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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 207(9): 1126-1133, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327780

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 crisis was characterized by a massive need for respiratory support, which has unfortunately not been met globally. This situation mimicked those which gave rise to critical care in the past. Since the polio epidemic in the 50's, the technological evolution of respiratory support has enabled health professionals to save the lives of critically-ill patients worldwide every year. However, much of the current innovation work has turned around developing sophisticated, complex, and high-cost standards and approaches whose resilience is still questionable upon facing constrained environments or contexts, as seen in resuscitation work outside intensive care units, during pandemics, or in low-income countries. Ventilatory support is an essential life-saving tool for patients with respiratory distress. It requires an oxygen source combined to a ventilatory assistance device, an adequate monitoring system, and properly trained caregivers to operate it. Each of these elements can be subject to critical constraints, which we can no longer ignore. The innovation process should incorporate them as a prima materia, whilst focusing on the core need of the field using the concept of frugal innovation. Having a universal access to oxygen and respiratory support, irrespective of the context and constraints, necessitates: i) developing cost-effective, energy-efficient, and maintenance-free oxygen generation devices; ii) improving the design of non-invasive respiratory devices (for example, with oxygen saving properties); iii) conceiving fully frugal ventilators and universal monitoring systems; iv) broadening ventilation expertise by developing end-user training programs in ventilator assistance. The frugal innovation approach may give rise to a more resilient and inclusive critical care system. This paradigm shift is essential for the current and future challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen
2.
Crit Care Med ; 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of high doses of corticosteroids (HDCT) in critically ill COVID-19 patients with nonresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who had been previously treated with dexamethasone as a standard of care. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. Eligible patients presented nonresolving ARDS related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and had received initial treatment with dexamethasone. We compared patients who had received or not HDCT during ICU stay, consisting of greater than or equal to 1 mg/kg of methylprednisolone or equivalent for treatment of nonresolving ARDS. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. We assessed the impact of HDCT on 90-day mortality using univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Further adjustment for confounding variables was performed using overlap weighting propensity score. The association between HDCT and the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia was estimated using multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for pre-specified confounders. SETTING: We included consecutive patients admitted in 11 ICUs of Great Paris area from September 2020 to February 2021. PATIENTS: Three hundred eighty-three patients were included (59 in the HDCT group, 324 in the no HDCT group). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At day 90, 30 of 59 patients (51%) in the HDCT group and 116 of 324 patients (35.8%) in the no HDCT group had died. HDCT was significantly associated with 90-day mortality in unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.47; p = 0.033) and adjusted analysis with overlap weighting (adjusted HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.03-2.63; p = 0.036). HDCT was not associated with an increased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (adjusted cause-specific HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15-1.16; p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with nonresolving ARDS, HDCT result in a higher 90-day mortality.

3.
Ann Intensive Care ; 13(1): 33, 2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound is a non-invasive tool available at the bedside for the assessment of critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of lung ultrasound in assessing the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in critically-ill patients in a low-income setting. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month observational study in a university hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in Mali, on patients admitted for COVID-19 as diagnosed by a positive polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 and/or typical lung computed tomography scan findings. RESULTS: The inclusion criteria was met by 156 patients with a median age of 59 years. Almost all patients (96%) had respiratory failure at admission and many needed respiratory support (121/156, 78%). The feasibility of lung ultrasound was very good, with 1802/1872 (96%) quadrants assessed. The reproducibility was good with an intra-class correlation coefficient of elementary patterns of 0.74 (95% CI 0.65, 0.82) and a coefficient of repeatability of lung ultrasound score < 3 for an overall score of 24. Confluent B lines were the most common lesions found in patients (155/156). The overall mean ultrasound score was 23 ± 5.4, and was significantly correlated with oxygen saturation (Pearson correlation coefficient of - 0.38, p < 0.001). More than half of the patients died (86/156, 55.1%). The factors associated with mortality, as shown by multivariable analysis, were: the patients' age; number of organ failures; therapeutic anticoagulation, and lung ultrasound score. CONCLUSION: Lung ultrasound was feasible and contributed to characterize lung injury in critically-ill COVID-19 patients in a low income setting. Lung ultrasound score was associated with oxygenation impairment and mortality.

