Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac130, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784386

ABSTRACT

Background: We sought to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of acute and convalescent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among emergency department (ED) patients in Baltimore. Methods: Remnant blood samples from 7450 unique patients were collected over 4 months in 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab), HCV Ab, and HIV-1/2 antigen and Ab. Among them, 5012 patients were tested by polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 based on clinical suspicion. Sociodemographics, ED clinical presentations, and outcomes associated with coinfections were assessed. Results: Overall, 729 (9.8%) patients had SARS-CoV-2 (acute or convalescent), 934 (12.5%) HCV, 372 (5.0%) HIV infection, and 211 patients (2.8%) had evidence of any coinfection (HCV/HIV, 1.5%; SARS-CoV-2/HCV, 0.7%; SARS-CoV-2/HIV, 0.3%; SARS-CoV-2/HCV/HIV, 0.3%). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (acute or convalescent) was significantly higher in those with HCV or HIV vs those without (13.6% vs 9.1%, P < .001). Key sociodemographic disparities (race, ethnicity, and poverty) and specific ED clinical characteristics were significantly correlated with having any coinfections vs no infection or individual monoinfection. Among those with HCV or HIV, aged 18-34 years, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and a cardiovascular-related chief complaint had a significantly higher odds of having SARS-CoV-2 (prevalence ratios: 2.02, 2.37, 5.81, and 2.07, respectively). Conclusions: The burden of SARS-CoV-2, HCV, and HIV co-pandemics and their associations with specific sociodemographic disparities, clinical presentations, and outcomes suggest that urban EDs should consider implementing integrated screening and linkage-to-care programs for these 3 infections.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 testing is critical for monitoring case counts, early detection and containment of infection, clinical management, and surveillance of variants. However, community-based data on the access, uptake, and barriers to testing have been lacking. METHODS: We conducted serial cross-sectional online surveys covering demographics, COVID-19 symptoms, and experiences around SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing to characterize the SARS-CoV-2 testing cascade and associated barriers across 10 US states (California, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin), between July 2020 to February 2021. RESULTS: In February 2021, across 10 US states, 11% (895) of respondents reported wanting a diagnostic test in the prior 2 weeks, 63% of whom got tested with limited variability across states. Almost all (97%) who got tested received their results; 56% received their results within 2 days. In MD, FL, and IL where serial data were available at four time points, 56% were tested the same day they wanted/needed a test in February 2021 compared to 28% in July 2020, and 45% received results the same day as opposed to 17% in July 2020. Wanting a test was significantly more common among younger, non-white respondents and participants with a history of symptoms or exposure. Logistical challenges including not knowing where to go were the most frequently cited barriers. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant improvements in access and turnaround times across US states; yet barriers to testing remained consistent across states underscoring the importance of a continued focus on testing, even amidst mass vaccination campaigns.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; : 109355, 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the normal delivery of HIV care, altered social support networks, and caused economic insecurity. People with HIV (PWH) are vulnerable to such disruptions, particularly if they have a history of substance use. We describe engagement in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for PWH during the pandemic. METHODS: From May 2020 to February 2021, 773 PWH enrolled in 6 existing cohorts completed 1495 surveys about substance use and engagement in HIV care during the COVID-19 pandemic. We described the prevalence and correlates of having missed a visit with an HIV provider in the past month and having missed a dose of ART in the past week. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of people missed an HIV visit in the past month. Missing a visit was associated with unstable housing, food insecurity, anxiety, low resiliency, disruptions to mental health care, and substance use including cigarette smoking, hazardous alcohol use, cocaine, and cannabis use. Nineteen percent of people reported missing at least one dose of ART in the week prior to their survey. Missing a dose of ART was associated with being a man, low resiliency, disruptions to mental health care, cigarette smoking, hazardous alcohol use, cocaine, and cannabis use, and experiencing disruptions to substance use treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Social determinants of health, substance use, and disruptions to mental health and substance use treatment were associated with poorer engagement in HIV care. Close attention to continuity of care during times of social disruption is especially critical for PWH.

4.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e051882, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 has disproportionately affected disadvantaged communities across the USA. Risk perceptions for social interactions and essential activities during the COVID-19 pandemic may vary by sociodemographic factors. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative online survey of 1592 adults in the USA to understand risk perceptions related to transmission of COVID-19 for social (eg, visiting friends) and essential activities (eg, medical visits or returning to work). We assessed relationships for activities using bivariate comparisons and multivariable logistic regression modelling, between responses of safe and unsafe, and participant characteristics. Data were collected and analysed in 2020. RESULTS: Among 1592 participants, risk perceptions of unsafe for 13 activities ranged from 29.2% to 73.5%. Large gatherings, indoor dining and visits with elderly relatives had the highest proportion of unsafe responses (>58%), while activities outdoor, accessing healthcare and going to the grocery store had the lowest (<36%). Older respondents were more likely to view social gatherings and indoor activities as unsafe but less likely for other activities, such as going to the grocery store and accessing healthcare. Compared with white/Caucasian respondents, black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino respondents were more likely to view activities such as dining and visiting friends outdoor as unsafe. Generally, men versus women, Republicans versus Democrats and independents, and individuals with higher versus lower income were more likely to view activities as safe. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based interventions should be tailored to sociodemographic differences in risk perception, access to information and health behaviours when implementing efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Interaction , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2060-2066, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627292

ABSTRACT

The frequency, severity, and forms of symptoms months after coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood, especially in community settings. To better understand and characterize symptoms months after community-based COVID-19, a retrospective cohort analysis was conducted. Three hundred and twenty-eight consecutive persons with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 in the Johns Hopkins Health System, Maryland, March-May 2020, were selected for the study. Symptom occurrence and severity were measured through questionnaires. Of 328 persons evaluated, a median of 242 days (109-478 days) from the initial positive SARS-CoV-2 test, 33.2% reported not being fully recovered and 4.9% reported symptoms that constrained daily activities. Compared to those who reported being fully recovered, those with post-acute sequelae were more likely to report a prior history of heart attack (p < 0.01). Among those reporting long-term symptoms, men and women were equally represented (men = 34.8%, women = 34.6%), but only women reported symptoms that constrained daily activities, and 56% of them were caregivers. The types of new or persistent symptoms varied, and for many, included a deviation from prior COVID-19 health, such as being less able to exercise, walk, concentrate, or breathe. A limitation is that self-report of symptoms might be biased and/or caused by factors other than COVID-19. Overall, even in a community setting, symptoms may persist months after COVID-19 reducing daily activities including caring for dependents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 231: 109230, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted mental health, increasing rates of substance misuse. Resilience is a positive adaptation to stress that may act as a buffer against adverse mental health outcomes. Based on prior knowledge, we hypothesized that PLWH would display higher resilience than HIV-uninfected peers, and that high resilience would be associated with lower risk of substance misuse. METHODS: This analysis of the Collaborating Consortium of Cohorts Producing NIDA Opportunities (C3PNO) included data from six USA cohorts that administered a COVID-19-related survey with a 3-month follow-up during May 2020 and March 2021. All data was self-reported. The Brief Resilience Scale and General Anxiety Disorder-7 were utilized. Primary analyses consisted of multivariate generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1430 participants completed both surveys, of whom 670 (46.9%) were PLWH. PLWH had lower odds of anxiety (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.51-0.89) and higher odds of high resilience (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.44) than HIV-uninfected participants, adjusted for covariates. The presence of anxiety was associated with higher risk of misuse of all substances. High resilience was associated with lower risk of anxiety and misuse of substances, adjusted for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological resilience was associated with lower risk of anxiety and substance misuse, potentially serving as a buffer against poor mental and behavioral health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is needed to identify pathways of resilience in the context of substance misuse and comprehensive resilience-focused interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Resilience, Psychological , Substance-Related Disorders , Anxiety , Cohort Studies , Depression , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(4): ofab121, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526172

ABSTRACT

In an outpatient cohort in Maryland, clustering of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity within households was high, with 76% of 74 households reporting at least 1 other symptomatic person and 66% reporting another person who tested SARS-CoV-2 positive. SARS-CoV-2 positivity among household members was associated with larger household size and bedroom sharing.

8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 6: e25800, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487485

