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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330234

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has demonstrated increased transmissibility and ability to escape natural and vaccine-induced immunity. We aimed to characterize the duration of Omicron’s shedding by comparing viral isolation to rapid antigen test (RAT) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional study of 30 vaccinated individuals with mild COVID-19 to evaluate the ability to infect Vero cells at day 5, 7, 10 and 14 since symptoms onset. Viral growth was observed in 46% and 20% of respiratory samples at day 5 and 7, respectively, while all were negative from day 10. RAT showed 100% of sensitivity during the first 7 days of symptoms compared to viral isolation, being a better infectivity predictor than RT-PCR Ct values. In conclusion, immunocompetent vaccinated individuals with Omicron infection can still transmit the virus on the 7th day of symptoms. This data may impact decisions on end-isolation protocols for mild COVID-19.

2.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 64: e19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725113

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a fundamental tool to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and to limit the COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with multiple mutations has raised serious concerns about the ability of neutralizing antibody responses elicited by prior vaccination to effectively combat these variants. The neutralizing capacity against the Gamma, Delta and Omicron variants of sera from individuals immunized with the CoronaVac vaccine remains incompletely determined. The present study evaluated 41 health care workers at the Faculdade de Medicina of the Universidade de Sao Paulo, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, naive to previous SARS- CoV-2 infection, who were vaccinated with two doses of the CoronaVac SARS-CoV-2 vaccine 28 days apart. Neutralizing antibody levels against the Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants were measured at 32 and 186 days after the second vaccination. We also measured neutralizing antibodies against Omicron in 34 of these individuals following a subsequent booster immunization with the Pfizer vaccine. Quantification of neutralizing antibodies was performed using the Cytopathic Effect-based Virus Neutralization test. Neutralization antibody activity against the Gamma, Delta and Omicron variants was observed in 78.0%, 65.9% and 58.5% of serum samples, respectively, obtained at a mean of 32 days after the second immunization. This decreased to 17.1%, 24.4% and 2.4% of sera having activity against Delta, Gamma and Omicron, respectively, at 186 days post-vaccination. The median neutralizing antibody titers at 32 days were 1:40, 1:20 and 1:20 against Gamma, Delta and Omicron, respectively, and decreased to an undetectable median level against all variants at the later time. A booster immunization with the Pfizer vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against Omicron in 85% of subjects tested 60 days after vaccination. We conclude that two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine results in limited protection of short duration against the Gamma, Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants. A booster dose with the Pfizer vaccine induced antibody neutralizing activity against Omicron in most patients which was measurable 60 days after the booster.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Vaccination
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315929

ABSTRACT

Background: The Gamma variant has been considered the predominant SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Brazil during the first half of 2021. We aimed to characterise the clinical presentation of COVID-19 caused by the Gamma variant in comparison with strains that are not variants of concern (non-VoC).Method: We performed a prospective cohort study including symptomatic COVID-19 cases among healthcare workers from January 22 to May 15, 2021. Positive samples for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR underwent whole genome sequencing. COVID-19 symptoms, caused by the Gamma variant or non-VoC, and risk factors for Gamma variant infection were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analyses.Findings: We included 423 COVID-19 cases, of which 415 (98%) with mild disease. One hundred and seventy-five (41%) patients had been fully immunised, of which 173/175 (99%) had received CoronaVac. There were 313 (74%) Gamma variant cases and 110 (26%) non-VoC cases. Hyposmia/anosmia and dysgeusia were present in 129 (30%) and 108 (26%) of cases, respectively. Lower frequencies of hyposmia/anosmia (OR=0.304, p <0.001) and dysgeusia (OR=0.385, p =0.011) were the only symptoms significantly associated with Gamma variant infection. COVID-19 immunisation, previous COVID-19 and age were not associated with Gamma variant infection.Interpretation: The increase in Gamma variant cases should raise the awareness that COVID-19 may present more often with cold-like symptoms because of a decreased frequency of hyposmia/anosmia and dysgeusia.Funding: Supported by the Itau Unibanco “Todos pela saúde” program”.Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the Hospital’s Ethics Committee (CAAE: 42708721.0.0000.0068).

