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1.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294471

ABSTRACT

Summary Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces B-cell responses that continue to evolve for at least one year. During that time, memory B cells express increasingly broad and potent antibodies that are resistant to mutations found in variants of concern 1 . As a result, vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines produces high levels of plasma neutralizing activity against all variants tested 1, 2 . Here, we examine memory B cell evolution 5 months after vaccination with either Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer- BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccines in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals. Between prime and boost, memory B cells produce antibodies that evolve increased neutralizing activity, but there is no further increase in potency or breadth thereafter. Instead, memory B cells that emerge 5 months after vaccination of naïve individuals express antibodies that are similar to those that dominate the initial response. While individual memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination, the overall neutralizing potency of plasma is greater following vaccination. These results suggest that boosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines will increase plasma neutralizing activity but may not produce antibodies with breadth equivalent to those obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.

2.
Nature ; 600(7889): 517-522, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454790

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces B cell responses that continue to evolve for at least a year. During that time, memory B cells express increasingly broad and potent antibodies that are resistant to mutations found in variants of concern1. As a result, vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines produces high levels of plasma neutralizing activity against all variants tested1,2. Here we examine memory B cell evolution five months after vaccination with either Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals. Between prime and boost, memory B cells produce antibodies that evolve increased neutralizing activity, but there is no further increase in potency or breadth thereafter. Instead, memory B cells that emerge five months after vaccination of naive individuals express antibodies that are similar to those that dominate the initial response. While individual memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination, the overall neutralizing potency of plasma is greater following vaccination. These results suggest that boosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines will increase plasma neutralizing activity but may not produce antibodies with equivalent breadth to those obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Young Adult
3.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387677

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for an ongoing pandemic that has affected millions of individuals around the globe. To gain further understanding of the immune response in recovered individuals, we measured T cell responses in paired samples obtained an average of 1.3 and 6.1 mo after infection from 41 individuals. The data indicate that recovered individuals show persistent polyfunctional SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific memory that could contribute to rapid recall responses. Recovered individuals also show enduring alterations in relative overall numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells, including expression of activation/exhaustion markers, and cell division.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Young Adult
4.
Nature ; 591(7851): 639-644, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065898

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 78 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.7 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with the development of variable levels of antibodies with neutralizing activity, which can protect against infection in animal models1,2. Antibody levels decrease with time, but, to our knowledge, the nature and quality of the memory B cells that would be required to produce antibodies upon reinfection has not been examined. Here we report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We find that titres of IgM and IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 decrease significantly over this time period, with IgA being less affected. Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by fivefold in pseudotype virus assays. By contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remains unchanged at 6.2 months after infection. Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies that they express have greater somatic hypermutation, resistance to RBD mutations and increased potency, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response. Immunofluorescence and PCR analyses of intestinal biopsies obtained from asymptomatic individuals at 4 months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revealed the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids and immunoreactivity in the small bowel of 7 out of 14 individuals. We conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biopsy , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Intestines/immunology , Middle Aged , Mutation , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 25-35, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caught the world unprepared, with no prevention or treatment strategies in place. In addition to the efforts to develop an effective vaccine, alternative approaches are essential to control this pandemic, which will most likely require multiple readily available solutions. Among them, monoclonal anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies have been isolated by multiple laboratories in record time facilitated by techniques that were first pioneered for HIV-1 antibody discovery. Here, we summarize how lessons learned from anti-HIV-1 antibody discovery have provided fundamental knowledge for the rapid development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RECENT FINDINGS: Research laboratories that successfully identified potent broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 have harnessed their antibody discovery techniques to isolate novel potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, which have efficacy in animal models. These antibodies represent promising clinical candidates for treatment or prevention of COVID-19. SUMMARY: Passive transfer of antibodies is a promising approach when the elicitation of protective immune responses is difficult, as in the case of HIV-1 infection. Antibodies can also play a significant role in post-exposure prophylaxis, in high-risk populations that may not mount robust immune responses after vaccination, and in therapy. We provide a review of the recent approaches used for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody discovery and upcoming challenges in the field.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Biomedical Research/trends , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697830

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing explosive epidemic of COVID-19 disease has generated a need for assays to rapidly and conveniently measure the antiviral activity of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Here, we describe a collection of approaches based on SARS-CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped, single-cycle, replication-defective human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), as well as a replication-competent VSV/SARS-CoV-2 chimeric virus. While each surrogate virus exhibited subtle differences in the sensitivity with which neutralizing activity was detected, the neutralizing activity of both convalescent plasma and human monoclonal antibodies measured using each virus correlated quantitatively with neutralizing activity measured using an authentic SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay. The assays described herein are adaptable to high throughput and are useful tools in the evaluation of serologic immunity conferred by vaccination or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the potency of convalescent plasma or human monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chimera/genetics , Chimera/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology
7.
Nature ; 584(7821): 437-442, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606946

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the infection of millions of people and has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The entry of the virus into cells depends on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. Although there is currently no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection. However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-21-5. Here we report on 149 COVID-19-convalescent individuals. Plasma samples collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal pseudovirus neutralizing titres; titres were less than 50 in 33% of samples, below 1,000 in 79% of samples and only 1% of samples had titres above 5,000. Antibody sequencing revealed the expansion of clones of RBD-specific memory B cells that expressed closely related antibodies in different individuals. Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on the RBD neutralized the virus with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as 2 ng ml-1. In conclusion, most convalescent plasma samples obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity. Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
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