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on the impact of COVID-19-associated disruptions and novel HIV service delivery strategies among key populations (KPs) in low- and middle-income countries. In March 2020, in response to COVID-19, the Government of India revised HIV service delivery policies to include community antiretroviral therapy (ART) distribution and multi-month dispensing (MMD) of ART for all people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: To assess the acceptability of these adaptations and impact of the pandemic among KPs, we conducted focus groups in November-December 2020 with purposively sampled men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and transgender women (TGW) in Telangana and Maharashtra. Seven discussions were conducted. Topics included HIV service access, risk behaviours, economic security and feedback to ensure service continuity. Inductive coding identified themes across topics. RESULTS: Forty-four individuals aged 20-49 years participated in discussions (13 MSM; 16 FSW; and 15 TGW). Twenty-four participants self-identified as living with HIV. People not living with HIV reported challenges in accessing HIV antibody testing at hospitals due to travel restrictions and fear of contracting COVID-19. Participants accessed HIV antibody testing using transportation arranged by community-based organizations after lockdowns eased. PLHIV reported uninterrupted ART refills and generally consistent adherence; however, there were experiences of delayed CD4 and HIV RNA testing. Participants shared appreciation for MMD as it saved time, money, and reduced exposure to COVID-19. Participants expressed gratitude for home deliveries which enabled ART access, yet shared concerns about home-based services causing confidentiality breaches with family/neighbours. Participants voiced preferences for community-based service provision due to proximity, convenient hours, and welcoming environments compared to public hospitals. Other requests included support for income, employment, nutrient-rich food and more accessible mental health, HIV, and other health services. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 restrictions had a greater impact on access to HIV antibody, CD4, and RNA testing services compared to ART access. High acceptance of MMD and community-based services support the continued role of differentiated service delivery models to improve KP access to HIV antibody, CD4, RNA testing services, convenient ART retrieval, and integrated services beyond HIV, which may be critical for survival and wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Focus Groups , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , India , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1822-e1829, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current mitigation strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rely on the population-wide adoption of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Monitoring the adoption of NPIs and their associations with SARS-CoV-2 infection history can provide key information for public health. METHODS: We sampled 1030 individuals in Maryland from 17-28 June 2020 to capture sociodemographically and geographically resolved information about NPI adoption and access to SARS-CoV-2 testing, and examine associations with self-reported SARS-CoV-2 positivity. RESULTS: Overall, 92% reported traveling for essential services and 66% visited friends/family. Use of public transport was reported by 18%. In total, 68% reported strict social distancing indoors and 53% reported strict masking indoors; indoor social distancing was significantly associated with age, and race/ethnicity and income were associated with masking. Overall, 55 participants (5.3%) self-reported ever testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, with strong dose-response relationships between several forms of movement frequency and SARS-CoV-2 positivity. In a multivariable analysis, a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was negatively associated with strict social distancing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for outdoor social distancing, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, .03-.33). Only public transport use (aOR for >7 times vs never, 4.3) and visiting a place of worship (aOR for ≥3 times vs never, 16.0) remained significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection after adjusting for strict social distancing and demographics. CONCLUSIONS: These results support public health messaging that strict social distancing during most activities can reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Additional considerations are needed for indoor activities with large numbers of persons (places of worship and public transportation), where even NPIs may not be possible or sufficient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17328, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379336

ABSTRACT

Public health officials discouraged travel and non-household gatherings for Thanksgiving, but data suggests that travel increased over the holidays. The objective of this analysis was to assess associations between holiday gatherings and SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the weeks following Thanksgiving. Using an online survey, we sampled 7770 individuals across 10 US states from December 4-18, 2020, about 8-22 days post-Thanksgiving. Participants were asked about Thanksgiving, COVID-19 symptoms, and SARS-CoV-2 testing and positivity in the prior 2 weeks. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 symptoms in the weeks following Thanksgiving. An activity score measured the total number of non-essential activities an individual participated in the prior 2 weeks. The probability of community transmission was estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. While 47.2% had Thanksgiving at home with household members, 26.9% had guests and 25.9% traveled. There was a statistically significant interaction between how people spent Thanksgiving, the frequency of activities, and SARS-CoV-2 test positivity in the prior 2 weeks (p < 0.05). Those who had guests for Thanksgiving or traveled were only more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 if they also had high activity (e.g., participated in > one non-essential activity/day in the prior 2 weeks). Had individuals limited the number and frequency of activities post-Thanksgiving, cases in surveyed individuals would be reduced by > 50%. As travel continues to increase and the more contagious Delta variant starts to dominate transmission, it is critical to promote how to gather in a "low-risk" manner (e.g., minimize other non-essential activities) to mitigate the need for nationwide shelter-at-home orders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Holidays , Humans , Male , Markov Chains , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 testing is critical for monitoring case counts, early detection and containment of infection, clinical management, and surveillance of variants. However, community-based data on the access, uptake, and barriers to testing have been lacking. METHODS: We conducted serial cross-sectional online surveys covering demographics, COVID-19 symptoms, and experiences around SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing to characterize the SARS-CoV-2 testing cascade and associated barriers across 10 US states (California, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin), between July 2020 to February 2021. RESULTS: In February 2021, across 10 US states, 11% (895) of respondents reported wanting a diagnostic test in the prior 2 weeks, 63% of whom got tested with limited variability across states. Almost all (97%) who got tested received their results; 56% received their results within 2 days. In MD, FL, and IL where serial data were available at four time points, 56% were tested the same day they wanted/needed a test in February 2021 compared to 28% in July 2020, and 45% received results the same day as opposed to 17% in July 2020. Wanting a test was significantly more common among younger, non-white respondents and participants with a history of symptoms or exposure. Logistical challenges including not knowing where to go were the most frequently cited barriers. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant improvements in access and turnaround times across US states; yet barriers to testing remained consistent across states underscoring the importance of a continued focus on testing, even amidst mass vaccination campaigns.

12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab195, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustained molecular detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT) in mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common. We sought to identify host and immune determinants of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. METHODS: Ninety-five symptomatic outpatients self-collected midturbinate nasal, oropharyngeal (OP), and gingival crevicular fluid (oral fluid) samples at home and in a research clinic a median of 6 times over 1-3 months. Samples were tested for viral RNA, virus culture, and SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronavirus antibodies, and associations were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Viral RNA clearance, as measured by SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in 507 URT samples occurred a median (interquartile range) 33.5 (17-63.5) days post-symptom onset. Sixteen nasal-OP samples collected 2-11 days post-symptom onset were virus culture positive out of 183 RT-PCR-positive samples tested. All participants but 1 with positive virus culture were negative for concomitant oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The mean time to first antibody detection in oral fluid was 8-13 days post-symptom onset. A longer time to first detection of oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = .020) and body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 (aHR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18-0.78; P = .009) were independently associated with a longer time to SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance. Fever as 1 of first 3 COVID-19 symptoms correlated with shorter time to viral RNA clearance (aHR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.02-4.18; P = .044). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that delayed rise of oral fluid SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, elevated BMI, and absence of early fever are independently associated with delayed URT viral RNA clearance.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e828-e834, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread viral and serological testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may present a unique opportunity to also test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We estimated the potential impact of adding linked, opt-out HIV testing alongside SARS-CoV-2 testing on the HIV incidence and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in 6 US cities. METHODS: Using a previously calibrated dynamic HIV transmission model, we constructed 3 sets of scenarios for each city: (1) sustained current levels of HIV-related treatment and prevention services (status quo); (2) temporary disruptions in health services and changes in sexual and injection risk behaviors at discrete levels between 0%-50%; and (3) linked HIV and SARS-CoV-2 testing offered to 10%-90% of the adult population in addition to Scenario 2. We estimated the cumulative number of HIV infections between 2020-2025 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of linked HIV testing over 20 years. RESULTS: In the absence of linked, opt-out HIV testing, we estimated a total of a 16.5% decrease in HIV infections between 2020-2025 in the best-case scenario (50% reduction in risk behaviors and no service disruptions), and a 9.0% increase in the worst-case scenario (no behavioral change and 50% reduction in service access). We estimated that HIV testing (offered at 10%-90% levels) could avert a total of 576-7225 (1.6%-17.2%) new infections. The intervention would require an initial investment of $20.6M-$220.7M across cities; however, the intervention would ultimately result in savings in health-care costs in each city. CONCLUSIONS: A campaign in which HIV testing is linked with SARS-CoV-2 testing could substantially reduce the HIV incidence and reduce direct and indirect health care costs attributable to HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cities , Cost-Benefit Analysis , HIV , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(4): 491-495, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171525

ABSTRACT

In May 2020, the Journal published an opinion piece by a member of the Editorial Board, in which the author reviewed several papers and argued that using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) early to treat symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in high-risk patients should be broadly applied. As members of the Journal's Editorial Board, we are strongly supportive of open debate in science, which is essential even on highly contentious issues. However, we must also be thorough in our examination of the facts and open to changing our minds when new information arises. In this commentary, we document several important errors in the manuscript, review the literature presented, and demonstrate why it is not of sufficient quality to support scale up of HCQ + AZ, and then discuss the literature that has been generated since the publication, which also does not support use of this therapy. Unfortunately, the current scientific evidence does not support HCQ + AZ as an effective treatment for COVID-19, if it ever did, and even suggests many risks. Continuing to push the view that it is an essential treatment in the face of this evidence is irresponsible and harmful to the many people already suffering from infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Azithromycin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108584, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the health and social consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: We conducted a rapid telephone survey from April-June 2020 among participants of the community-based AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) cohort study in Baltimore, Maryland. This interviewer-administered survey collected information on COVID-19 knowledge, symptoms, testing, diagnosis, and prevention behaviors, recent substance use, housing conditions, interruptions to healthcare, access to harm reduction and drug treatment, mental health, and social support. RESULTS: Of 443 current and former PWID who participated in the survey, 36 % were female, 85 % were Black, 33 % were living with HIV and 50 % reported any substance use in the prior six months. COVID-19 awareness was high, but knowledge of symptoms and routes of transmission were lower. PWID reporting recent substance use were less likely to always socially distance (63 % vs. 74 % among those without recent use, p = 0.02), and Black PWID were more likely than non-Black to socially distance (73 % vs. 48 %, p < 0.0001) and use when alone (68 % vs.35 %, p < 0.01). Only 6% reported difficulty accessing healthcare, yet only 48 % of those on opioid-agonist treatment had a four-week supply available. While 34 % reported increased depressive symptoms, participants reported high levels of social support. CONCLUSIONS: This rapid assessment highlighted that PWID currently using drugs may be less able to practice social distancing and increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission may occur. Ongoing monitoring of substance use and mental health, as well as overdose prevention is necessary as the pandemic and public health responses continue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Drug Users/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Services Accessibility , Social Support , Adult , Aged , Baltimore/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Harm Reduction , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL