median age = 40 years). RESULTS: For both exposure classifications, any SU other than cannabis increased the likelihood of CS relative to non-SU (8-16%, p-values< 0.001). In the recent SU group, however, polysubstance use did not increase the likelihood of CS compared to single-substance use. Cannabis use did not increase the likelihood of CS, regardless of frequency of use. Type of sex was associated with CS; those reporting vaginal and anal sex had a higher likelihood of CS compared to vaginal sex only for both exposure classifications (18-21%, p < 0.001). Recent SU increased likelihood of CS among those reporting vaginal sex only (9-10%, p < 0.001); results were similar for those reporting vaginal and anal sex (5-8%, p < 0.01). SU before/during sex increased the likelihood of CS among those reporting vaginal sex only (20%; p < 0.001) and among those reporting vaginal and anal sex (7%; p = 0.002). Single- and poly-SU before/during sex increased the likelihood of CS for those with exclusively HIV-negative partners (7-8%, p ≤ 0.02), and for those reporting HIV-negative and HIV-status unknown partners (9-13%, p ≤ 0.03). CONCLUSION: Except for cannabis, any SU increased the likelihood of CS. CS was associated with having perceived HIV-negative partners and with having had both anal/vaginal sex.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Condoms , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Heterosexuality , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Unsafe Sex
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(10): 1457-1462, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657010

ABSTRACT

AIM: The study aimed to evaluate the effect on condylar guidance values with casts mounted by facebow transfer (Guichet's point as the third point of reference), Bonwill's, and radiographic method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dentulous subject's casts were mounted to a semi-adjustable articulator (Artex Type AR) after facebow transfer with Guichet's point as the third point of reference and also by Bonwill's method. Protrusive records made earlier were utilized to program the right and left side condylar guidance value. Two digital lateral cephalograms were made, one in centric relation, and one in protrusion and the condyles were traced and overlapped. The condylar guidance readings obtained by Bonwill's method, facebow transfer, and lateral cephalometric tracings were compared in this study using the SPSS (Version 17.0 Illinois, Chicago, USA) software. RESULTS: The condylar guidance values obtained from Bonwill's and the facebow transfer method (p < 0.001) was lesser than the radiographic method. The values obtained by casts mounted to the Bonwill's method differed significantly (p < 0.001) from the other two methods. CONCLUSION: The values obtained by facebow transfer were closer to the radiographic values whereas the values obtained by Bonwill's method mounting differed markedly.


Subject(s)
Dental Articulators , Mandibular Condyle , Cephalometry , Extraoral Traction Appliances , Humans , Jaw Relation Record , Mandibular Condyle/diagnostic imaging
13.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 4(1): 1107, 2019 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095534

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Vascular Risk in Adult New Zealanders (VARIANZ) datasets contain a range of routinely-collected New Zealand health data relevant to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related conditions. The datasets enable exploration of cardiovascular-related treatment, service utilisation, outcomes and prognosis. PROCESSES: Each dataset is constructed by anonymised individual-level linkage of eight national administrative health databases to identify all New Zealand adults aged ≥20 years who have recorded contact with publicly-funded New Zealand health services during a given year from 2006 onwards, when data quality is considered sufficient. DATA CONTENTS: Individual-level data for each VARIANZ dataset can include variables covering demography, dispensing of cardiovascular disease (CVD) preventive medications and prior hospitalisations for atherosclerotic CVD, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and diabetes. If required, VARIANZ datasets can be individually linked to follow-up national routinely collected health data in subsequent years, including all-cause mortality events and fatal/non-fatal CVD events, to create VARIANZ longitudinal cohorts. Bespoke linkage can also be undertaken to include other national and regional administrative health data such as non-CVD related hospitalisations in order to explore CVD comorbidities or novel risk factors. Furthermore, a subset of the VARIANZ datasets based on specific health contacts (such as CVD hospitalisations only) can also be identified, and some data can be requested for years prior to 2006. The New Zealand routinely-collected health databases used to construct the VARIANZ datasets do not capture primary care diagnostic classifications or certain CVD risk factor data such as smoking status, blood pressure or lipid profiles. CONCLUSION: The Vascular Risk in Adult New Zealanders (VARIANZ) datasets capture the majority of the New Zealand population in a given year and are available from 2006 onwards, or earlier than 2006 for some datasets based on specific health contacts. VARIANZ data can be used to explore a range of research questions regarding management, outcomes and prognosis for CVD.