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309613

ABSTRACT

The association between coronaviruses and central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating lesions has been previously shown. However, no case has been described of an association between the novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and CNS demyelinating disease so far. SARS-COV-2 was previously detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample of a patient with encephalitis. However, the virus identity was not confirmed by deep sequencing of SARS-COV-2 detected in the CSF. Here, we report a case of a patient with mild respiratory symptoms and neurological manifestations compatible with Clinically Isolated Syndrome. The viral genome of SARS-COV-2 was detected and sequenced in CSF with 99.74 to 100% similarity between the patient virus and worldwide sequences. This report suggests a possible association of SARS COV-2 infection with neurological symptoms of demyelinating disease, even in the absence of relevant upper respiratory tract infection signs.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261853, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622346

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). "Extraction-less" or "direct" real time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a transparent and accessible qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that direct RT-PCR assay methods can be clearly translated across sites utilizing readily available equipment and expertise and are thus a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Specimen Handling/methods
6.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3548, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this preliminary study we investigated cellular and humoral immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigens in blood samples from 14 recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and compared them to those in samples from 12 uninfected/unvaccinated volunteers. METHODS: Cellular immunity was assessed by intracellular detection of IFN-γ in CD3+ T lymphocytes after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1), nucleocapsid (NC), or receptor-binding domain (RBD) recombinant proteins or overlapping peptide pools covering the sequence of SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane and nucleocapsid regions. The humoral response was examined by ELISAs and/or chemiluminescence assays for the presence of serum IgG antibodies directed to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. RESULTS: We observed differences between humoral and cellular immune profiles in response to stimulation with the same proteins. Assays of IgG antibodies directed to SARS-CoV-2 NC, RBD and S1/S2 recombinant proteins were able to differentiate convalescent from uninfected/unvaccinated groups. Cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 protein stimuli did not exhibit a specific response, as T cells from both individuals with no history of contact with SARS-CoV-2 and from recovered donors were able to produce IFN-γ. CONCLUSIONS: Determination of the cellular immune response to stimulation with a pool of SARS-CoV-2 peptides but not with SARS-CoV-2 proteins is able to distinguish convalescent individuals from unexposed individuals. Regarding the humoral immune response, the screening for serum IgG antibodies directed to SARS-CoV-2 proteins has been shown to be specific for the response of recovered individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Recombinant Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295486

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). “Extraction-less” or “direct” real time–reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is an open-access qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that open-access, direct RT-PCR assays are a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.

8.
Prenat Diagn ; 41(8): 998-1008, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify the potential for and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission. METHODS: Symptomatic pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis in whom PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at delivery using maternal serum and at least one of the biological samples: cord blood (CB), amniotic fluid (AF), colostrum and/or oropharyngeal swab (OPS) of the neonate. The association of parameters with maternal, AF and/or CB positivity and the influence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in AF and/or CB on neonatal outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: Overall 73.4% (80/109) were admitted in hospital due to COVID-19, 22.9% needed intensive care and there were four maternal deaths. Positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in 14.7% of maternal blood, 13.9% of AF, 6.7% of CB, 2.1% of colostrum and 3.7% of OPS samples. The interval between COVID-19 symptoms and delivery was inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the maternal blood (p = 0.002) and in the AF and/or CB (p = 0.049). Maternal viremia was associated with positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in AF and/or CB (p = 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the compartments was not associated with neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission is possible in pregnant women with COVID-19 and a shorter interval between maternal symptoms and delivery is an influencing factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Colostrum/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(5): e1214-e1218, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455274

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and risk factors among 4987 oligo/asymptomatic healthcare workers; seroprevalence was 14% and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were lower educational level (aOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.03-3.60), using public transport to work (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.07-2.62), and working in cleaning or security (aOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118003, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442360

