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1.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):235-235, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584712

ABSTRACT

The Mason Music & Memory Initiative (M3I) team has implemented a personalized music intervention in nursing facilities across Virginia aiming to improve behavioral and psychological symptoms of persons living with dementia. This person-centered intervention uses a unique music playlist comprising songs, artists, and preferred musical genres. The preliminary findings from a randomized controlled trial will be reported, the purpose of which was to examine the intervention impact on nursing home residents’ mood and behavior. Based on the findings from 16 facilities with 158 residents who have completed the study, both quantitative and qualitative data indicate the positive effects on residents, including improved sleep and mood, as well as reduced agitation. The challenges in implementing intervention research in nursing facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic and the principles of telehealth and virtual support for facilities that were used to address those challenges will also be discussed.

3.
Atmosphere ; 12(11):1528, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1523854

ABSTRACT

Background: Hokkaido was the first Japanese prefecture to be affected by COVID-19. Since the beginning of the pandemic, the Japanese government has been publishing the information of each individual who was tested positive for the virus. Method: The current study analyzed the 1269 SARS-CoV-2 cases confirmed in Hokkaido in order to examine sex-based differences in symptomology and infectiveness, as well as the status of reinfections and the viral transmission networks. Results: The majority of asymptomatic patients were females and older. Females were 1.3-fold more likely to be asymptomatic (p <0.001) while a decade of difference in age increased the likelihood of being asymptomatic by 1% (p <0.001). The data contained information up to quaternary viral transmission. The transmission network revealed that, although asymptomatic patients are more likely to transmit the virus, the individuals infected by asymptomatic cases are likely to be asymptomatic (p <0.001). Four distinct co-occurrences of symptoms were observed, including (i) fever/fatigue, (ii) pharyngitis/rhinitis, (iii) ageusia/anosmia, and (iv) nausea/vomiting/diarrhea. The presences of diarrhea (p = 0.05) as well as nausea/vomiting (p <0.001) were predictive of developing dyspnea, i.e., severe disease. About 1% of the patients experienced reinfection. Conclusions: Sex and symptomatology appear to play important roles in determining the levels of viral transmission as well as disease severity.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 759152, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497097

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. However, the prevalence of GI symptoms and their association with outcomes remain controversial in COVID-19 patients. Methods: All COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan hospital from February 2020 to April 2020 were collected. Disease severity and outcomes were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without GI symptoms. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of GI symptoms with the composite endpoint and death in COVID-19 patients. A composite endpoint was defined as transfer to intensive care unit, requirement of mechanical ventilation, and death. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall, 2,552 COVID-19 patients were included. The prevalence of GI symptoms was 21.0% (537/2,552). Diarrhea (8.9%, 226/2,552) was the most common GI symptom. Patients with GI symptoms had significantly higher proportions of severe COVID-19 and worse outcomes than those without. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that GI symptoms were significantly associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.426, 95% CI = 1.608-3.661; P < 0.001) and death (OR = 2.137, 95% CI = 1.209-3.778; P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, sex, and severe/critical COVID-19, GI symptoms were still independently associated with the composite endpoint (OR = 2.029, 95% CI = 1.294-3.182; P = 0.002), but not death (OR = 1.726, 95% CI = 0.946-3.150; P = 0.075). According to the type of GI symptoms, GI bleeding was an independent predictor of the composite endpoint (OR = 8.416, 95% CI = 3.465-20.438, P < 0.001) and death (OR = 6.640, 95% CI = 2.567-17.179, P < 0.001), but not other GI symptoms (i.e., diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea and/or vomiting, constipation, acid reflux and/or heartburn, or abdominal pain). Conclusion: GI symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients and may be associated with their worse outcomes. Notably, such a negative impact of GI symptoms on the outcomes should be attributed to GI bleeding.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25497, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262269