14.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 23(1): 79-87, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) affected teeth have enamel with altered mineral content like decreased calcium and phosphorus and increased carbon content leading to porous enamel and subsequent post-eruptive breakdown. AIM: An in situ study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of a Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP)-based cream and fluoride varnish on the remineralization of MIH affected teeth. METHODS: Enamel slabs were prepared from MIH affected teeth that had been extracted for various reasons and inserted in appliances of 30 participants who were undergoing interceptive orthodontic therapy. They were randomly divided into two groups using block randomization technique: Group A-daily single application of CPP-ACP cream (n = 15); Group B-professional application of fluoride varnishes every 3 months (n = 15). After 6 months of regular wear of the appliance, the enamel slabs were placed under Field Emission Scanning Microscope (FESEM) and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for evaluation of ultra structure and mineral content, respectively. RESULTS: A significant increase in calcium and phosphorus content, and a decrease in carbon content was observed within the 6 months period, suggesting remineralization in both the groups. On comparing the Ca:P and Ca:C ratios, a significant increase in the Ca:C ratio was evident in the two groups. No significant difference was seen in the Ca:P ratio in the CPP-ACP group at six months. The inter-group comparison did not reveal any significant difference between the two groups either at baseline or at 6 months post-intervention. CONCLUSION: Remineralization can be achieved in MIH affected teeth with the use of remineralizing agents.


Subject(s)
Caseins , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia , Caseins/therapeutic use , Fluorides/pharmacology , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Humans , Tooth Remineralization/methods
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 260: 119982, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051637

ABSTRACT

Thermal papers are replacing the conventional form of printing and are being extensively used across the globe. This study encompasses a non-destructive approach to examine thermal papers by using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), where the former technique helps in characterizing and discriminating different samples and the latter helps in deciphering the faded prints on thermal paper. The qualitative analysis of the spectroscopic data based on peak to peak comparison and quantitative analysis using chemometrics has been done to obtain high discriminating power. Multivariate analysis using HCA gave a discriminating power of 83.82% and PCA showed a variance of 95.64%. The strength of the study is portrayed through the decipherment of artificially and naturally faded thermal papers using VSC and analyzing the effect of different storing conditions on their rate of fading.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 50(14): 5001-5010, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877198

ABSTRACT

The room temperature synthesis of an all-solid-state Z-scheme CuO-doped BiOBr (CuO-Bi-BiOBr) photocatalyst has been described. These CuO-Bi-BiOBr ternary heterojunctions exhibit efficient photocatalytic activities for selective alcohol oxidation. The structures, morphologies, and compositions of the nanostructures were well characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the as-synthesized nanostructures confirms the formation of phase-segregated CuO and BiOBr nanocrystals, whereas X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses clearly indicate the formation of metallic bismuth nanoparticles (NPs). Next, the developed CuO-Bi-BiOBr ternary heterojunctions were applied as an efficient photocatalyst for the oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes/ketones with high selectivity (>99%) and high conversion ratios (>99%). Herein, Bi metal NPs act as an electron mediator and bridge the connectivity between the two semiconductors, BiOBr and CuO, and, thus, a Z-scheme heterojunction is established. As expected, CuO-Bi-BiOBr has shown significantly superior activities compared to those of pure BiOBr. A possible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidation process has been proposed. Radical scavenging experiments suggest that the active species, h+, ˙OH, e-, and ˙O2-, are dominant in the alcohol oxidation process. The as-synthesized CuO-Bi-BiOBr was reused several times without any significant deterioration in the original activities and it thus possesses relatively high stability for practical applications.