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns on the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, its infectivity from the environment and, the relevance of transmission via environmental compartments. During 31 weeks, water samples were collected from a heavily contaminated stream going through an urban, underprivileged community without sewage collection. Our results showed a statistically significant correlation between cases of COVID-19 and SARS in the community, and SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in the water. Based on the model, if the concentrations of SARS-CoV-RNA (N1 and N2 target regions) increase 10 times, there is an expected increase of 104% [95%CI: (62-157%)] and 92% [95%CI: (51-143%)], respectively, in the number of cases of COVID-19 and SARS. We believe that differences in concentration of the virus in the environment reflect the epidemiological status in the community, which may be important information for surveillance and controlling dissemination in areas with vulnerable populations and poor sanitation. None of the samples were found infectious based cultures. Our results may be applicable globally as similar communities exist worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rivers/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Urban Population , Vulnerable Populations
13.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110436, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386311

ABSTRACT

Dental professionals work closely with patients and present an increased risk of person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the use of ultrasonic scalers, air-water syringes, and slow and high-speed handpieces, which are common in the dental office, generate spatter and aerosol. The use of preprocedural mouthrinses has been proposed to reduce the viral load in saliva and oropharyngeal tissues, thus decreasing viral load in dental aerosol. Although some mouthrinses demonstrates an antiviral effect, there is limited evidence about the clinical efficacy of any mouthrinse in the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 in the dental aerosol. We hypothesized that mouthrinses may reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the oropharynx and its fluids reducing viral load in dental aerosol. The potential use of mouthrinses is discussed, along with proposal of in vitro and clinical studies, in order to evaluate this hypothesis. If this hypothesis holds true, dental professionals and patients may benefit from the routine use of preprocedural mouthrinses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Models, Biological , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Aerosols , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dental Auxiliaries , Dentists , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saliva/virology
15.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118003, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364007

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns on the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, its infectivity from the environment and, the relevance of transmission via environmental compartments. During 31 weeks, water samples were collected from a heavily contaminated stream going through an urban, underprivileged community without sewage collection. Our results showed a statistically significant correlation between cases of COVID-19 and SARS in the community, and SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in the water. Based on the model, if the concentrations of SARS-CoV-RNA (N1 and N2 target regions) increase 10 times, there is an expected increase of 104% [95%CI: (62-157%)] and 92% [95%CI: (51-143%)], respectively, in the number of cases of COVID-19 and SARS. We believe that differences in concentration of the virus in the environment reflect the epidemiological status in the community, which may be important information for surveillance and controlling dissemination in areas with vulnerable populations and poor sanitation. None of the samples were found infectious based cultures. Our results may be applicable globally as similar communities exist worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rivers/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Urban Population , Vulnerable Populations
16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341652

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnostics is pivotal to curb SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and saliva has emerged as a practical alternative to naso/oropharyngeal (NOP) specimens. We aimed to develop a direct RT-LAMP (reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification) workflow for viral detection in saliva, and to provide more information regarding its potential in curbing COVID-19 transmission. Clinical and contrived specimens were used to optimize formulations and sample processing protocols. Salivary viral load was determined in symptomatic patients to evaluate the clinical performance of the test and to characterize saliva based on age, gender and time from onset of symptoms. Our workflow achieved an overall sensitivity of 77.2% (n = 90), with 93.2% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and 0.895 Kappa for specimens containing >102 copies/µL (n = 77). Further analyses in saliva showed that viral load peaks in the first days of symptoms and decreases afterwards, and that viral load is ~10 times lower in females compared to males, and declines following symptom onset. NOP RT-PCR data did not yield relevant associations. This work suggests that saliva reflects the transmission dynamics better than NOP specimens, and reveals gender differences that may reflect higher transmission by males. This saliva RT-LAMP workflow can be applied to track viral spread and, to maximize detection, testing should be performed immediately after symptoms are presented, especially in females.

