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2.
New Microbes New Infect ; : 101048, 2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095856
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(11): 1315-1320, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) utilizes CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) and CD66e or CEACAM5 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5) receptors for cell infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) play a critical role in mounting adaptive immune response against the virus. This study was performed to assess the expression of CD26 and CD66e on PBMCs and their susceptibility to MERS-CoV infection. METHODS: Surface expression of CD26 and CD66e receptors on PBMCs from MERS-CoV patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 20) was assessed by flow cytometry and the soluble forms were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MERS-CoV UpE and Orf1a genes in PBMCs were detected by using Altona diagnostics reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit. RESULTS: Mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of CD66e was significantly higher on CD4 + lymphocytes (462.4 ± 64.35 vs 325.1 ± 19.69; p < 0.05) and CD8 + lymphocytes (533.8 ± 55.32 vs 392.4 ± 37.73; p < 0.04) from patients with MERS-CoV infection compared to the normal controls. No difference in MFI for CD66e was observed on monocytes (381.8 ± 40.34 vs 266.8 ± 20.6; p = 0.3) between the patients and controls. Soluble form of CD66e among MERS-CoV patients was also higher than the normal controls (mean= 338.7 ± 58.75 vs 160.7 ± 29.49 ng/mL; p < 0.01). Surface expression of CD26 on PBMCs and its soluble form were no different between the groups. MERS-CoV was detected by RT-PCR in 16/20 (80%) patients from whole blood, among them 8 patients were tested in PBMCs, 4/8 (50%) patients were positive. CONCLUSION: Increased expression levels of CD66e (CEACAM5) may contribute to increased susceptibility of PBMCs to MERS-CoV infection and disease progression.

5.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 50: 102432, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042162

ABSTRACT

In May 2022, several European countries including Spain reported cluster of monkeypox cases with no apparent travel to endemic areas. We report a suspected case of monkeypox in Saudi Arabia in a healthy 30-year-old man who returned from Spain and the Netherlands with fever and rash for six days duration during the same time period of the outbreak, he was suspected to have monkeypox but was ultimately diagnosed with chickenpox.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Exanthema , Monkeypox , Adult , Male , Humans , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Travel
6.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 49: 102416, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036575

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, infection prevention and control policies have significantly differed between different public health organization and have been complicated by the emergence of new data on Variants of Concern (VOC). Here, we try to highlight the different strategies for isolating patients with COVID-19 and point-out the evolution of such strategies over time, mainly for mildly or moderately severe SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 944165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009892

ABSTRACT

Background: With the rapid surge of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, we aimed to assess parents' perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccines and the psychological antecedents of vaccinations during the first month of the Omicron spread. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey in Saudi Arabia was conducted (December 20, 2021-January 7, 2022). Convenience sampling was used to invite participants through several social media platforms, including WhatsApp, Twitter, and email lists. We utilized the validated 5C Scale, which evaluates five psychological factors influencing vaccination intention and behavior: confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, and collective responsibility. Results: Of the 1,340 respondents, 61.3% received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine, while 35% received an additional booster dose. Fify four percentage were unwilling to vaccinate their children aged 5-11, and 57.2% were unwilling to give the additional booster vaccine to children aged 12-18. Respondents had higher scores on the construct of collective responsibility, followed by calculation, confidence, complacency, and finally constraints. Confidence in vaccines was associated with willingness to vaccinate children and positively correlated with collective responsibility (p < 0.010). Complacency about COVID-19 was associated with unwillingness to vaccinate older children (12-18 years) and with increased constraints and calculation scores (p < 0.010). While increasing constraints scores did not correlate with decreased willingness to vaccinate children (p = 0.140), they did correlate negatively with confidence and collective responsibility (p < 0.010). Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the relationship between the five antecedents of vaccination, the importance of confidence in vaccines, and a sense of collective responsibility in parents' intention to vaccinate their children. Campaigns addressing constraints and collective responsibility could help influence the public's vaccination behavior.