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients frequently develop liver biochemical abnormality. However, liver biochemical abnormality in COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis is under-recognized.Patients hospitalized during COVID-19 pandemic in China (ie, from February to April 2020) were screened. All of 17 COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital were identified. Meanwhile, 17 age-, sex-, and severity-matched COVID-19 patients without liver cirrhosis admitted to this hospital were selected as a control group; all of 14 cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 consecutively admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were selected as another control group. Incidence of liver biochemical abnormality and decompensated events were primarily compared.Among the COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 76.50% and 84.60%, respectively; 7 (41.20%) had decompensated events at admission; 1 was transferred to intensive care unit due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Among the COVID-19 patients without liver cirrhosis, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 58.80% (P = .271) and 60.00% (P = .150), respectively. Among the cirrhotic patients without COVID-19, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 69.20% (P = .657) and 81.80% (P = .855), respectively; 11 (78.60%) had decompensated events at admission (P = .036). None died during hospitalization among the three groups.Liver biochemical abnormality is common in COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis. Management of decompensated events in cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 should not be neglected during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Liver Function Tests , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , China , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259426

ABSTRACT

Kanagawa and Hokkaido were affected by COVID-19 in the early stage of the pandemic. Japan's initial response included contact tracing and PCR analysis on anyone who was suspected of having been exposed to SARS-CoV-2. In this retrospective study, we analyzed publicly available COVID-19 registry data from Kanagawa and Hokkaido (n = 4392). Exponential random graph model (ERGM) network analysis was performed to examine demographic and symptomological homophilies. Age, symptomatic, and asymptomatic status homophilies were seen in both prefectures. Symptom homophilies suggest that nuanced genetic differences in the virus may affect its epithelial cell type range and can result in the diversity of symptoms seen in individuals infected by SARS-CoV-2. Environmental variables such as temperature and humidity may also play a role in the overall pathogenesis of the virus. A higher level of asymptomatic transmission was observed in Kanagawa. Moreover, patients who contracted the virus through secondary or tertiary contacts were shown to be asymptomatic more frequently than those who contracted it from primary cases. Additionally, most of the transmissions stopped at the primary and secondary levels. As expected, significant viral transmission was seen in healthcare settings.

9.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-083964

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents a global public health threat. Most research on therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 focused on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) protein, whereas the vulnerable epitopes and functional mechanism of non-RBD regions are poorly understood. Here we isolated and characterized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from convalescent COVID-19 patients. An mAb targeting the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, named 4A8, exhibits high neutralization potency against both authentic and pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2, although it does not block the interaction between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and S protein. The cryo-EM structure of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein in complex with 4A8 has been determined to an overall resolution of 3.1 Angstrom and local resolution of 3.4 Angstrom for the 4A8-NTD interface, revealing detailed interactions between the NTD and 4A8. Our functional and structural characterizations discover a new vulnerable epitope of the S protein and identify promising neutralizing mAbs as potential clinical therapy for COVID-19.

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20029819

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn December 2019, pneumonia infected with a novel coronavirus burst in Wuhan, China. Now the situation is almost controlled in China but is worse outside China. We aimed to build a mathematical model to capture the global trend of epidemics outside China. MethodsIn this retrospective, outside-China diagnosis number reported from Jan 21 to Feb 28, 2020 was downloaded from WHO website. We develop a simple regression model on these numbers: O_FD O_INLINEFIG[Formula 1]C_INLINEFIGM_FD(1)C_FD where Nt is the total diagnosed patient till the ith day, t=1 at Feb 1. FindingsBased on this model, we estimate that there have been about 34 unobserved founder patients at the beginning of spread outside China. The global trend is approximately exponential, with the rate of 10 folds every 19 days. Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSIn December 2019, pneumonia infected with a novel coronavirus burst in Wuhan, China. Now the situation is almost controlled in China but is worse outside China. Now there are 4,691 patients across 51 countries and territories outside China. We searched PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database for articles published up to Feb 28, 2020, using the keywords "COVID", "novel coronavirus", "2019-nCoV" or "2019 novel coronavirus". No published work about the global trend of epidemics outside China could be identified. Added value of this studyWe built a simple "log-plus" linear model to capture the global trend of epidemics outside China. We estimate that there have been about 34 unobserved founder patients at the beginning of spread outside China. The global trend is approximately exponential, with the rate of 10 folds every 19 days. Implications of all the available evidenceWith the limited number of data points and the complexity of the real situation, a straightforward model is expected to work better. Our model suggests that the COVID-19 disease follows an approximate exponential growth model stably at the very beginning. We predict that the number of confirmed patients outside China will increase ten folds in every 19 days without strong intervention by applying our model. Powerful actions on public health should be taken to combat this epidemic all over the world.

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