4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6658, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302387

ABSTRACT

We aimed to explore the relationships between specific viral mutations/mutational patterns and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurrence in COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care units between October 1, 2020, and May 30, 2021. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing. In this prospective multicentre cohort study, 259 patients were included. 222 patients (47%) had been infected with pre-existing ancestral variants, 116 (45%) with variant α, and 21 (8%) with other variants. 153 patients (59%) developed at least one VAP. There was no significant relationship between VAP occurrence and a specific SARS CoV-2 lineage/sublineage or mutational pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Intensive Care Units , Dexamethasone , Mutation
5.
JAMA Intern Med ; 183(6): 520-531, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267740

ABSTRACT

Importance: Given the high risk of thrombosis and anticoagulation-related bleeding in patients with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia, identifying the lowest effective dose of anticoagulation therapy for these patients is imperative. Objectives: To determine whether therapeutic anticoagulation (TA) or high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (HD-PA) decreases mortality and/or disease duration compared with standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (SD-PA), and whether TA outperforms HD-PA; and to compare the net clinical outcomes among the 3 strategies. Design, Settings, and Participants: The ANTICOVID randomized clinical open-label trial included patients with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia requiring supplemental oxygen and having no initial thrombosis on chest computer tomography with pulmonary angiogram at 23 health centers in France from April 14 to December 13, 2021. Of 339 patients randomized, 334 were included in the primary analysis-114 patients in the SD-PA group, 110 in the HD-PA, and 110 in the TA. At randomization, 90% of the patients were in the intensive care unit. Data analyses were performed from April 13, 2022, to January 3, 2023. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either SD-PA, HD-PA, or TA with low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin for 14 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: A hierarchical criterion of all-cause mortality followed by time to clinical improvement at day 28. Main secondary outcome was net clinical outcome at day 28 (composite of thrombosis, major bleeding, and all-cause death). Results: Among the study population of 334 individuals (mean [SD] age, 58.3 [13.0] years; 226 [67.7%] men and 108 [32.3%] women), use of HD-PA and SD-PA had similar probabilities of favorable outcome (47.3% [95% CI, 39.9% to 54.8%] vs 52.7% [95% CI, 45.2% to 60.1%]; P = .48), as did TA compared with SD-PA (50.9% [95% CI, 43.4% to 58.3%] vs 49.1% [95% CI, 41.7% to 56.6%]; P = .82) and TA compared with HD-PA (53.5% [95% CI 45.8% to 60.9%] vs 46.5% [95% CI, 39.1% to 54.2%]; P = .37). Net clinical outcome was met in 29.8% of patients receiving SD-PA (20.2% thrombosis, 2.6% bleeding, 14.0% death), 16.4% receiving HD-PA (5.5% thrombosis, 3.6% bleeding, 11.8% death), and 20.0% receiving TA (5.5% thrombosis, 3.6% bleeding, 12.7% death). Moreover, HD-PA and TA use significantly reduced thrombosis compared with SD-PA (absolute difference, -14.7 [95% CI -6.2 to -23.2] and -14.7 [95% CI -6.2 to -23.2], respectively). Use of HD-PA significantly reduced net clinical outcome compared with SD-PA (absolute difference, -13.5; 95% CI -2.6 to -24.3). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that compared with SD-PA, neither HD-PA nor TA use improved the primary hierarchical outcome of all-cause mortality or time to clinical improvement in patients with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia; however, HD-PA resulted in significantly better net clinical outcome by decreasing the risk of de novo thrombosis. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04808882.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , Heparin/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
6.
J Clin Med ; 11(7)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216406

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with COVID-19, however, its mechanism is still controversial, particularly in ICU settings. Urinary proteinuria profile could be a non-invasive tool of interest to scrutinize the pathophysiological process underlying AKI in COVID-19 patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study between March 2020 and April 2020. All patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and without end-stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy before ICU admission were included. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and risk factors for AKI and to describe its clinical and biological characteristics, particularly its urinary protein profile. RESULTS: Seventy patients were included; 87% needed mechanical ventilation and 61% needed vasopressor during their ICU stay; 64.3% of patients developed AKI and half of them needed dialysis. Total and tubular proteinuria on day 1 were higher in patients with AKI, whereas glomerular proteinuria was similar in both groups. The main risk factor for AKI was shock at admission (OR = 5.47 (1.74-17.2), p < 0.01). Mortality on day 28 was higher in AKI (23/45, 51.1%) than in no-AKI patients (1/25, 4%), p < 0.001. Risk factors for 28-days mortality were AKI with need for renal replacement therapy, non-renal SOFA score and history of congestive heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in ICU; it seems to be related to tubular lesions rather than glomerular injury and is related to shock at ICU admission.

