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1.
Heliyon ; 8(5): e09488, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945077

ABSTRACT

The determinants underlying the heterogeneity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain to be elucidated. To systemically analyze the immunopathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we built a multicompartment mathematical model based on immunological principles and typical COVID-19-related characteristics. This model integrated the trafficking of immune cells and cytokines among the secondary lymphoid organs, peripheral blood and lungs. Our results suggested that early-stage lymphopenia was related to lymphocyte chemotaxis, while prolonged lymphopenia in critically ill patients was associated with myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Furthermore, our model predicted that insufficient SARS-CoV-2-specific naïve T/B cell pools and ineffective activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) would cause delayed immunity activation, resulting in elevated viral load, low immunoglobulin level, etc. Overall, we provided a comprehensive view of the dynamics of host immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection that enabled us to understand COVID-19 heterogeneity from systemic perspective.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328528

ABSTRACT

Once challenged by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the human host immune system triggers a dynamic process against infection. We constructed a simplistic mathematical model to describe host innate and adaptive immune response to viral challenge. Based on the dynamic properties of viral load and immune response, we classified the resulting dynamics into four modes, corresponding to the increasing severity of COVID-19 disease. We found immune efficacy against viral attack, clearance of infected cells, and IL-6 levels to be prognostic determinants, especially for severe and critical patients. We also investigated vaccine-induced protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results strongly suggested that immune efficacy based on memory T cells, as well as neutralizing antibody titers, could be true indicators of vaccine protection rates. Finally, we analyzed infection dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 variants within the construct of our mathematical model. Overall, our results provide a systematic framework for understanding the dynamics of host response upon challenge by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this framework can be used to predict vaccine protection and perform clinical diagnosis.

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 345, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434094

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes severe immune disruption. However, it is unclear if disrupted immune regulation still exists and pertains in recovered COVID-19 patients. In our study, we have characterized the immune phenotype of B cells from 15 recovered COVID-19 patients, and found that healthy controls and recovered patients had similar B-cell populations before and after BCR stimulation, but the frequencies of PBC in patients were significantly increased when compared to healthy controls before stimulation. However, the percentage of unswitched memory B cells was decreased in recovered patients but not changed in healthy controls upon BCR stimulation. Interestingly, we found that CD19 expression was significantly reduced in almost all the B-cell subsets in recovered patients. Moreover, the BCR signaling and early B-cell response were disrupted upon BCR stimulation. Mechanistically, we found that the reduced CD19 expression was caused by the dysregulation of cell metabolism. In conclusion, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immunodeficiency in recovered patients by downregulating CD19 expression in B cells via enhancing B-cell metabolism, which may provide a new intervention target to cure COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD19/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/etiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Immunologic Memory , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Vero Cells
5.
mBio ; 12(5): e0159921, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398577

ABSTRACT

Cellular immunity may be involved in organ damage and rehabilitation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to delineate immunological features of COVID-19 patients with pulmonary sequelae (PS) 1 year after discharge. Fifty COVID-19 survivors were recruited and classified according to radiological characteristics, including 24 patients with PS and 26 patients without PS. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of immune cells were evaluated by multiparametric flow cytometry. Patients with PS had an increased proportion of natural killer (NK) cells and a lower percentage of B cells than patients without PS. Phenotypic and functional features of T cells in patients with PS were predominated by the accumulation of CD4-positive (CD4+) T cells secreting interleukin 17A (IL-17A), short-lived effector-like CD8+ T cells (CD27-negative [CD27-] CD62L-), and senescent T cells with excessive secretion of granzyme B/perforin/interferon gamma (IFN-γ). NK cells were characterized by the excessive secretion of granzyme B and perforin and the downregulation of NKP30 and NKP46; highly activated NKT and γδ T cells exhibited NKP30 and TIM-3 upregulation and NKB1 downregulation in patients with PS. However, immunosuppressive cells were comparable between the two groups. The interrelationship of immune cells in COVID-19 was intrinsically identified, whereby T cells secreting IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17A were enriched among CD28+ and CD57- cells and cells secreting perforin/granzyme B/IFN-γ/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-expressed markers of terminal differentiation. CD57+ NK cells, CD4+Perforin+ T cells, and CD8+ CD27+ CD62L+ T cells were identified as the independent predictors for residual lesions. Overall, our findings unveil the profound imbalance of immune landscape that may correlate with organ damage and rehabilitation in COVID-19. IMPORTANCE A considerable proportion of COVID-19 survivors have residual lung lesions such as ground-glass opacity and fiber streak shadow. To determine the relationship between host immunity and residual lung lesions, we performed an extensive analysis of immune responses in convalescent patients with COVID-19 1 year after discharge. We found significant differences in immunological characteristics between patients with pulmonary sequelae and patients without pulmonary sequelae 1 year after discharge. Our study highlights the profound imbalance of immune landscape in the COVID-19 patients with pulmonary sequelae, characterized by the robust activation of cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, and γδ T cells, as well as the deficiencies of immunosuppressive cells. Importantly, CD57+ NK cells, CD4+Perforin+ T cells, and CD8+ CD27+ CD62L+ T cells were identified as the independent predictors for residual lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Adult , CD28 Antigens/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD57 Antigens/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , L-Selectin/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1/metabolism , Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 3/metabolism
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(2): 1040-1041, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176780
7.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(14): 3440-3450, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066113