12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 50: 102446, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008151

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 had caused as a global pandemic and resulted in enormous burdens. In addition, faced with the proliferation of SARS-CoV 2 variant strains, this pandemic is continuing unremitting. The world seemed to focus primarily on middle-aged and elderly deaths, however the interest of the impact of COVID-19 on children is limited. Scientists have estimated that orphanhood and caregiver death related to COVID-19 had increased twice in the last six months compared with the first 14 months of the pandemic. Orphans face directly the health consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child, Orphaned , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006251

ABSTRACT

Background: Monkeypox virus re-surged in May 2022 as a new potential global health threat, with outbreaks bursting in multiple countries across different continents. This study was conducted in Saudi Arabia during the first month following the WHO announcement of the Monkeypox outbreak, to assess healthcare workers (HCWs) perceptions of, worries concerning, and vaccine acceptance for, Monkeypox, in light of the resolving COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted between 27 May and 10 June 2022, in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected on: HCWs' sociodemographic and job-related characteristics; COVID-19 infection status; and worries concerning Monkeypox, compared to COVID-19 and its sources; as well as their perceptions and awareness of, and advocacy for, supporting Monkeypox vaccination. Results: A total of 1130 HCWs completed the survey, of which 41.6% have already developed COVID-19. However, 56.5% were more concerned about COVID-19 compared to Monkeypox, while the rest were more worried about Monkeypox disease. The main cause for concern among 68.8% of the participants was the development of another worldwide pandemic, post-COVID-19, followed by their concern of either themselves or their families contracting the infection (49.6%). Most HCWs (60%) rated their level of self-awareness of Monkeypox disease as moderate to high. Males, and those who had previously developed COVID-19, were significantly less likely to worry about Monkeypox. The worry about Monkeypox developing into a pandemic, and the perception of Monkeypox being a severe disease, correlated significantly positively with the odds of high worry concerning the disease. The major predictors of participants' advocacy for vaccination against Monkeypox disease were: those who had developed COVID-19 previously; and those who supported tighter infection control measures (than those currently used) to combat the disease. A total of 74.2% of the surveyed HCWs perceived that they needed to read more about Monkeypox disease. Conclusions: Approximately half of the HCWs in this study were more concerned about Monkeypox disease than COVID-19, particularly regarding its possible progression into a new pandemic, during the first month following the WHO's Monkeypox international alert. In addition, the majority of participants were in favor of applying tighter infection prevention measures to combat the disease. The current study highlights areas requiring attention for healthcare administrators regarding HCWs' perceptions and preparedness for Monkeypox, especially in the event of a local or international pandemic.

14.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 49: 102426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monkeypox re-emerged in May 2022 as another global health threat. This study assessed the public's perception, worries, and vaccine acceptance for Monkeypox and COVID-19 during the first month of WHO announcement. METHODS: A large-scale, cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 27 and June 5, 2022, in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, previous infection with COVID-19, worry levels regarding Monkeypox compared to COVID-19, awareness, and perceptions of Monkeypox, and vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: Among the 1546 participants, most respondents (62%) were more worried about COVID-19 than Monkeypox. Respondents aged 45 years and above and those with a university degree or higher had lower odds of agreement with Monkeypox vaccination (OR 0.871, p-value 0.006, OR 0.719, p-value <0.001), respectively. Respondents with moderate to a high level of self and family commitment to infection control precautionary measures and those who expressed self and family worry of Monkeypox infection had significantly higher odds of vaccination agreement (OR 1.089 p-value = 0.047, OR1.395 p-value = 0.003) respectively. On the other hand, respondents who previously developed COVID-19 were significantly more worried about the Monkeypox disease (1.30 times more, p-value = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Worry levels amongst the public are higher from COVID-19 than Monkeypox. Perception of Monkeypox as a dangerous and virulent disease, worry from contracting the disease, and high commitment to infection precautionary measures were predictors of agreement with Monkeypox vaccination. While advanced age and high education level are predictors of low agreement with vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
17.
IJID Reg ; 1: 20-26, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899783

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a threat to any healthcare system. Vaccine hesitancy can increase infection risk among HCWs and patients, while also impacting the patients' decision to accept the vaccine. Our study assessed COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among HCWs in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: Using purposive sampling, UAE HCWs registered in the Abu Dhabi Department of Health (DOH) email database were invited to complete an online questionnaire, between November 2020 and February 2021, to understand COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy, and trust in sources of information. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the associations between demographic factors with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Results: Of the 2832 HCWs who participated in the study, 1963 (69.9%) were aged between 25 and 44 years and 1748 (61.7%) were females. Overall, 2525 (89.2%) of the HCW population said they would accept a COVID-19 vaccine. HCWs who were 55+ years of age, male, and physicians/surgeons were more likely to accept a COVID-19 vaccine (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5-6.2, p = 0.002; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4, p < 0.001; and OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9; p = 0.01, respectively). The most reliable sources for COVID-19 vaccine information were the UAE government (91.6%), healthcare providers (86.8%), health officials (86.3%), and the World Health Organization (WHO; 81.1%). Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was high among the UAE HCW population. Several factors were identified as significant determinants of vaccine acceptance. UAE healthcare authorities can utilize these findings to develop public health messaging campaigns for HCWs to best address COVID-19 vaccine concerns - particularly when the government is vaccinating its general population.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic betacoronaviruses and a global public health concern. Better undersetting of the immune responses to MERS-CoV is needed to characterize the correlates of protection and durability of the immunity and to aid in developing preventative and therapeutic interventions. While MERS-CoV-specific circulating antibodies could persist for several years post-recovery, their waning raises concerns about their durability and role in protection. Nonetheless, memory B and T cells could provide long-lasting protective immunity despite the serum antibodies levels. METHODS: Serological and flow cytometric analysis of MERS-CoV-specific immune responses were performed on samples collected from a cohort of recovered individuals who required intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well as hospital or home isolation several years after infection to characterize the longevity and quality of humoral and cellular immune responses. RESULTS: Our data showed that MERS-CoV infection could elicit robust long-lasting virus-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as T and B cell responses up to 6.9 years post-infection regardless of disease severity or need for ICU admission. Apart from the persistent high antibody titers, this response was characterized by B cell subsets with antibody-independent functions as demonstrated by their ability to produce TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ cytokines in response to antigen stimulation. Furthermore, virus-specific activation of memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cell subsets from MERS-recovered patients resulted in secretion of high levels of TNF-α, IL-17 and IFN-γ. CONCLUSIONS: MERS-CoV infection could elicit robust long-lasting virus-specific humoral and cellular responses.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855847

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron spread fast globally and became the predominant variant in many countries. Resumption of public regular life activities, including in-person schooling, presented parents with new sources of worry. Thus, it is important to study parental worry about the Omicron variant, willingness to vaccinate their children, and knowledge about school-based COVID-19 precautionary measures. Methods: A national, cross-sectional, pilot-validated online questionnaire targeting parents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was distributed between 31 December 2021, and 7 January 2022. The survey included sociodemographic, COVID-19 infection data, parental and children vaccination status, attitudes towards booster vaccine, parents' Omicron-related perceptions and worries, and attitude towards in-person schooling. Results: A total of 1340 participants completed the survey, most (65.3%) of whom were mothers. Of the parents, 96.3% either received two or three doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Only 32.1% of the parents were willing to vaccinate their young children (5-11 years of age). In relation to their children 12-18 years of age, 48% had already had them vaccinated, 31% were planning to vaccinate them, and 42.8% were willing to administer a booster dose. Only 16% were more worried about the Omicron variant compared to the Delta variant. Residents of western KSA were more worried about Omicron compared to Delta. Parents worried about the Omicron variant and male participants were significantly less aware of school-based COVID-19 precautionary measures. Parents with post-graduate degrees and those having more children were significantly more inclined to send their children to school even if COVID-19 outbreaks could occur in schools, while parents who were more worried about the Omicron variant and were more committed to infection prevention measures were significantly less inclined to do so. Conclusions: Overall, parents had lower worry levels about the Omicron variant compared to the Delta variant. They had a higher willingness to vaccinate their older children compared to the younger ones. In addition, our cohort of parents showed high willingness to send their children to schools and trusted the school-based preventative measures. These findings can inform policy makers when considering school related decisions during the current or future public health crises.

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