7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 11(2): 163-175, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To inform future research and practice, we aimed to investigate the outcomes of patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to different variants of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This retrospective study included consecutive adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who received ECMO for ARDS in 21 experienced ECMO centres in eight European countries (Austria, Belgium, England, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) between Jan 1, 2020, and Sept 30, 2021. We collected data on patient characteristics, clinical status, and management before and after the initiation of ECMO. Participants were grouped according to SARS-CoV-2 variant (wild type, alpha, delta, or other) and period of the pandemic (first [Jan 1-June 30] and second [July 1-Dec 31] semesters of 2020, and first [Jan 1-June 30] and second [July 1-Sept 30] semesters of 2021). Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to analyse evolving characteristics, management, and patient outcomes over the first 2 years of the pandemic, and independent risk factors of mortality were determined using multivariable Cox regression models. The primary outcome was mortality 90 days after the initiation of ECMO, with follow-up to Dec 30, 2021. FINDINGS: ECMO was initiated in 1345 patients. Patient characteristics and management were similar for the groups of patients infected with different variants, except that those with the delta variant had a younger median age and less hypertension and diabetes. 90-day mortality was 42% (569 of 1345 patients died) overall, and 43% (297/686) in patients infected with wild-type SARS-CoV-2, 39% (152/391) in those with the alpha variant, 40% (78/195) in those with the delta variant, and 58% (42/73) in patients infected with other variants (mainly beta and gamma). Mortality was 10% higher (50%) in the second semester of 2020, when the wild-type variant was still prevailing, than in other semesters (40%). Independent predictors of mortality were age, immunocompromised status, a longer time from intensive care unit admission to intubation, need for renal replacement therapy, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment haemodynamic component score, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and lactate concentration before ECMO. After adjusting for these variables, mortality was significantly higher with the delta variant than with the other variants, the wild-type strain being the reference. INTERPRETATION: Although crude mortality did not differ between variants, adjusted risk of death was highest for patients treated with ECMO infected with the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. The higher virulence and poorer outcomes associated with the delta strain might relate to higher viral load and increased inflammatory response syndrome in infected patients, reinforcing the need for a higher rate of vaccination in the population and updated selection criteria for ECMO, should a new and highly virulent strain of SARS-CoV-2 emerge in the future. Mortality was noticeably lower than in other large, multicentre series of patients who received ECMO for COVID-19, highlighting the need to concentrate resources at experienced centres. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Pandemics
8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 121, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I interferons (IFN) have been found in about 15% of critical cases COVID-19 pneumonia and less than 1% of mild or asymptomatic cases. Determining whether auto-Abs influence presentation and outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients could lead to specific therapeutic interventions. Our objectives were to compare the severity at admission and the mortality of patients hospitalized for critical COVID-19 in ICU with versus without auto-Abs. RESULTS: We conducted a prospective multicentre cohort study including patients admitted in 11 intensive care units (ICUs) from Great Paris area hospitals with proven SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory failure. 925 critically ill COVID-19 patients were included. Auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFN-α2, ß and/or ω were found in 96 patients (10.3%). Demographics and comorbidities did not differ between patients with versus without auto-Abs. At ICU admission, Auto-Abs positive patients required a higher FiO2 (100% (70-100) vs. 90% (60-100), p = 0.01), but were not different in other characteristics. Mortality at day 28 was not different between patients with and without auto-Abs (18.7 vs. 23.7%, p = 0.279). In multivariable analysis, 28-day mortality was associated with age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.06 [1.04-1.08], p < 0.001), SOFA score (aOR = 1.18 [1.12-1.23], p < 0.001) and immunosuppression (aOR = 1.82 [1.1-3.0], p = 0.02), but not with the presence of auto-Abs (aOR = 0.69 [0.38-1.26], p = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: In ICU patients, auto-Abs against type I IFNs were found in at least 10% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia. They were not associated with day 28 mortality.

