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N Engl J Med ; 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186518
JAMA Health Forum ; 2(10): e214192, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093215
JAMA Health Forum ; 1(10): e201294, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059083
BMJ Open ; 11(7), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842638


ObjectivesTo examine company characteristics associated with better transparency and to apply a tool used to measure and improve clinical trial transparency among large companies and drugs, to smaller companies and biologics.DesignCross-sectional descriptive analysis.Setting and participantsNovel drugs and biologics Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in 2016 and 2017 and their company sponsors.Main outcome measuresUsing established Good Pharma Scorecard (GPS) measures, companies and products were evaluated on their clinical trial registration, results dissemination and FDA Amendments Act (FDAAA) implementation;companies were ranked using these measures and a multicomponent data sharing measure. Associations between company transparency scores with company size (large vs non-large), location (US vs non-US) and sponsored product type (drug vs biologic) were also examined.Results26% of products (16/62) had publicly available results for all clinical trials supporting their FDA approval and 67% (39/58) had public results for trials in patients by 6 months after their FDA approval;58% (32/55) were FDAAA compliant. Large companies were significantly more transparent than non-large companies (overall median transparency score of 95% (IQR 91–100) vs 59% (IQR 41–70), p<0.001), attributable to higher FDAAA compliance (median of 100% (IQR 88–100) vs 57% (0–100), p=0.01) and better data sharing (median of 100% (IQR 80–100) vs 20% (IQR 20–40), p<0.01). No significant differences were observed by company location or product type.ConclusionsIt was feasible to apply the GPS transparency measures and ranking tool to non-large companies and biologics. Large companies are significantly more transparent than non-large companies, driven by better data sharing procedures and implementation of FDAAA trial reporting requirements. Greater research transparency is needed, particularly among non-large companies, to maximise the benefits of research for patient care and scientific innovation.

Lancet ; 398(10317): 2186-2192, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521624


Since the first case of COVID-19 was identified in the USA in January, 2020, over 46 million people in the country have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several COVID-19 vaccines have received emergency use authorisations from the US Food and Drug Administration, with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine receiving full approval on Aug 23, 2021. When paired with masking, physical distancing, and ventilation, COVID-19 vaccines are the best intervention to sustainably control the pandemic. However, surveys have consistently found that a sizeable minority of US residents do not plan to get a COVID-19 vaccine. The most severe consequence of an inadequate uptake of COVID-19 vaccines has been sustained community transmission (including of the delta [B.1.617.2] variant, a surge of which began in July, 2021). Exacerbating the direct impact of the virus, a low uptake of COVID-19 vaccines will prolong the social and economic repercussions of the pandemic on families and communities, especially low-income and minority ethnic groups, into 2022, or even longer. The scale and challenges of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign are unprecedented. Therefore, through a series of recommendations, we present a coordinated, evidence-based education, communication, and behavioural intervention strategy that is likely to improve the success of COVID-19 vaccine programmes across the USA.

Behavior Therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/transmission , Communication , Immunization Programs , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Politics , United States , Vaccination Refusal/psychology
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1481-1488, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381323


California has focused on health equity in the state's COVID-19 reopening plan. The Blueprint for a Safer Economy assigns each of California's 58 counties into 1 of 4 tiers based on 2 metrics: test positivity rate and adjusted case rate. To advance to the next less-restrictive tier, counties must meet that tier's test positivity and adjusted case rate thresholds. In addition, counties must have a plan for targeted investments within disadvantaged communities, and counties with more than 106 000 residents must meet an equity metric. California's explicit incorporation of health equity into its reopening plan underscores the interrelated fate of its residents during the COVID-19 pandemic and creates incentives for action. This article evaluates the benefits and challenges of this novel health equity focus, and outlines recommendations for other US states to address disparities in their reopening plans.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Equity/standards , Health Promotion/standards , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , California , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Humans
N Engl J Med ; 383(5):E26, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-766272