ABSTRACT

Patients with hematological malignancies with immunodeficiency are at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We retrospective summarized clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients with hematological malignancies, shared treatment experiences, and analysis prognostic factors. Fourteen patients were enrolled. The median duration of viral shedding was 27.5 days in survivors. The median duration of time to death was 13 days in non-survivors. Non-survivors tend to present lower neutrophil count, more imaging finding of bilateral diffuse patch opacities, more undergoing intensive chemotherapy or immunosuppression. Laboratory and image findings were atypical and diverse. COVID-19 inpatients undergoing intensive chemotherapy or immunosuppression might have increased risk of death. The diagnostic value of specific antibody detection is limited. Therefore, adult COVID-19 inpatients with hematological malignancies present atypical, severe symptoms, decreased virus clearance ability, abnormal antibody response and poor outcome. During the epidemic, the pros and cons need to be carefully weighed while selecting the treatment methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(2): 1040-1041, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061294
9.
Cell ; 184(3): 775-791.e14, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014394

ABSTRACT

The molecular pathology of multi-organ injuries in COVID-19 patients remains unclear, preventing effective therapeutics development. Here, we report a proteomic analysis of 144 autopsy samples from seven organs in 19 COVID-19 patients. We quantified 11,394 proteins in these samples, in which 5,336 were perturbed in the COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Our data showed that cathepsin L1, rather than ACE2, was significantly upregulated in the lung from the COVID-19 patients. Systemic hyperinflammation and dysregulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism were detected in multiple organs. We also observed dysregulation of key factors involved in hypoxia, angiogenesis, blood coagulation, and fibrosis in multiple organs from the COVID-19 patients. Evidence for testicular injuries includes reduced Leydig cells, suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis, and sperm mobility. In summary, this study depicts a multi-organ proteomic landscape of COVID-19 autopsies that furthers our understanding of the biological basis of COVID-19 pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Proteome/biosynthesis , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Organ Specificity
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570993, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983708

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global outbreak and severely posed threat to people's health and social stability. Mounting evidence suggests that immunopathological changes, including diminished lymphocytes and elevated cytokines, are important drivers of disease progression and death in coronavirus infections. Cytokine storm not only limits further spread of virus in the body but also induces secondary tissue damage through the secretion of large amounts of active mediators and inflammatory factors. It has been determined that cytokine storm is a major cause of deaths in COVID-19; therefore, in order to reverse the deterioration of severe and critically ill patients from this disease, the cytokine storm has become a key therapeutic target. Although specific mechanisms of the occurrences of cytokine storms in COVID-19 have not been fully illuminated, hyper-activated innate immune responses, and dysregulation of ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) expression and its downstream pathways might provide possibilities. Tailored immunoregulatory therapies have been applied to counteract cytokine storms, such as inhibition of cytokines, corticosteroids, blood purification therapy, and mesenchymal stem cell therapy. This review will summarize advances in the research of cytokine storms induced by COVID-19, as well as potential intervention strategies to control cytokine storms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Disease Outbreaks , Immunotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology
11.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 161, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953805

ABSTRACT

As our understanding on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deepens, it is increasingly recognized that COVID-19 is more than a respiratory condition. Thrombocytopenia and thromboembolic complications are a composite factor associated with critical COVID-19 and increased mortality. Immune-inflammation-mediated destruction, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection per se and increased consumption are proposed to be responsible for thrombocytopenia. Multiple concomitant conditions or results caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are high risk factors for thrombosis. Recently, platelet activation and platelet-mediated immune inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection were also found to be the contributors to the thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. In addition to thrombus scoring system, D-dimer is an excellent indicator for monitoring thrombosis. COVID-19 patients with high risk for thrombosis should be subjected to early thromboprophylaxis, and prolonged activated partial-thromboplastin time should not be a barrier to the use of anticoagulation therapies in the control of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Platelet Activation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(1): 177-184.e3, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have a high mortality rate. The early identification of severe COVID-19 is of critical concern. In addition, the correlation between the immunological features and clinical outcomes in severe cases needs to be explored. OBJECTIVE: To build a nomogram for identifying patients with severe COVID-19 and explore the immunological features correlating with fatal outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 85 and 41 patients with COVID-19 in primary and validation cohorts, respectively. A predictive nomogram based on risk factors for severe COVID-19 was constructed using the primary cohort and evaluated internally and externally. In addition, in the validation cohort, immunological features in patients with severe COVID-19 were analyzed and correlated with disease outcomes. RESULTS: The risk prediction nomogram incorporating age, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer for early identification of patients with severe COVID-19 showed favorable discrimination in both the primary (area under the curve [AUC] 0.807) and validation cohorts (AUC 0.902) and was well calibrated. Patients who died from COVID-19 showed lower abundance of peripheral CD45RO+CD3+ T cells and natural killer cells, but higher neutrophil counts than that in the patients who recovered (P = .001, P = .009, and P = .009, respectively). Moreover, the abundance of CD45RO+CD3+ T cells, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and neutrophil-to-natural killer cell ratio were strong indicators of death in patients with severe COVID-19 (AUC 0.933 for all 3). CONCLUSION: The novel nomogram aided the early identification of severe COVID-19 cases. In addition, the abundance of CD45RO+CD3+ T cells and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and neutrophil-to-natural killer cell ratios may serve as useful prognostic predictors in severe patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Nomograms , Age Factors , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to summarize clinical and laboratory characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with haema

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(16): 15918-15937, 2020 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732625

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is hitting the world hard, but the relationship between coagulation disorders and COVID-19 is still not clear. This study aimed to explore whether early coagulation tests can predict risk stratification and prognosis. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched electronically for relevant research studies published up to March 24, 2020, producing 24 articles for the final inclusion. The pooled standard mean difference (SMD) of coagulation parameters at admission were calculated to determine severe and composite endpoint conditions (ICU or death) in COVID-19 patients. Meta-analyses revealed that platelet count was not statistically related to disease severity and composite endpoint; elevated D-dimer correlated positively with disease severity (SMD 0.787 (0.277-1.298), P= 0.003, I2= 96.7%) but had no significant statistical relationship with composite endpoints. Similarly, patients with prolonged prothrombin time (PT) had an increased risk of ICU and increased risk of death (SMD 1.338 (0.551-2.125), P = 0.001, I2 = 92.7%). Besides, increased fibrin degradation products (FDP) and decreased antithrombin might also mean the disease is worsening. Therefore, early coagulation tests followed by dynamic monitoring is useful for recognizing coagulation disorders accompanied by COVID-19 and guiding timely therapy to improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Risk Assessment/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Circulation ; 142(2): 114-128, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed a single institutional study to evaluate its prevalence, risk factors, prognosis, and potential thromboprophylaxis strategies in a large referral and treatment center. METHODS: We studied a total of 143 patients with COVID-19 from January 29, 2020 to February 29, 2020. Demographic and clinical data, laboratory data, including ultrasound scans of the lower extremities, and outcome variables were obtained, and comparisons were made between groups with and without DVT. RESULTS: Of the 143 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (age 63±14 years, 74 [51.7%] men), 66 patients developed lower extremity DVT (46.1%: 23 [34.8%] with proximal DVT and 43 [65.2%] with distal DVT). Compared with patients who did not have DVT, patients with DVT were older and had a lower oxygenation index, a higher rate of cardiac injury, and worse prognosis, including an increased proportion of deaths (23 [34.8%] versus 9 [11.7%]; P=0.001) and a decreased proportion of patients discharged (32 [48.5%] versus 60 [77.9%]; P<0.001). Multivariant analysis showed an association only between CURB-65 (confusion status, urea, respiratory rate, and blood pressure) score 3 to 5 (odds ratio, 6.122; P=0.031), Padua prediction score ≥4 (odds ratio, 4.016; P=0.04), D-dimer >1.0 µg/mL (odds ratio, 5.818; P<0.014), and DVT in this cohort, respectively. The combination of a CURB-65 score 3 to 5, a Padua prediction score ≥4, and D-dimer >1.0 µg/mL has a sensitivity of 88.52% and a specificity of 61.43% for screening for DVT. In the subgroup of patients with a Padua prediction score ≥4 and whose ultrasound scans were performed >72 hours after admission, DVT was present in 18 (34.0%) patients in the subgroup receiving venous thromboembolism prophylaxis versus 35 (66.0%) patients in the nonprophylaxis group (P=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DVT is high and is associated with adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism may be protective in patients with a Padua protection score ≥4 after admission. Our data seem to suggest that COVID-19 is probably an additional risk factor for DVT in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Pressure , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
17.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(9): e671-e678, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an ongoing global pandemic. Changes in haematological characteristics in patients with COVID-19 are emerging as important features of the disease. We aimed to explore the haematological characteristics and related risk factors in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with COVID-19 admitted to three designated sites of Wuhan Union Hospital (Wuhan, China). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between patients with moderate, severe, and critical disease (defined according to the diagnosis and treatment protocol for novel coronavirus pneumonia, trial version 7, published by the National Health Commission of China). We assessed the risk factors associated with critical illness and poor prognosis. Dynamic haematological and coagulation parameters were investigated with a linear mixed model, and coagulopathy screening with sepsis-induced coagulopathy and International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis overt disseminated intravascular coagulation scoring systems was applied. FINDINGS: Of 466 patients admitted to hospital from Jan 23 to Feb 23, 2020, 380 patients with COVID-19 were included in our study. The incidence of thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100 × 109 cells per L) in patients with critical disease (42 [49%] of 86) was significantly higher than in those with severe (20 [14%] of 145) or moderate (nine [6%] of 149) disease (p<0·0001). The numbers of lymphocytes and eosinophils were significantly lower in patients with critical disease than those with severe or moderate disease (p<0·0001), and prothrombin time, D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products significantly increased with increasing disease severity (p<0·0001). In multivariate analyses, death was associated with increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (≥9·13; odds ratio [OR] 5·39 [95% CI 1·70-17·13], p=0·0042), thrombocytopenia (platelet count <100 × 109 per L; OR 8·33 [2·56-27·15], p=0·00045), prolonged prothrombin time (>16 s; OR 4·94 [1·50-16·25], p=0·0094), and increased D-dimer (>2 mg/L; OR 4·41 [1·06-18·30], p=0·041). Thrombotic and haemorrhagic events were common complications in patients who died (19 [35%] of 55). Sepsis-induced coagulopathy and International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis overt disseminated intravascular coagulation scores (assessed in 12 patients who survived and eight patients who died) increased over time in patients who died. The onset of sepsis-induced coagulopathy was typically before overt disseminated intravascular coagulation. INTERPRETATION: Rapid blood tests, including platelet count, prothrombin time, D-dimer, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio can help clinicians to assess severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. The sepsis-induced coagulopathy scoring system can be used for early assessment and management of patients with critical disease. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Hemorrhagic Disorders/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Eosinophils/cytology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hemorrhagic Disorders/complications , Humans , Linear Models , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics/classification , Pneumonia, Viral/classification , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/pathology
18.
JAMA ; 324(5): 460-470, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-506058

