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1.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(9):4828, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1809943

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) commonly show abnormalities of liver tests (LTs) of undetermined cause. Considering drugs as tentative culprits, the current systematic review searched for published COVID-19 cases with suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and established diagnosis using the diagnostic algorithm of RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method). Data worldwide on DILI cases assessed by RUCAM in COVID-19 patients were sparse. A total of 6/200 reports with initially suspected 996 DILI cases in COVID-19 patients and using all RUCAM-based DILI cases allowed for a clear description of clinical features of RUCAM-based DILI cases among COVID-19 patients: (1) The updated RUCAM published in 2016 was equally often used as the original RUCAM of 1993, with both identifying DILI and other liver diseases as confounders;(2) RUCAM also worked well in patients treated with up to 18 drugs and provided for most DILI cases a probable or highly probable causality level for drugs;(3) DILI was preferentially caused by antiviral drugs given empirically due to their known therapeutic efficacy in other virus infections;(4) hepatocellular injury was more often reported than cholestatic or mixed injury;(5) maximum LT values were found for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 1.541 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 1.076 U/L;(6) the ALT/AST ratio was variable and ranged from 0.4 to 1.4;(7) the mean or median age of the COVID-19 patients with DILI ranged from 54.3 to 56 years;(8) the ratio of males to females was 1.8–3.4:1;(9) outcome was favorable for most patients, likely due to careful selection of the drugs and quick cessation of drug treatment with emerging DILI, but it was fatal in 19 patients;(10) countries reporting RUCAM-based DILI cases in COVID-19 patients included China, India, Japan, Montenegro, and Spain;(11) robust estimation of the percentage contribution of RUCAM-based DILI for the increased LTs in COVID-19 patients is outside of the current scope. In conclusion, RUCAM-based DILI with its clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients and its classification as a confounding variable is now well defined, requiring a new correct description of COVID-19 features by removing DILI characteristics as confounders.

2.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(8): 3830-3853, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410783

ABSTRACT

Computer vision and artificial intelligence applications in medicine are becoming increasingly important day by day, especially in the field of image technology. In this paper we cover different artificial intelligence advances that tackle some of the most important worldwide medical problems such as cardiology, cancer, dermatology, neurodegenerative disorders, respiratory problems, and gastroenterology. We show how both areas have resulted in a large variety of methods that range from enhancement, detection, segmentation and characterizations of anatomical structures and lesions to complete systems that automatically identify and classify several diseases in order to aid clinical diagnosis and treatment. Different imaging modalities such as computer tomography, magnetic resonance, radiography, ultrasound, dermoscopy and microscopy offer multiple opportunities to build automatic systems that help medical diagnosis, taking advantage of their own physical nature. However, these imaging modalities also impose important limitations to the design of automatic image analysis systems for diagnosis aid due to their inherent characteristics such as signal to noise ratio, contrast and resolutions in time, space and wavelength. Finally, we discuss future trends and challenges that computer vision and artificial intelligence must face in the coming years in order to build systems that are able to solve more complex problems that assist medical diagnosis.

4.
Ann Hepatol ; 24: 100338, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108041

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: As of January 2021, over 88 million people have been infected with COVID-19. Almost two million people have died of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A high SOFA score and a D-Dimer >1 µg/mL identifies patients with high risk of mortality. High lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels on admission are associated with severity and mortality. Different degrees of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) abnormalities have been reported in these patients, its association with a mortality risk remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between LDH and in-hospital mortality in Mexican patients admitted with COVID-19. MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed a retrospective multi-centre cohort study with 377 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in three centres in Mexico City, Mexico, who were ≥18 years old and died or were discharged between April 1 and May 31, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 377 patients were evaluated, 298 (79.1%) patients were discharged, and 79 (20.9%) patients died during hospitalization. Non-survivors were older, with a median age of 46.7 ± 25.7 years old, most patients were male. An ALT > 61 U/l (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.27-9.37; p = 0.015), C-reactive protein (CRP) > 231 mg/l (OR 4.71, 95% CI 2.35-9.46; p = 0.000), LDH > 561 U/l (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.40-6.55; p = 0.005) were associated with higher odds for in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that higher levels of LDH, CRP, and ALT are associated with higher in-hospital mortality risk in Mexican patients admitted with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Enzyme Tests , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
5.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 621-637, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing. Except for lung injury, it is possible that COVID-19 patients develop liver injury. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of abnormal liver biochemical tests in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang databases were searched. The incidence of abnormal liver biochemical tests, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL), and albumin (ALB), was pooled. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated to explore the association of abnormal liver biochemical tests with severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were included. The pooled incidence of any abnormal liver biochemical indicator at admission and during hospitalization was 27.2% and 36%, respectively. Among the abnormal liver biochemical indicators observed at admission, abnormal ALB was the most common, followed by GGT, AST, ALT, TBIL, and ALP (39.8%, 35.8%, 21.8%, 20.4%, 8.8%, and 4.7%). Among the abnormal liver biochemical indicators observed during hospitalization, abnormal ALT was more common than AST and TBIL (38.4%, 28.1%, and 23.2%). Severe and/or critical patients had a significantly higher pooled incidence of abnormal liver biochemical indicators at admission than mild and/or moderate patients. Non-survivors had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal liver biochemical indicators than survivors (RR = 1.34, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal liver biochemical tests are common in COVID-19 patients. Liver biochemical indicators are closely related to the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Hepatic Insufficiency , Liver Function Tests/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hepatic Insufficiency/diagnosis , Hepatic Insufficiency/epidemiology , Hepatic Insufficiency/virology , Humans , Incidence , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods
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