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1.
Nat Metab ; 3(7): 909-922, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279905

ABSTRACT

Exosomes represent a subtype of extracellular vesicle that is released through retrograde transport and fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane1. Although no perfect methodologies currently exist for the high-throughput, unbiased isolation of pure plasma exosomes2,3, investigation of exosome-enriched plasma fractions of extracellular vesicles can confer a glimpse into the endocytic pathway on a systems level. Here we conduct high-coverage lipidomics with an emphasis on sterols and oxysterols, and proteomic analyses of exosome-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs hereafter) from patients at different temporal stages of COVID-19, including the presymptomatic, hyperinflammatory, resolution and convalescent phases. Our study highlights dysregulated raft lipid metabolism that underlies changes in EV lipid membrane anisotropy that alter the exosomal localization of presenilin-1 (PS-1) in the hyperinflammatory phase. We also show in vitro that EVs from different temporal phases trigger distinct metabolic and transcriptional responses in recipient cells, including in alveolar epithelial cells, which denote the primary site of infection, and liver hepatocytes, which represent a distal secondary site. In comparison to the hyperinflammatory phase, EVs from the resolution phase induce opposing effects on eukaryotic translation and Notch signalling. Our results provide insights into cellular lipid metabolism and inter-tissue crosstalk at different stages of COVID-19 and are a resource to increase our understanding of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Lipidomics , Metabolomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Biological Transport , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Fractionation , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Chemical Fractionation , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology/methods , Exosomes/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lipidomics/methods , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 161, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pandemic. It is critical to identify COVID-19 patients who are most likely to develop a severe disease. This study was designed to determine the clinical and epidemiological features of COVID-19 patients associated with the development of pneumonia and factors associated with disease progression. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with etiologically confirmed COVID-19 admitted to PLA General Hospital in Beijing, China from December 27, 2019 to March 12, 2020 were enrolled in this study and followed-up to March 16, 2020. Differences in clinical and laboratory findings between COVID-19 patients with pneumonia and those without were determined by the χ2 test or the Fisher exact test (categorical variables) and independent group t test or Mann-Whitney U test (continuous variables). The Cox proportional hazard model and Generalized Estimating Equations were applied to evaluate factors that predicted the progression of COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean incubation was 8.67 (95% confidence interval, 6.78-10.56) days. Mean duration from the first test severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive to conversion was 11.38 (9.86-12.90) days. Compared to pneumonia-free patients, pneumonia patients were 16.5 years older and had higher frequencies of having hypertension, fever, and cough and higher circulating levels of neutrophil proportion, interleukin-6, low count (< 190/µl) of CD8+ T cells, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. Thirteen patients deteriorated during hospitalization. Cox regression analysis indicated that older age and higher serum levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lactate at admission significantly predicted the progression of COVID-19. During hospitalization, circulating counts of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were lower, whereas neutrophil proportion, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the circulating levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were higher, in pneumonia patients than in pneumonia-free patients. CD8+ lymphocyte count in pneumonia patients did not recover when discharged. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and higher levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitionin, interleukin-6, and lactate might predict COVID-19 progression. T lymphocyte, especially CD8+ cell-mediated immunity is critical in recovery of COVID-19. This study may help in predicting disease progression and designing immunotherapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3410, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635899

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with 5.1% mortality. Although the virological, epidemiological, clinical, and management outcome features of COVID-19 patients have been defined rapidly, the inflammatory and immune profiles require definition as they influence pathogenesis and clinical expression of COVID-19. Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease. CD8+ T cells in patients with severe disease express high levels of cytotoxic molecules. Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages. Thus, aberrant activation and dysregulation of CD8+ T cells occur in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, an effect that might be for pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicate that immune-based targets for therapeutic interventions constitute a promising treatment for severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukocyte Count , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 188-202.e5, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612608

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented threat to global public health. Herein, we utilized a combination of targeted and untargeted tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the plasma lipidome and metabolome in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. A panel of 10 plasma metabolites effectively distinguished COVID-19 patients from healthy controls (AUC = 0.975). Plasma lipidome of COVID-19 resembled that of monosialodihexosyl ganglioside (GM3)-enriched exosomes, with enhanced levels of sphingomyelins (SMs) and GM3s, and reduced diacylglycerols (DAGs). Systems evaluation of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19 was performed using multiscale embedded differential correlation network analyses. Using exosomes isolated from the same cohort, we demonstrated that exosomes of COVID-19 patients with elevating disease severity were increasingly enriched in GM3s. Our work suggests that GM3-enriched exosomes may partake in pathological processes related to COVID-19 pathogenesis and presents the largest repository on the plasma lipidome and metabolome distinct to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exosomes/metabolism , G(M3) Ganglioside/blood , Gangliosides/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Diglycerides/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolome/physiology , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingomyelins/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Young Adult
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