10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6025, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062212

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron is considered to be less severe than infection with variant Delta, with rarer occurrence of severe disease requiring intensive care. Little information is available on comorbid factors, clinical conditions and specific viral mutational patterns associated with the severity of variant Omicron infection. In this multicenter prospective cohort study, patients consecutively admitted for severe COVID-19 in 20 intensive care units in France between December 7th 2021 and May 1st 2022 were included. Among 259 patients, we show that the clinical phenotype of patients infected with variant Omicron (n = 148) is different from that in those infected with variant Delta (n = 111). We observe no significant relationship between Delta and Omicron variant lineages/sublineages and 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.68 [0.35-1.32]; p = 0.253). Among Omicron-infected patients, 43.2% are immunocompromised, most of whom have received two doses of vaccine or more (85.9%) but display a poor humoral response to vaccination. The mortality rate of immunocompromised patients infected with variant Omicron is significantly higher than that of non-immunocompromised patients (46.9% vs 26.2%; p = 0.009). In patients infected with variant Omicron, there is no association between specific sublineages (BA.1/BA.1.1 (n = 109) and BA.2 (n = 21)) or any viral genome polymorphisms/mutational profile and 28-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Humans , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 292, 2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The aim of this ancillary analysis of the coVAPid multicenter observational retrospective study is to assess the relationship between adjuvant corticosteroid use and the incidence of VAP. METHODS: Planned ancillary analysis of a multicenter retrospective European cohort in 36 ICUs. Adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were consecutively included between February and May 2020. VAP diagnosis required strict definition with clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological confirmation. We assessed the association of VAP with corticosteroid treatment using univariate and multivariate cause-specific Cox's proportional hazard models with adjustment on pre-specified confounders. RESULTS: Among the 545 included patients, 191 (35%) received corticosteroids. The proportional hazard assumption for the effect of corticosteroids on the incidence of VAP could not be accepted, indicating that this effect varied during ICU stay. We found a non-significant lower risk of VAP for corticosteroid-treated patients during the first days in the ICU and an increased risk for longer ICU stay. By modeling the effect of corticosteroids with time-dependent coefficients, the association between corticosteroids and the incidence of VAP was not significant (overall effect p = 0.082), with time-dependent hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 0.47 (0.17-1.31) at day 2, 0.95 (0.63-1.42) at day 7, 1.48 (1.01-2.16) at day 14 and 1.94 (1.09-3.46) at day 21. CONCLUSIONS: No significant association was found between adjuvant corticosteroid treatment and the incidence of VAP, although a time-varying effect of corticosteroids was identified along the 28-day follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of co/superinfection in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is challenging. The FilmArray Pneumonia plus Panel (bioMérieux, France), a new rapid multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR), has never been assessed on a blinded protected telescope catheter (PTC) samples, a very common diagnostic tool in patients under mechanical ventilation. We evaluated the performance of mPCR on PTC samples compared with conventional culture and its impact on antibiotic stewardship. METHODS: Observational study in two intensive care units, conducted between March and July 2020, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in France. RESULTS: We performed 125 mPCR on blinded PTC samples of 95 ARDS patients, including 73 (77%) SARS-CoV-2 cases and 28 (29%) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Respiratory samples were drawn from mechanically ventilated patients either just after intubation (n = 48; 38%) or later for suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (n = 77; 62%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of mPCR were 93% (95% CI 84-100), 99% (95% CI 99-100), 68% (95% CI 54-83), and 100% (95% CI 100-100), respectively. The overall coefficient of agreement between mPCR and standard culture was 0.80 (95% CI 0.68-0.89). Intensivists changed empirical antimicrobial therapy in only 14% (18/125) of cases. No new antibiotic was initiated in more than half of the CAP/HAP pneumonia-suspected cases (n = 29; 60%) and in more than one-third of those suspected to have VAP without affecting or delaying their antimicrobial therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid mPCR was feasible on blinded PTC with good sensitivity and specificity. New antibiotics were not initiated in more than half of patients and more than one-third of VAP-suspected cases. Further studies are needed to assess mPCR potential in improving antibiotic stewardship.

13.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939016

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, α, spread worldwide at the beginning of 2021. It was suggested that this variant was associated with a higher risk of mortality than other variants. We aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from patients with severe COVID-19 and unravel the relationships between specific viral mutations/mutational patterns and clinical outcomes. This is a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Patients aged ≥18 years admitted to 11 intensive care units (ICUs) in hospitals in the Greater Paris area for SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory failure between 1 October 2020 and 30 May 2021 were included. The primary clinical endpoint was day-28 mortality. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing (Illumina COVIDSeq). In total, 413 patients were included, 183 (44.3%) were infected with pre-existing variants, 197 (47.7%) were infected with variant α, and 33 (8.0%) were infected with other variants. The patients infected with pre-existing variants were significantly older (64.9 ± 11.9 vs. 60.5 ± 11.8 years; p = 0.0005) and had more frequent COPD (11.5% vs. 4.1%; p = 0.009) and higher SOFA scores (4 [3-8] vs. 3 [2-4]; 0.0002). The day-28 mortality was no different between the patients infected with pre-existing, α, or other variants (31.1% vs. 26.2% vs. 30.3%; p = 0.550). There was no association between day-28 mortality and specific variants or the presence of specific mutations. At ICU admission, the patients infected with pre-existing variants had a different clinical presentation from those infected with variant α, but mortality did not differ between these groups. There was no association between specific variants or SARS-CoV-2 genome mutational pattern and day-28 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Critical Illness , Genomics , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(9): 906-916, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919150

ABSTRACT

Importance: The benefit of high-dose dexamethasone and oxygenation strategies vs standard of care for patients with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) caused by COVID-19 pneumonia is debated. Objectives: To assess the benefit of high-dose dexamethasone compared with standard of care dexamethasone, and to assess the benefit of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNo2) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared with oxygen support standard of care (o2SC). Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 19 intensive care units (ICUs) in France from April 2020 to January 2021. Eligible patients were consecutive ICU-admitted adults with COVID-19 AHRF. Randomization used a 2 × 3 factorial design for dexamethasone and oxygenation strategies; patients not eligible for at least 1 oxygenation strategy and/or already receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) were only randomized for dexamethasone. All patients were followed-up for 60 days. Data were analyzed from May 26 to July 31, 2021. Interventions: Patients received standard dexamethasone (dexamethasone-phosphate 6 mg/d for 10 days [or placebo prior to RECOVERY trial results communication]) or high-dose dexamethasone (dexamethasone-phosphate 20 mg/d on days 1-5 then 10 mg/d on days 6-10). Those not requiring IMV were additionally randomized to o2SC, CPAP, or HFNo2. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were time to all-cause mortality, assessed at day 60, for the dexamethasone interventions, and time to IMV requirement, assessed at day 28, for the oxygenation interventions. Differences between intervention groups were calculated using proportional Cox models and expressed as hazard ratios (HRs). Results: Among 841 screened patients, 546 patients (median [IQR] age, 67.4 [59.3-73.1] years; 414 [75.8%] men) were randomized between standard dexamethasone (276 patients, including 37 patients who received placebo) or high-dose dexamethasone (270 patients). Of these, 333 patients were randomized among o2SC (109 patients, including 56 receiving standard dexamethasone), CPAP (109 patients, including 57 receiving standard dexamethasone), and HFNo2 (115 patients, including 56 receiving standard dexamethasone). There was no difference in 60-day mortality between standard and high-dose dexamethasone groups (HR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.69-1.33]; P = .79). There was no significant difference for the cumulative incidence of IMV criteria at day 28 among o2 support groups (o2SC vs CPAP: HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.71-1.63]; o2SC vs HFNo2: HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.69-1.55]) or 60-day mortality (o2SC vs CPAP: HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.58-1.61; o2SC vs HFNo2: HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.53-1.47]). Interactions between interventions were not significant. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial among ICU patients with COVID-19-related AHRF, high-dose dexamethasone did not significantly improve 60-day survival. The oxygenation strategies in patients who were not initially receiving IMV did not significantly modify 28-day risk of IMV requirement. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04344730; EudraCT: 2020-001457-43.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Phosphates , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 185, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether targeting the driving pressure (∆P) when adjusting the tidal volume in mechanically ventilated patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may decrease the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury remains a matter of research. In this study, we assessed the effect of a ∆P-guided ventilation on the mechanical power. METHODS: We prospectively included adult patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS. Positive end expiratory pressure was set by the attending physician and kept constant during the study. Tidal volume was first adjusted to target 6 ml/kg of predicted body weight (PBW-guided ventilation) and subsequently modified within a range from 4 to 10 ml/kg PBW to target a ∆P between 12 and 14 cm H2O. The respiratory rate was then re-adjusted within a range from 12 to 40 breaths/min until EtCO2 returned to its baseline value (∆P-guided ventilation). Mechanical power was computed at each step. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were included between December 2019 and May 2021. ∆P-guided ventilation was feasible in all but one patient. The ∆P during PBW-guided ventilation was already within the target range of ∆P-guided ventilation in five (10%) patients, above in nine (18%) and below in 36 (72%). The change from PBW- to ∆P-guided ventilation was thus accompanied by an overall increase in tidal volume from 6.1 mL/kg PBW [5.9-6.2] to 7.7 ml/kg PBW [6.2-8.7], while respiratory rate was decreased from 29 breaths/min [26-32] to 21 breaths/min [16-28] (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). ∆P-guided ventilation was accompanied by a significant decrease in mechanical power from 31.5 J/min [28-35.7] to 28.8 J/min [24.6-32.6] (p < 0.001), representing a relative decrease of 7% [0-16]. With ∆P-guided ventilation, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased and the ventilatory ratio decreased. CONCLUSION: As compared to a conventional PBW-guided ventilation, a ∆P-guided ventilation strategy targeting a ∆P between 12 and 14 cm H2O required to change the tidal volume in 90% of the patients. Such ∆P-guided ventilation significantly reduced the mechanical power. Whether this physiological observation could be associated with clinical benefit should be assessed in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Body Weight , Humans , Lung , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tidal Volume/physiology
16.
N Engl J Med ; 386(25): 2387-2398, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies that have evaluated the use of intravenous vitamin C in adults with sepsis who were receiving vasopressor therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) have shown mixed results with respect to the risk of death and organ dysfunction. METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned adults who had been in the ICU for no longer than 24 hours, who had proven or suspected infection as the main diagnosis, and who were receiving a vasopressor to receive an infusion of either vitamin C (at a dose of 50 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matched placebo administered every 6 hours for up to 96 hours. The primary outcome was a composite of death or persistent organ dysfunction (defined by the use of vasopressors, invasive mechanical ventilation, or new renal-replacement therapy) on day 28. RESULTS: A total of 872 patients underwent randomization (435 to the vitamin C group and 437 to the control group). The primary outcome occurred in 191 of 429 patients (44.5%) in the vitamin C group and in 167 of 434 patients (38.5%) in the control group (risk ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.40; P = 0.01). At 28 days, death had occurred in 152 of 429 patients (35.4%) in the vitamin C group and in 137 of 434 patients (31.6%) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.40) and persistent organ dysfunction in 39 of 429 patients (9.1%) and 30 of 434 patients (6.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.05). Findings were similar in the two groups regarding organ-dysfunction scores, biomarkers, 6-month survival, health-related quality of life, stage 3 acute kidney injury, and hypoglycemic episodes. In the vitamin C group, one patient had a severe hypoglycemic episode and another had a serious anaphylaxis event. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with sepsis receiving vasopressor therapy in the ICU, those who received intravenous vitamin C had a higher risk of death or persistent organ dysfunction at 28 days than those who received placebo. (Funded by the Lotte and John Hecht Memorial Foundation; LOVIT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03680274.).


