Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Med Mycol ; 61(1)2022 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326352

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus spp. isolated from non-BAL cultures of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) patients may reflect colonization rather than infection. Sera (n = 181) from 49 adult ICU CAPA patients (24 probable and 25 possible CAPA) with bronchial secretions (BS) culture positive for Aspergillus spp. were collected and tested for Aspergillus DNA detection by species-specific real-time PCR. Overall, 30/49 (61%) patients were PCR positive. BS culture/serum PCR agreement was moderate (21/30; 70%). Based on serum PCR positive patients, all CAPAs were due to A. fumigatus (80%), A. flavus (10%), and A. terreus (10%). No A. niger/A. nidulans or mixed infections were found despite positive BS cultures.


Discordant results were observed between bronchial secretion cultures and species-specific serum PCR (30%) with A. fumigatus being by far the most common etiological agent of CAPA (80%). No A. niger/A. nidulans or mixed infections were found despite positive cultures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Aspergillus/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2253358

ABSTRACT

Background The outcome of COVID-19 in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is almost uniformely considered poor. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyse the outcome and risk factors for mortality in a large series of patients who developed COVID-19 infection after an allogeneic HSCT. Methods This multicenter retrospective study promoted by the European Hematology Association – Infections in Hematology Study Working Group, included 326 adult HSCT patients who had COVID-19 between January 2020 and March 2022. Results The median time from HSCT to the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 268 days (IQR 86-713;range 0-185 days). COVID-19 severity was mild in 21% of the patients, severe in 39% and critical in 16% of the patients. In multivariable analysis factors associated with a higher risk of mortality were, age above 50 years, presence of 3 or more comorbidities, active hematologic disease at time of COVID-19 infection, development of COVID-19 within 12 months of HSCT, and severe/critical infections. Overall mortality rate was 21% (n=68): COVID-19 was the main or secondary cause of death in 16% of the patients (n=53). Conclusions Mortality in HSCT recipients who develop COVID-19 is high and largely dependent on age, comorbidities, active hematologic disease, timing from transplant and severity of the infection.

3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1125030, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253359

ABSTRACT

Background: The outcome of COVID-19 in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is almost uniformely considered poor. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyse the outcome and risk factors for mortality in a large series of patients who developed COVID-19 infection after an allogeneic HSCT. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study promoted by the European Hematology Association - Infections in Hematology Study Working Group, included 326 adult HSCT patients who had COVID-19 between January 2020 and March 2022. Results: The median time from HSCT to the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 268 days (IQR 86-713; range 0-185 days). COVID-19 severity was mild in 21% of the patients, severe in 39% and critical in 16% of the patients. In multivariable analysis factors associated with a higher risk of mortality were, age above 50 years, presence of 3 or more comorbidities, active hematologic disease at time of COVID-19 infection, development of COVID-19 within 12 months of HSCT, and severe/critical infections. Overall mortality rate was 21% (n=68): COVID-19 was the main or secondary cause of death in 16% of the patients (n=53). Conclusions: Mortality in HSCT recipients who develop COVID-19 is high and largely dependent on age, comorbidities, active hematologic disease, timing from transplant and severity of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/etiology , Hematologic Diseases/etiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Stem Cell Transplantation
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883974

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of candidemia, as well as the factors associated with Candida species distribution and fluconazole resistance, among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the COVID-19 pandemic, as compared to two pre-pandemic periods. All patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19 from March 2020 to October 2021, as well as during two pre-pandemic periods (2005-2008 and 2012-2015), who developed candidemia, were included. During the COVID-19 study period, the incidence of candidemia was 10.2%, significantly higher compared with 3.2% and 4.2% in the two pre-pandemic periods, respectively. The proportion of non-albicans Candida species increased (from 60.6% to 62.3% and 75.8%, respectively), with a predominance of C. parapsilosis. A marked increase in fluconazole resistance (from 31% to 37.7% and 48.4%, respectively) was also observed. Regarding the total patient population with candidemia (n = 205), fluconazole resistance was independently associated with ICU length of stay (LOS) before candidemia (OR 1.03; CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.003), whereas the presence of shock at candidemia onset was associated with C. albicans (OR 6.89; CI: 2.2-25, p = 0.001), and with fluconazole-susceptible species (OR 0.23; CI: 0.07-0.64, p = 0.006). In conclusion, substantial increases in the incidence of candidemia, in non-albicansCandida species, and in fluconazole resistance were found in patients admitted to the ICU due to COVID-19, compared to pre-pandemic periods. At candidemia onset, prolonged ICU LOS was associated with fluconazole-resistant and the presence of shock with fluconazole-susceptible species.