ABSTRACT

Importance: Convalescent plasma is a potential therapeutic option for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but further data from randomized clinical trials are needed. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial performed in 7 medical centers in Wuhan, China, from February 14, 2020, to April 1, 2020, with final follow-up April 28, 2020. The trial included 103 participants with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 that was severe (respiratory distress and/or hypoxemia) or life-threatening (shock, organ failure, or requiring mechanical ventilation). The trial was terminated early after 103 of a planned 200 patients were enrolled. Intervention: Convalescent plasma in addition to standard treatment (n = 52) vs standard treatment alone (control) (n = 51), stratified by disease severity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was time to clinical improvement within 28 days, defined as patient discharged alive or reduction of 2 points on a 6-point disease severity scale (ranging from 1 [discharge] to 6 [death]). Secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality, time to discharge, and the rate of viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results turned from positive at baseline to negative at up to 72 hours. Results: Of 103 patients who were randomized (median age, 70 years; 60 [58.3%] male), 101 (98.1%) completed the trial. Clinical improvement occurred within 28 days in 51.9% (27/52) of the convalescent plasma group vs 43.1% (22/51) in the control group (difference, 8.8% [95% CI, -10.4% to 28.0%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% CI, 0.79-2.49]; P = .26). Among those with severe disease, the primary outcome occurred in 91.3% (21/23) of the convalescent plasma group vs 68.2% (15/22) of the control group (HR, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.07-4.32]; P = .03); among those with life-threatening disease the primary outcome occurred in 20.7% (6/29) of the convalescent plasma group vs 24.1% (7/29) of the control group (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.30-2.63]; P = .83) (P for interaction = .17). There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality (15.7% vs 24.0%; OR, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.22-1.59]; P = .30) or time from randomization to discharge (51.0% vs 36.0% discharged by day 28; HR, 1.61 [95% CI, 0.88-2.95]; P = .12). Convalescent plasma treatment was associated with a negative conversion rate of viral PCR at 72 hours in 87.2% of the convalescent plasma group vs 37.5% of the control group (OR, 11.39 [95% CI, 3.91-33.18]; P < .001). Two patients in the convalescent plasma group experienced adverse events within hours after transfusion that improved with supportive care. Conclusion and Relevance: Among patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, convalescent plasma therapy added to standard treatment, compared with standard treatment alone, did not result in a statistically significant improvement in time to clinical improvement within 28 days. Interpretation is limited by early termination of the trial, which may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000029757.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19 , China , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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