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Sepsis , Adult , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Multiple Organ Failure , Quality of Life , Sepsis/drug therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/adverse effects , Vitamins/adverse effects
17.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(6): 667-678, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899121

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severely ill patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop circulatory failure. We aimed to report patterns of left and right ventricular dysfunction in the first echocardiography following admission to intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study that collected echocardiographic and clinical information from severely ill COVID-19 patients admitted to 14 ICUs in 8 countries. Patients admitted to ICU who received at least one echocardiography between 1st February 2020 and 30th June 2021 were included. Clinical and echocardiographic data were uploaded using a secured web-based electronic database (REDCap). RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-seven patients were included and the first echo was performed 2 [1, 4] days after ICU admission. The median age was 65 [56, 73] years, and 71% were male. Left ventricle (LV) and/or right ventricle (RV) systolic dysfunction were found in 234 (34.5%) patients. 149 (22%) patients had LV systolic dysfunction (with or without RV dysfunction) without LV dilatation and no elevation in filling pressure. 152 (22.5%) had RV systolic dysfunction. In 517 patients with information on both paradoxical septal motion and quantitative RV size, 90 (17.4%) had acute cor pulmonale (ACP). ACP was associated with mechanical ventilation (OR > 4), pulmonary embolism (OR > 5) and increased PaCO2. Exploratory analyses showed that patients with ACP and older age were more likely to die in hospital (including ICU). CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of this cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients exhibited abnormal LV and/or RV systolic function in their first echocardiography assessment. While LV systolic dysfunction appears similar to septic cardiomyopathy, RV systolic dysfunction was related to pressure overload due to positive pressure ventilation, hypercapnia and pulmonary embolism. ACP and age seemed to be associated with mortality in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Embolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Aged , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging
18.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(5): e36261, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The LOVIT (Lessening Organ Dysfunction with Vitamin C) trial is a blinded multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing high-dose intravenous vitamin C to placebo in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with proven or suspected infection as the main diagnosis and receiving a vasopressor. OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe a prespecified statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the LOVIT trial prior to unblinding and locking of the trial database. METHODS: The SAP was designed by the LOVIT principal investigators and statisticians, and approved by the steering committee and coinvestigators. The SAP defines the primary and secondary outcomes, and describes the planned primary, secondary, and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: The SAP includes a draft participant flow diagram, tables, and planned figures. The primary outcome is a composite of mortality and persistent organ dysfunction (receipt of mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or new renal replacement therapy) at 28 days, where day 1 is the day of randomization. All analyses will use a frequentist statistical framework. The analysis of the primary outcome will estimate the risk ratio and 95% CI in a generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution and log link, with site as a random effect. We will perform a secondary analysis adjusting for prespecified baseline clinical variables. Subgroup analyses will include age, sex, frailty, severity of illness, Sepsis-3 definition of septic shock, baseline ascorbic acid level, and COVID-19 status. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed an SAP for the LOVIT trial and will adhere to it in the analysis phase. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/36261.

19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(3): 281-294, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832818

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Whether patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may benefit from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) compared with conventional invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) remains unknown. Objectives: To estimate the effect of ECMO on 90-day mortality versus IMV only. Methods: Among 4,244 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 included in a multicenter cohort study, we emulated a target trial comparing the treatment strategies of initiating ECMO versus no ECMO within 7 days of IMV in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (PaO2/FiO2 < 80 or PaCO2 ⩾ 60 mm Hg). We controlled for confounding using a multivariable Cox model on the basis of predefined variables. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 1,235 patients met the full eligibility criteria for the emulated trial, among whom 164 patients initiated ECMO. The ECMO strategy had a higher survival probability on Day 7 from the onset of eligibility criteria (87% vs. 83%; risk difference, 4%; 95% confidence interval, 0-9%), which decreased during follow-up (survival on Day 90: 63% vs. 65%; risk difference, -2%; 95% confidence interval, -10 to 5%). However, ECMO was associated with higher survival when performed in high-volume ECMO centers or in regions where a specific ECMO network organization was set up to handle high demand and when initiated within the first 4 days of IMV and in patients who are profoundly hypoxemic. Conclusions: In an emulated trial on the basis of a nationwide COVID-19 cohort, we found differential survival over time of an ECMO compared with a no-ECMO strategy. However, ECMO was consistently associated with better outcomes when performed in high-volume centers and regions with ECMO capacities specifically organized to handle high demand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059383, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 induces venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis, involving several pathophysiological processes. In patients with severe COVID-19 without macrovascular thrombosis, escalating into high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (HD-PA) or therapeutic anticoagulation (TA) could be beneficial in limiting the extension of microvascular thrombosis and forestalling the evolution of lung and multiorgan microcirculatory dysfunction. In the absence of data from randomised trials, clinical practice varies widely. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a French multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled superiority trial to compare the efficacy and safety of three anticoagulation strategies in patients with COVID-19. Patients with oxygen-treated COVID-19 showing no pulmonary artery thrombosis on computed tomography with pulmonary angiogram will be randomised to receive either low-dose PA, HD-PA or TA for 14 days. Patients attaining the extremes of weight and those with severe renal failure will not be included. We will recruit 353 patients. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1:1 basis, and stratified by centre, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, D-dimer levels and body mass index. The primary endpoint is a hierarchical criterion at day 28 including all-cause mortality, followed by the time to clinical improvement defined as the time from randomisation to an improvement of at least two points on the ordinal clinical scale. Secondary outcomes include thrombotic and major bleeding events at day 28, individual components of the primary endpoint, number of oxygen-free, ventilator-free and vasopressor-free days at day 28, D-dimer and sepsis-induced coagulopathy score at day 7, intensive care unit and hospital stay at day 28 and day 90, and all-cause death and quality of life at day 90. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by an ethical committee (Ethics Committee, Ile de France VII, Paris, France; reference 2020-A03531-38). Patients will be included after obtaining their signed informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04808882.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Humans , Microcirculation , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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