5.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1779-1792, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309094

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an emerging complication among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). In the present study, all CAPA cases during the first year of the pandemic were reviewed in critically ill patients at a 650-bed tertiary Greek COVID-19 reference hospital. METHODS: Data regarding patients admitted to the ICU of Attikon Hospital in Athens, Greece, between 22 March 2020 and 28 February 2021 with a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection were reviewed. Clinical and microbiological records were analysed including demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological features, treatment and outcomes. CAPA was determined according to the recent 2020 ECMM/ISHAM definitions. RESULTS: A total of 179 patients were admitted in the ICU and 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with CAPA (4 probable and 2 possible CAPA) with 5/6 with co-infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens. No patient had a history of immunosuppression. All suffered from acute respiratory distress syndrome. The median (range) time from intubation to diagnosis was 6 (1-14) days. Five patients had positive Aspergillus cultures in bronchial secretions (1 A. fumigatus, 1 A. flavus, 1 A. fumigatus + A. flavus, 1 A. fumigatus + A. terreus and 1 A. terreus) while culture was negative in one patient. All isolates were susceptible to antifungal drugs. Serum galactomannan (GM), pan-Aspergillus PCR and (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) were positive in 4/6 (67%), 5/6 (83%, 3/5 in two consecutive samples) and 4/6 (67%, in consecutive samples) patients, respectively. GM and PCR positive bronchial secretions had GM indices > 9.95 and PCR Ct < 34. All were treated with antifungal drugs with 5 out of 6 receiving isavuconazole. Mortality was 67% (4/6) with 1/4 attributed to CAPA (two died as a result of bacterial septic shock and one as a result of multiorgan failure). CONCLUSION: The incidence of CAPA in ICU patients was 3.3% and it was associated with approximately a 17% attributable mortality in the setting of MDR gram-negative pathogen co-infections.

6.
Infect Dis Ther ; 9(4): 707-713, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713844

ABSTRACT

The severe respiratory insufficiency observed during COVID-19 infection may not be directly related to a cytopathogenic effect induced by the virus itself, but to an exaggerated and inappropriate immune response. In an effort to reduce the severity of organ dysfunction, including respiratory insufficiency, monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) that block the interleukin-6 receptor, such as tocilizumab, sarilumab, and siltuximab, are under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19. However, blocking of just one of the many cytokines involved in the inflammatory reaction may not slow down the magnitude of the process. Since timing is important, the immune deficiency induced by IL6 blockade at the late immunodeficiency phase of sepsis that follows the initial inflammatory response may be detrimental. Finally, monitoring the degree and duration of IL6 blockade may be challenging because of the long half-life of Mabs (2-3 weeks). Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines act through a common JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which can be inhibited by JAK-STAT inhibitors. Ruxolitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor selective for JAK1, 2, blocks many pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL6. Ruxolitinib has favorable pharmacodynamics and an acceptable safety profile. The short half-life (4-6 h) of the drug offers the opportunity for ideal monitoring of the degree and duration of cytokine blocking, simply by the adjusting dose and duration of therapy. From a theoretical point of view, the balanced control of cytokine blockade throughout the course of the septic process should be the cornerstone of modern management. According to this hypothesis, maximization of blocking should be attempted at the phase of hyper-inflammation for preventing severe organ damage, while pro-inflammatory blockade should be minimized at the late phase of immunoparalysis for prevention of secondary infections. Based on the above considerations, we consider that the efficacy and safety of this drug deserves testing in the context of a controlled randomized trial.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL