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J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 37(3): 423-431, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233921


OBJECTIVES: To determine in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) whether reducing driving pressure (ΔP) would decrease plasma biomarkers of inflammation and lung injury (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products sRAGE). DESIGN: A single-center prospective physiologic study. SETTING: At a single university medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with severe COVID-19 ARDS on VV ECMO. INTERVENTIONS: Participants on VV ECMO had the following biomarkers measured: (1) pre-ECMO with low-tidal-volume ventilation (LTVV), (2) post-ECMO with LTVV, (3) during low-driving-pressure ventilation (LDPV), (4) after 2 hours of very low driving-pressure ventilation (V-LDPV, main intervention ΔP = 1 cmH2O), and (5) 2 hours after returning to LDPV. MAIN MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six participants were enrolled; 21 underwent V-LDPV. There was no significant change in IL-6, IL-8, and sRAGE from LDPV to V-LDPV and from V-LDPV to LDPV. Only participants (9 of 21) with nonspontaneous breaths had significant change (p < 0.001) in their tidal volumes (Vt) (mean ± SD), 1.9 ± 0.5, 0.1 ± 0.2, and 2.0 ± 0.7 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW). Participants with spontaneous breathing, Vt were unchanged-4.5 ± 3.1, 4.7 ± 3.1, and 5.6 ± 2.9 mL/kg PBW (p = 0.481 and p = 0.065, respectively). There was no relationship found when accounting for Vt changes and biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers did not significantly change with decreased ΔPs or Vt changes during the first 24 hours post-ECMO. Despite deep sedation, reductions in Vt during V-LDPV were not reliably achieved due to spontaneous breaths. Thus, patients on VV ECMO for ARDS may have higher Vt (ie, transpulmonary pressure) than desired despite low ΔPs or Vt.

COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Prospective Studies , Interleukin-6 , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Interleukin-8 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Biomarkers
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 479-489, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684541


BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation has been well defined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while definitive pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils are known to contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Changes in neutrophil function in COVID-19 may give insight into disease pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets. METHODS: Blood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 patients for 11 days. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cytokine levels were assessed. Lung tissue was obtained immediately postmortem for immunostaining. PubMed searches for neutrophils, lung, and COVID-19 yielded 10 peer-reviewed research articles in English. RESULTS: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6, and general inflammatory cytokines IFN-inducible protien-19, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1ß, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor, were identified both at first measurement and across hospitalization (P < .0001). COVID-19 neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (P < .0001), NETosis (P < .0001), and phagocytosis (P < .0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma of 40% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected lungs available for examination (2 of 5). While elevations in IL-8 and absolute neutrophil count correlated with disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Literature to date demonstrates compelling evidence of increased neutrophils in the circulation and lungs of COVID-19 patients. Importantly, neutrophil quantity and activation correlates with severity of disease. Similarly, our data show that circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with enhanced NETosis and oxidative burst.

COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Critical Illness , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2