17.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(9): 1197-1199, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152222

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and risk factors among 1,996 oligo/asymptomatic health care workers. The seroprevalence was 5.5% and risk factors associated with being infected with SARS-CoV-2 was professional category of cleaning (adj odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-4.44, P: .023) and male gender (adj odds ratio: 1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.32, P: .035).Working at dedicated COVID-19 units (high-risk group) was not an independent risk factor for seropositivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 320-328, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065182

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic increased global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) and resulted in shortages. The study evaluated the re-use of surgical masks and respirators by analysing their performance and safety before and after reprocessing using the following methods: oven, thermal drying, autoclave, and hydrogen peroxide plasma vapour. METHODS: In total, 45 surgical masks and 69 respirators were decontaminated. Visual integrity, air permeability, burst resistance, pressure differential and particulate filtration efficiency of new and decontaminated surgical masks and respirators were evaluated. In addition, 14 used respirators were analysed after work shifts before and after decontamination using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culturing. Finally, reprocessed respirators were evaluated by users in terms of functionality and comfort. RESULTS: Oven decontamination (75 °C for 45 min) was found to be the simplest decontamination method. Physical and filtration assays indicated that all reprocessing methods were safe after one cycle. Oven decontamination maintained the characteristics of surgical masks and respirators for at least five reprocessing cycles. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in two of the 14 used respirators. Four respirators submitted to viral culture were PCR-negative and culture-negative. Reprocessed respirators used in work shifts were evaluated positively by users, even after three decontamination cycles. CONCLUSION: Oven decontamination is a safe method for reprocessing surgical masks and respirators for at least five cycles, and is feasible in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Masks/virology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ventilators, Mechanical/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Hospitals , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
J Virol Methods ; 290: 114064, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of a nucleoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The ELISA was based on serum IgG reactivity to a 46-kDa protein derived from the recombinant SARS-CoV2 nucleoprotein. Assay sensitivity was assessed using serum samples from 134 COVID-19 confirmed cases obtained > 15 days after symptom onset. Specificity was determined by testing sera from 94 healthy controls. Cross-reactivity was evaluated with sera from 96 individuals with previous dengue or zika virus-confirmed infections, with 44 sera from individuals with confirmed infections to other respiratory viruses or with bacterial and fungal infections that cause pneumonia and with 40 sera negative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein by commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: The majority of subjects were male and ≥ 60 years old. Assay sensitivity was 90.3 % (95 % confidence interval 84.1 %-94.2 %) and specificity was 97.9 % (92.6 %-99.4 %). There was no cross-reactivity with sera from individuals diagnosed with dengue, zika virus, influenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, seasonal coronavirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus (S. aureus and coagulase-negative), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The level of concordance of our test with results from commercial ELISA kits was 100 %. CONCLUSION: The nucleoprotein-based ELISA was specific for detection of IgG anti-nucleoprotein antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. It utilizes a frequently employed low expense assay protocol and is easier to perform than other currently available commercial SARS-CoV2 antibody detection tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706992

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 (caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) epidemic started in Wuhan (Hubei Province, China) in mid-December 2019 and quickly spread across the world as a pandemic. As a key to tracing the disease and to implement strategies aimed at breaking the chain of disease transmission, extensive testing for SARS-CoV-2 was suggested. Although nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs are the most commonly used biological samples for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, they have a number of limitations related to sample collection and healthcare personnel safety. In this context, saliva is emerging as a promising alternative to nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs for COVID-19 diagnosis and monitoring. Saliva collection, being a non-invasive approach with possibility for self-collection, circumvents to a great extent the limitations associated with the use of nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs. In addition, various salivary biomarkers including the salivary metabolomics offer a high promise to be useful for better understanding of COVID-19 and possibly in the identification of patients with various degrees of severity, including asymptomatic carriers. This review summarises the clinical and scientific basis for the potential use of saliva for COVID-19 diagnosis and disease monitoring. Additionally, we discuss saliva-based biomarkers and their potential clinical and research applications related to COVID-19.

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