17.
Environ Res ; 197: 111142, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865822

ABSTRACT

Pollution of water linked to microbial decontamination and extensive use of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) as a disinfectant, especially in the face of the current COVID-19 situation, is a serious water pollution issue that needs to be addressed. In this context, an environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed for the biomimetic synthesis of Ag nanospheres (Ag NSs) using aqueous extract of Piper nigrum for the detection of chlorite (ClO2-) and mercury (Hg2+) ions. The strong antioxidant properties of the biomolecules present in the Piper nigrum extract reduce silver ions (Ag+) to Ag0. After optimization of the formulation parameters, it was observed that 1 mL of piper nigrum extract was sufficient to reduce and stabilize 100 mL of 1.5 mM of Ag+ in 2.5 h at 30 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of Ag NSs revealed their crystalline nature and the characteristic Bragg's diffraction peaks confirmed their face cubic crystal (FCC) lattice. The characteristic reddish-brown color and absorption surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 435 nm confirmed the successful fabrication of Ag NSs. Kinetic analysis revealed a three-phase growth pattern involving nucleation, growth and stabilization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrograms, showed spherical NSs with narrow polydispersity with particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The synthesized NSs were exposed to various metal ions and anions. The absorption intensity of Ag NSs quenched in the presence of mercury ions (Hg2+) among the cations and Chlorite ions (ClO2-) among the anions. The limit of detection (LOD) of 7.47 µM and 1.11 µM was evaluated from the calibration curve for Hg2+ and ClO2-, respectively. Based on these promising results, it is suggested that the method reported is a low-cost and one step biogenic protocol for the synthesis of Ag NSs and their employment for the detection of Hg2+ and ClO2-ions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mercury , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanospheres , Chlorides , Humans , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver , Water
19.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(6): 1369-1375, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The direct effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on patients with intestinal failure (IF) has not been described. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide study of UK IF centers to evaluate the infection rates, presentations, and outcomes in patients with types 2 and 3 IF. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients with IF contracted COVID-19 between March and August 2020; this included 26 of 2191 (1.2%) home parenteral nutrition (HPN)-dependent adults and 19 of 298 (6.4%) adults hospitalized with type 2 IF. The proportion of patients receiving nursing care for HPN administration was higher in those with community-acquired COVID-19 (66.7%) than the proportion in the entire HPN cohort (26.1%; P < .01). Two HPN-dependent and 1 hospitalized patient with type 2 IF died as a direct consequence of the virus (6.7% of 45 patients with types 2 or 3 infected). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to describe the outcomes of COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients requiring long-term PN. Methods to reduce hospital and community nosocomial spread would likely be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intestinal Diseases , Parenteral Nutrition, Home , Adult , Humans , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Intestinal Diseases/therapy , Parenteral Nutrition, Home/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 407, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431979

ABSTRACT

Gonadotoxic chemotherapeutics, such as cyclophosphamide, can cause early menopause and infertility in women. Earlier histological studies showed ovarian reserve depletion via severe DNA damage and apoptosis, but others suggested activation of PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway and follicle 'burn-out' as a cause. Using a human ovarian xenograft model, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing on laser-captured individual primordial follicle oocytes 12 h after a single cyclophosphamide injection to determine the mechanisms of acute follicle loss after gonadotoxic chemotherapy. RNA-sequencing showed 190 differentially expressed genes between the cyclophosphamide- and vehicle-exposed oocytes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted a significant decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic pro-Akt PECAM1 (p = 2.13E-09), IKBKE (p = 0.0001), and ANGPT1 (p = 0.003), and reduced activation of PI3K/PTEN/Akt after cyclophosphamide. The qRT-PCR and immunostaining confirmed that in primordial follicle oocytes, cyclophosphamide did not change the expressions of Akt (p = 0.9), rpS6 (p = 0.3), Foxo3a (p = 0.12) and anti-apoptotic Bcl2 (p = 0.17), nor affect their phosphorylation status. There was significantly increased DNA damage by γH2AX (p = 0.0002) and apoptosis by active-caspase-3 (p = 0.0001) staining in the primordial follicles and no change in the growing follicles 12 h after chemotherapy. These data support that the mechanism of acute follicle loss by cyclophosphamide is via apoptosis, rather than growth activation of primordial follicle oocytes in the human ovary.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oocytes/metabolism , Ovarian Reserve/drug effects , Transcriptome , Adult , Animals , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/pharmacology , Apoptosis/genetics , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , DNA Damage , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Heterografts , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, SCID , Oocytes/chemistry , Oocytes/drug effects , Oogenesis/drug effects , Oogenesis/genetics , Ovarian Follicle/cytology , Ovarian Follicle/drug effects , Ovarian Reserve/genetics , Ovary/drug effects , Ovary/metabolism , Ovary/transplantation , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transcriptome/drug effects , Transcriptome/physiology , Young Adult
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